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1844. V 




From London to Birmingham .... 1 

Birmingham 2 

The Workhouse and the Trampers 12 

Stafford 14 

From Stafford to the Potteries .... 17 

The. Potteries 18 

Chester 26 

Liverpool 35 

Wales 58 

Anglesey 72 

Carlisle 73 

From Carlisle to Newcastle 75 

Newcastle and the Collieries 76 

From Newcastle to Durham 85 

Durham • 87 

From Durham to York 90 

York 91 

From York to Leeds 100 

Leeds 100 

From Leeds to Manchester • 104 


Manchester 106 

General Appearance and Character. 

istics of Manchester 131 

From Manchester to Oxford 146 

Oxford 147 

From Oxford to Salisbury 157 

Salisbury 158 

Stonehenge 160 

From Stonehenge to Eton 163 

Eton College 165 

Windsor Castle 171 

Christmas Pantomimes in London . 177 

From London to Winchester 178 

Winchester 181 

Southampton 186 

Netley Abbey 187 

The New Forest and its Gipsies . • 189 

A Magazine of English Sea Stores 192 

Portsmouth 194 

Isle of Wight 200 


TheClyde " 1 

Glasgow 4 

From Glasgow to Edinburgh 13 

Edinburgh 14 

The Forth 27 

Stirling 32 

Drummond Castle 36 

Crieff 43 

Perth 44 

Dunkeld . . *. • 56 

From Dunkeld to Taymouth Castle 59 

Taymouth Castle 62 

From Taymouth Castle to LochTay 69 

Highland Drovers 72 

From LochTay to Killin 74 

Killin 77 

From Killin to Loch Katrine 80 

Loch Katrine 87 

From Loch Katrine to Stirling ... 90 

From Stirling to Edinburgh 94 

Edinburgh 96 

From Edinburgh to Carlisle 99 





It was by the Birmingham " Down Train" that I ventured to 
take my first timid steps into the English world. " Down Trains" 
are those that leave London, while those that proceed towards the 
metropolis are called " Up Trains." It is the same in most coun- 
tries. The capital city of a nation seems to be always looked upon 
as occupying a more elevated position than the rest of the country; 
as standing nigh up on a kind of moral mountain. 

It may sound somewhat strangely to talk of solitude in a Birming- 
ham down train; yet, with hundreds of human beings, before me 
and behind me, in the same suite of carriages, there I sat quite alone 
and perhaps in no other situation does a man feel so entirely alone. He 
sees no one but himself, cannot change his place or arrest his rapid 
career, nor can he quit the solitude in which he feels himself con- 
fined. All he can do is to look into a map, to study the fields and 
houses that are running away from him; and now and then, if his 
ideas come to a stand still, he may take a book to wile away his 

A bird flutters along upon our course, and above, the clouds follow 
in the same direction. The machinery of man has beaten ye in the 
race, ye denizens of air! The bird exhausted perches on a branch, 
and the clouds, though flying on the pinions of the wind, remain 
behind us. 

But hold ! We are at a station ! What a stir, what a bustle we 
have here ! I am no longer alone. A lady, a servant, and child, 
enter the carriage, and place themselves opposite to me. The lady's 
friends shake hands with her and take leave, with railroad speed. 
There is one comes running up with a basket of fruit for the juvenile 
traveller. Oh,how sweet are the fruits of friendship! thinks the 
stranger, to whom no one brings a greeting. Scarcely, however, was 
the train in motion again, when my fair travelling companion began 
to grieve and lament, lest her luggage should have been left behind. 
In the hurry of getting in and taking leave, she had not had time to 
look to her boxes. I consoled her as well as I could by telling her 



that the servants of the company were always very attentive to these 
matters, but she would not be tranquillised. She continued anx- 
iously to stretch her head out of the window, and at last, to her 
great joy, succeeded in discovering, on the top of the carriage im- 
mediately behind us, the trunks she was in search of. 

Her little girl was a constant source of entertainment to us all. A 
fruit or a flower sufficed to keep the child in good humour, but she 
was delighted with the cows and the sheep, the houses and the 
bridges, and all the rest of the et ceteras that were constantly flying 
away from us. Every time we came to a tunnel, she nestled her 
head, with all its curls, under her mother's shawl. She preferred 
the darkness of her own making, to that which was imposed upon 

The sun shone brightly, so we had the shadow of the whole train 
running along by the side of us. We were much amused to see the 
guard (meaning his shadow) running along sometimes from one end 
of the train to the other; jumping from carriage to carriage, and 
nimbly climbing over the bales and boxes in his way. Sometimes 
he seemed to jump over the trees and haystacks and cottages by the 
roadside. I had a lively notion of Peter SchlemihTs shadow running 
away from him, and of the poor shadowless sufferer running after it. 

A man passes the several stations along the line, without seeing 
any thing of them. He hears their names — Watford ! Stratford ! 
Hemel Hempstead ! Northampton ! but he may think himself par- 
ticularly fortunate if he catch but a glance of one of their church 
steeples, or of two or three houses of their suburbs. When I saw 
the fine pointed spires of Coventry right before me, I flattered my- 
self with the belief that of this interesting old town, at least, I should 
have a tolerable view. Vain hope ! Scarcely had the spires shown 
themselves at our side when they were already gone. It was but a 
€i peep 5 ' we had of Coventry, a place illustrious for the peeping pro- 
pensities of one of its townsmen in days of yore. 

At length, in all the glory of its lofty chimneys, its smoke and its 
dirt, there arose before us the town to which we nad it in contempla- 
tion to devote a larger portion of our immediate attention. I mean 
the town which lies half-way between London and Liverpool, the 
town which Camden already calls incolis infertum et incudibus 
resonans; the town of Bromichham or Bremichham, a name probably 
derived from the Saxon words — bram, broom; and ham, home. At 
least there is some probability in this etymology, which, if correct, 
would imply a close affinity between the names of Birmingham 
and Bremen. The Latin name for Birmingham is no other than 


I arrived a little too late for the riots-season, for September had 
already begun, and the season for disturbances seems invariably 


fixed for July * I saw nothing, therefore, of the Birmingham 
July days, — of which by the bye, Birmingham has far more 
than Paris, except the after throes, the complaints about dullness of 
business and want of credit, and then the queen's proclamations, 
everywhere posted up against the churches, and plastered oyer with 

When we inquire into the ancient history of manufacturing towns, 
we generally find that the first way in which they employed their 
industry, was in the manufacturing of arms. This was the case even 
with Manchester, where nothing now is made but woven stuffs, but 
where in the olden time, there existed only a few manufactories of 
arms and iron tools. This course of things appears natural enough; 
for most of the instruments employed in preparing the most delicate 
fabrics, not excepting silk and velvet, are of iron, and therefore it 
was natural that weavers and spinners should prefer to settle in places 
where the smiths and other workers in metal enjoyed some repu- 
tation. Sometimes, the new branches of industry almost superseded 
the old ones, as has been the case at Manchester; while other places 
have remained true to their original pursuits, as Birmingham for in- 
stance, where, from the earliest time, iron, copper, and brass were 
fashioned into form, and where the same avocations still continue, 
though now carried on upon a scale scarcely anticipated by the an- 
cient inhabitants of the place. 

All manufacturing industry connected with the fabrication of 
metals may be classed in the following divisions: — firstly, the forg- 
ing of large heavy, or coarse articles, as iron ships, iron bridges, 
chain cables, &c. Secondly, large machines, whether of a coarse 
or a fine description; thirdly, what the English call " cutlery ware," 
including all kinds of cutting tools; and fourthly, the countless 
host of smaller articles, comprised by the English under the general 
name of " hardware." 

Now, as iron is found, more or less, everywhere in England, and 
as manufacturing industry also is, more or less, disseminated through- 

' " t ■■■ I » ■ ■- i — ■ ii i i- mi — ■ ■ i ii ■ i ■ i m i i 

* The most serious riots in Birmingham occurred in 179 1 and 1839. In the former 
year, the mob plundered the town for four days — from the 14th to the 17th of July — 
and the objects of popular fury were chiefly the houses of the dissenters. In the 
latter year, the interruption of business, and the supremacy of the populace, lasted 
a longer time, namely from the 4th till the 15th of July. The mischief done in the 
latter year, however, was less, though many persons of property were great sufferers, 
particularly certain silversmiths and jewellers, with whose costly wares (silver tea- 
pots, dishes, and candlesticks,) the windows of several obnoxious individuals were de- 
molished. The mob stole but little, but destroyed the houses of several persona 
who had become objects of popular aversion. On this occasion it was not hatred of 
the dissenters, but the conspiracies of the chartists, that led to the disturbances. 
The year 1839 was followed by two years undistinguished by tumult; but in 1842 
the month of July brought again some anxious days with it Nevertheless, though 
from Binningham, the head quarters of chartism, were thrown some of the prin- 
cipal firebrands by which, in the course of that summer, the English manufacturing 
districts were so often set in flames, still Birmingham itself; being well supplied with 
troops, remained tolerably quiet, and suffered upon the whole less than many other 
towns. When I arrived, on the 13th of September, I found order perfectly re-esta- 



out the country, these several branches of iron work are likewise 
found in full activity in all parts of England. Still, certain towns 
and districts may always be pointed out, as those in which one or 
other of these branches has been developed in an extraordinary de- 
gree. For the large and coarse ironworks there are the extensive 
foundries of South Wales, where the most productive iron mines in 
the kingdom are situated, and as the transport of so heavy a material 
would necessarily add greatly to the cost of this description of manu- 
facture, the foundries are always established as near as possible to the 

For the making of machines, Lancashire, and Manchester in par- 
ticular, take precedence of all other parts of the country; never- 
theless, important establishments for manufacturing machines are 
also found in Leeds, Glasgow, and other towns. 

The 70,000 souls that constitute the knife-grinding population of 
Sheffield, have the cutlery business, in a great measure, in their own 

All the remaining articles, large and small, into which iron is 
fashioned, as well as copper, brass, and other metals, all, however, of 
trifling importance compared to iron, are included in the general term 
of " hardware," for which Birmingham is, without comparison, the 
principal seat of manufacture. 

Camden already speaks of the town as " resounding with am- 
bosses," as if the whole place were busily engaged in forging horse- 
shoes; but these am bosses and hammers, with which the ancestors of 
the good people of Birmingham were wont to overcome the resis- 
tance of the unpliant metal, have since been transformed into ma- 
chines of such colossal dimensions, or, on the other hand, into such 
diminutive files, and polishing stones, that the old poetical expres- 
sion can scarcely be looked on as applicable to the present state of 

To give my readers some idea of the variety of occupations con- 
nected with the fabrication of metals, that are carried on here, I will 
take the Birmingham Directory of last year, in which I find an al- 
phabetical list of the several trades of the town, with the number of 
individuals engaged in each. Under the letter B, I find the follow- 

Blacksmiths 48 

Bellfounders 11 

Bellows-makers 15 

Bit-makers 12 

Brassfounders 130 

Braziers 22 

British-plate-makers 20 

Buckle-makers 8 

Button-manufacturers 100 

and this article is farther divided into gold 
button-makers, silver button-makers, metal button-makers, pearl button-makers, &c. 

Under C, I find: — 

Candlestick-makers 22 

Casters 30 

Candelabra-makers 20 

Coopers 45 

Copper Companies 4 

Copper-plate printers 70 

To show the extent to which the division of labour is carried, I 


turn to letter G, where I find the following enumeration of trades 
connected with the manufacture of guns: — 

Gun manufacturers 22 

Gun barrel makers 25 

Gun barrel ribbers 4 

Gun breech forgers 6 

Gun engravers 17 

Gun furniture polishers 10 

Gun forgers and filers 40 

Gun-stock makers... 3 

I was not surprised to find an enumeration of different descriptions 
of hammer makers, but I thought it certainly a striking instance of 
the division of labour, when I found that the making of inkstands 
formed a distinct branch of manufacture, and when I met in my 
Directory such trades as coffin nail makers, ring turners, dog collar 
makers, tooth pick case makers, fishing hook makers, stirrup makers, 
packing needle makers, &c. It must be admitted, however, that a man 
who spends all his life in making coffin nails or packing needles, 
must acquire an astonishing dexterity in his particular department. 

It is of course, impossible for a traveller to see more than a very 
small number of the manufacturing establishments of Birmingham; 
but there are some that will amply reward the trouble of a visit, as 
a number of different works are often carried on simultaneously on 
the same premises, though each description of manufacture is in 
such cases Kept carefully apart from the others. One establishment 
of this kind is that of Messrs. Collis and Co., in whose workshops a 
stranger may see hundreds of different descriptions of manufacture 
going on at the same time, and in whose show rooms he may be al- 
most said to contemplate an exhibition of all the products of Bir- 
mingham industry. This establishment was originally founded by 
Sir Edward Thomason, a well known artist, who executed many 
admirable casts in bronze; medals, statues, urns, &c. One of his 
medals was shown me as the only one bearing reference to Napoleon 
that was ever executed in England. It was made on the occasion 
of his death, and bore only this inscription: " The Emperor Napo- 
leon. Died at Rupert's Valley, St. Helena." Of course the medals 
relating to Wellington's victories are more numerous. Even the 
alphabet has in Birmingham been fashioned into medals, twenty- 
six of which are put up together in neat little boxes, and a large 
sale must be expected, for I saw great quantities of them piled up 
in the show-rooms. Of another description of small medals I like- 
wise saw large quantities. These were called * ' Testamental Truth and 
Bible Truth medals,' ' each of which bore the impress of some scene 
from sacred history. The whole, packed in a small box, formed a 
medallic catechism, by the aid of wnich, it is supposed, the children, 
while playing with their counters, may have the great truths of 
their religion duly impressed upon their minds. 

As the people of Birmingham extend their speculations over the 
whole world, one may see in show-rooms of this description, articles, 
the utility of which is estimated only by the wild inhabitants of 
some distant and uncivilised land. Here, for instance I saw some 


strangely fashioned money, current among certain negro nations of 
Africa. South America, and America generally, are, however, the 
principal customers, and the constant study of the manufacturers is 
to find something that may please the tastes and fancies prevalent on 
the other side of the Atlantic. To carry on speculations of this 
description, an exact knowledge of the laws regulating the import 
duties of distant countries, is absolutely necessary. Thus, for in- 
stance, the import duties in Russia, on all metal wares, are regulated 
by weight. Candlesticks and other articles destined for that market 
are, in consequence, made hollow, and filled up after their arrival 
there. A great extent of ethnographical and geographical know- 
ledge thus becomes indispensable to a Birmingham manufacturer. 
Even during my short stay I saw quite enough to be really aston- 
ished at the varied and extensive information possessed by the su- 
perior workmen, who, when I spoke to them of the early history of 
their several branches of art, showed themselves quite familiar with 
the fabrics of ancient Egypt and modern China. 

The history of many branches of trade form important episodes in 
the history of Birmingham. Thirty years ago there were only two 
manufacturers of plated goods in the town; at present there are 
seventy, and each employs from ten to a hundred workmen. Fifteen 
years ago, the manufacture of papier macke was first introduced, I 
believe from France, but now this material maybe seen fashioned in 
huge masses, with saws and plains. Tables, sofas, presses, and 
almost every article of ornamental furniture, are now made of paper, 
and are even said to have many advantages over the same articles 
made of wood. They are lighter, more easily cleaned, and less liable 
to break. 

On the other hand, there are branches of trade, which, after 
having flourished for many years, have sunk into comparative insig- 
nificance. Among these may be instanced the manufacturing of 
buckles, the fabrication of which was carried on at Birmingham on 
such an immense scale, that when shoe-buckles suddenly went out of 
fashion in all Europe, many thousands of workmen, who had spent 
their lives in learning to make buckles, were thrown into the grea test 
distress. They sent a petition to George IV., then Prince ofWales, 
•raying him to try the effect of his royal example, in bringing shoe- 
uckles into fashion again ; but the current of fashion was too strong 
for even a prince to turn it, and the buckle makers were forced to 
seek other channels for the employment of their capital and in* 

Another article that, of late years, has risen to great importance 
in Birmingham, is that of steel- pens. I saw one establishment in 
which about a hundred workmen were engaged in the fabrication 
of an article apparently so insignificant. I heard of another, in 
which 250 people were employed, and where forty tons of steel were 
yearly converted into pens. A ton of steel produces 1 ,440,000 pens* 



This manufacture, therefore, must every year fiend into the world 
no less than 57,000,000 of steel-pena, thus making the existence of 
2,000,000 of geese superfluous. 

Not the least remarkable places axe the button-rooms, in which 
the different buttons for the army and navy, and for the liveries of 
private families, are manufactured in astonishing quantities. One 
button maker in Birmingham, I was told, had, on his premises, in 
1834, no less than 10,000 different dies for livery buttons. 

Although, of late years, the quantity of articles produced in Bhv 
mingham has been increased to so astonishing an extent, the quantity 
of metal worked up has certainly not been increased in any thing lite 
a corresponding degree. This is owing to the superior lightness 
now given to so many things in daily use. Muskets and fowling- 
pieces are much less heavy than they used to be, and even steam- 
engines, without losing any thing of their power, have lost much of 
their former weight. A manufacturer of lamps in Birmingham told 
me, that there were some articles which he now made of about one- 
fourth, the weight which he was accustomed to give them fifteen 
years ago. 

One of the principal branches of Birmingham industry is the 
fabrication of fire-arms, and this town, whose tranquillity during 
the last war was not disturbed by the report of a single hostile gun* 
furnished, not only to England, but likewise to the enemies of 
England, more materials of war, and instruments for the destruc- 
tion of human life, than all the other manufacturing cities of the 
world put together. Between 1804 and 1815, not less than 
5,000,000 of muskets were made here; and, by a singular coinci- 
dence, this is said to be about the number of human beings destroyed 
in the course of Napoleon's wars. 

All muskets manufactured at Birmingham must be submitted: 
to a test imposed by government, which takes place in what is 
called the " proof-house." Muskets that have stood this test are 
stamped. I went to see this interesting proof-house. I was told 
that every musket was there filled with a charge five times as power* 
fid as that which it was expected to carry when in ordinary use. 
There are rooms in which the proofing cartridges are prepared, 
others in which the muskets are loaded, and a place, called " the 
hole," where they are discharged. This is managed in the following 
manner: the loaded muskets, 100 or 120 at a time, are placed side 
by side upon a low scaffolding, upon which it is possible to fasten 
them completely. Their mouths are turned towards the inner wall 
of the room, where the bullets fly into a heap of sand. The walls of 
tiie room are of great strength and thickness, and the doors and 
windows are strongly hanicaded with iron. A train of powder is 
then laid, running over the touchhole of each piece, to a small 
opening, where it is fired. On the occasion of my visit, 120 mus- 
kets, intended for the navy, were tried. These are of larger calibre 
than those in use in the army. After the discharge had taken place, 


a little time was allowed for the smoke to clear away before we 
entered the proof-room, where we found that seven barrels had burst, 
but that 113 had stood the test. The superintendent of the esta- 
blishment told me, that sometimes as many as twenty out of a hun- 
dred would burst, but very often also fewer than seven. If we 
take five or six per cent, as the average, it gives us a high idea of 
the excellent workmanship of English gun-makers. We were told 
that, not long ago, a workman, who had been detected in some 
little peculation, found means to secret himself in the proof-room, 
where he placed his body immediately in front of the battery. He 
was found quite dead, and pierced by six bullets. 

As every musket made at Birmingham must pass through this 
room, it is easy to calculate the number made. I was tola that, 
on an average, 5000 were proofed every week, which would give 
260,000 in a year. During the wax, it is supposed, about 500,000 
were made every year. 

The various branches of industry carried on at Birmingham are 
mostly conducted on a very small scale, when compared with those 
of Manchester and other large towns. The consequence is, that 
though, next to Manchester, Birmingham is the most populous of 
all the manufacturing towns, containing nearly 200,000 inhabitants, 
yet it is peculiarly uninviting and monotonous in its outward ap- 
pearance. In Manchester you see large manufacturing establish- 
ments and collossal warehouses, on which no trifling degree of 
architectural ornament has been expended, not to speak of the mag- 
nificent termini of some half dozen of railroads. Nothing of this 
kind is to be seen at Birmingham. There the majority of the 
manufacturers are men trading upon capitals of two or three thou- 
sand pounds, and often less, for the working of metals has not yet 
set in motion any machines of such huge dimensions as are employed 
for the spinning and weaving of cotton. Whether owing to this 
cause or not, Birmingham, compared with Manchester, is evi- 
dently deficient in large buildings and public institutions. The 
town covers a space of about nine English square miles, and the 
greater part of this space is occupied by a mass of small, uniform, 
and mean-looking houses, inhabited by the work-people. A large 
portion of Birmingham might be described as a wilderness of houses, 
all equally ugly, an unemnly mass, unbroken by a single building of 
a pleasing exterior. The tew public buildings that there are in the 
town, lie close together, and all nearly in the centre. There we 
beheld the principal churches, the town-hall, the schools, the chief 
hotels, &c, all comprised within the space of less than half an Eng- 
lish square mile; in the great suburban wilderness that has grown up 
around the inner nucleus of the town, the only thing to interrupt the 
general uniformity, is here and there a Methodist, an Independent, 
or a Unitarian chapel. Some of this monotony may be owing to 
the situation of Birmingham, in a large plain, unbroken by any pic- 
turesque object. The little rivulet, the Hea, and a few canals, creep 


through the town, without contributing in any way to its embellish- 
ment. London has her Thames, Liverpool her Mersey, and Moscow 
and Rome have their mountains, where their inhabitants may at 
least breathe a fresher and a freer atmosphere. Birmingham has 
nothing of the kind, nothing but a dull, and endless succession of 
house after house, and street after street. 

On leaving Birmingham you do not immediately get away from 
the regions of hardware. Many of the neirfibourinff towns devote 
themselves to the same branch of industry. Dudley, W alsall, Wed- 
nesbury, Wolverhampton, Bilston, Stourbridge, are all populous 
places, and all in the " hardware line." In the same way Manchester 
is surrounded by a cluster of cotton-spinning satellites. What may 
be the cause of this decided supremacy maintained by some one 
town in each of the manufacturing districts, I know not. Man* 
Chester contains 350,000 inhabitants, and none of the other towns 
in the cotton district has more than 50,000. Birmingham has 
200,000, and none of her neighbours more than 30,000. 

The value of all the hardware and cutlery exported from England 
during a succession of years, was as follows: in 1834, it amounted 
to l,485,253lbs.; in 1835,to l,833,043lbs.; in 1836, to 2,271,313lbs.; 
in 1837, to l,460,808lbs.; in 1838, to l,498,327lbs.; in 1839, to 
1,828,52 libs.; in 1840, to 1,345, 88 libs.; in 1841, to l,693,900lbs. 
The principal customer for these goods was North America, which 
took somewhat more than one-half of the whole quantity exported, 
buying about nine times as much cutlery and hardware from 
England, as was bought by any other country in the world. 
These figures, however, would give but a faint idea of the whole 

auantity manufactured. The home consumption carries off more 
aan double the quantity exported, and the whole amount of hard" 
ware and cutlery annually made in England can, therefore, be esti- 
mated at more than 4,500,000lbs. Nor even then have we the full 
amount of all the metallic fabrics made up in the country, the value 
of which, in 1840, was estimated at upwards of £16,000,000; 

It must not be supposed, from what I have said of the want of 
external beauty, that Birmingham, a town of 200,000 inhabitants, 
and containing a vast amount of wealth, has not several splendid 
streets, and some distinguished buildings. . Of the latter, those that 
most engross the attention of a stranger, are the town hall and the 
public school. The town hall is a magnificent copy of a Greek 
temple, and may fearlessly be placed by trie side of the Glyptothek 
of Munich, or of the Magdalen Church at Paris. The style is mag- 
nificent and purely classical. Within is a hall capable of containing 
9000 persons, and said to be the largest room in England. The 
building is made use of, partly for the great musical festivals given 
at Birmingham, as at other of the music-loving manufacturing towns, 
and partly for public meetings, whether held for religious, political, 
or local objects. The platform is so arranged, that a good speaker 
jaay easily make himself audible from it in every part of the hall. 

10 bihmikgham; 

Sometimes large banquets have been held Here, when theie has 
been abundant room for 1000 persons to sit down to table. When 
concerts are given in this hall, seats may be arranged for 3600. At 
the great political meetings, at which as many as 9000 are said to 
have been present, almost every body must stand, for on those occa- 
sions the seats are generally removed* 

Another admirable building, and perhaps unique in its kind, is 
"K™g Edward's Endowed School, a handsome specimen of the 
gothic style. Of these endowed schools there are many in England. 
Under this name are comprised the whole scholastic establishments, 
endowed by various kings with certain funds for their support, and 
still conducted upon the plan originally laid down for their guidance. 
Thus the Birmingham school is still governed by the old charter 
granted by Edward VI. in 1552. Edward VI. established several 
schools of the same kind, and endowed them either with lands or 
money,* according to their own choice. The Birmingham school 
chose land, and its annual income, in consequence of the augmen- 
tation in the value of land, has gradually increased from 31/. to 
7000/. Another school established near Birmingham, at the same 
time, less prudently chose to have an annual sum of money, and its 
revenues at the present day axe 15/. a-year, as they were three 
hundred years ago. . . 

The new building for the Birmingham school was completed in 
1838, and is certainly the handsomest erection of the kind in Eng- 
land, not excepting Eton. It is built in what the English call the 
Tudor Gothic style, and presents a large handsome parallelogram 
divided into two courts, by a broad handsome gothic corridor* 
What struck me most on entering this school, was to find, for the 
450 pupils who received instruction there, only two school-rooms, 
or more properly speaking school-halls. One of these is for the 
commercial school, and the other for the classical school. In the 
former 200, and in the latter 250 boys received their education, 
scholars of eight and eighteen years old sitting together in the 
same room. For the head master there was a large handsome 
gothic cathedra, whence he could easily overlook the whole room, 
and for the under masters there were seats of a similar character, 
whence they could survey and keep in order their several divisions. 
My visit happened during the school-time, and the head master com 
ducted me irom class to class, that is to say, from one great chair to 
another. I told him, it would be impossible for me or for any 
German teacher, to give instruction under such circumstances. He, 
however, maintained that there were many advantages connected 
with this system. He said it was more easy for the director to 
control and guide the whole establishment; mat the arbitrary con- 
duct of individual teachers was prevented, one acting as a check 
upon the other; and that the boys felt themselves more to be mem* 
bers of a large community, than when divided into small classes* 
where none knew what was going on except in his own room* 


There is no doubt, however, that the arrangement has a material 
effect in forcing English teachers to adopt a system of instruction 
different from that wnich prevails in German schools. In an English 
school, the pupil is necessarily thrown more upon his own resources, 
and the master does little more than hear the lessons which the 
boy has learned; any thing like a free discourse or exposition from 
the teacher to his class, as is customary in Germany, is quite im- 

A few of the pupils, Evans, "Westcott, Purton, and a few others, 
had recently established a periodical under the title of King Ed" 
ward the Sixth's Magazine, and presented me with the first num- 
ber, in which I found several short essays on " human happiness,* 
on "schools," and " academies," an account of a " schoolboy's 
dream," &c.; I must confess, however, that I found little to please 
me in the collection. Similar periodicals, I am told, exist at other 
English schools, but I cannot believe their effect to be a beneficial 
one. At school we ought to receive instruction, and not attempt to 
set ourselves up as pubhc instructors. Such publications, I am con- 
vinced, tend rather to foster vanity than to excite useful emulation. 

Among the numberless Nelson statues to be seen in so many 
English towns, Birmingham has the smallest. It is merely of the 
size of life, and stands in an open place called the Bullring. The 
simple unpretending character of the popular hero is perfectly well 
expressed. His meagre wrinkled cheeks are presented to us as they 
were in natura. His plain hair hangs down low upon his forehead, 
and the empty sleeve, to mark the loss of his right arm, is fastened 
to the breast of the coat. The whole seemed to me somewhat too 
natural, though the work of Westmacott, one of the best living 
English sculptors. I question the good taste of calling attention 90 
pointedly to the loss of a limb. Suppose a general or admiral had 
lost both his legs or both his arms in a battle, would any one think 
of erecting a legless statue of him in a public place? 

This statue, small as it is, is the only one, literally the only statue 
that Birmingham can boast of! A city of 200,000 living specimens 
of Humanity, and only one marble man among them ! In Rome and 
Athens there was probably a statue or a monument for every fifty 
inhabitants; but even in cities of more modern date, as Berlin or St. 
Petersburg, there will scarcely be less than a statue for every 4006 
inhabitants. It may be questioned whether in the whole world* 
another town of equal extent and importance could be found, so des- 
titute of public monuments as Birmingham. Not only Liveroool, 
Manchester, and Glasgow, but even Newcastle, Bristol, and Hull, 
have more of embellishment to boast of, to say nothing of such mas* 
nificent cities as Dublin and Edinburgh. Birmingham and Leeds 
appear to me, among all the large towns of England, to be the two 
most destitute of taste, ornament, and enjoyment. As far as the 
useful arts are concerned, Birmingham may be a paradise, but with 
respect to the fine arts it is a very desert Of this I had occasion to 


convince myself at the theatre, where I made the discovery that even 
one of Shakespeare's masterpieces may be so played as to become 
wearisome. The piece was the Merchant of Venice, but every part 
was so exaggerated and distorted, that at last I could not look at the 
stage without positive feelings of disgust. To say the truth, how- 
ever, I have never seen any thing much deserving of praise at any of 
the English theatres out of London. Of the theatre itself there is as 
little to be said as of the performance, but it must be badly built, for 
on the walls I saw an order from the police, prohibiting the standing 
on the benches in the gallery, a man having lately fallen into the pit 
in consequence of doing so. Another placard put up about the 
theatre, offered a reward of five guineas for the discovery of the 
person who a few nights before had thrown a quart bottle from the 
gallery into the pit. 


The workhouse at Birmingham was the first institution of the 
kind in England that I had an opportunity of seeing, and I was sur- 
prised at the defective and antiquated system of its arrangement. I 
speak, indeed, after only one visit, and can therefore only describe 
the disagreeable impressions made upon me during that visit; still 
the defects were so palpable, and in themselves so important, that 
should even many of the virtues and advantages of the institution 
have remained concealed from me, still the evils that I saw were 
quite enough to neutralise the good that I may not have been aware 
of. In the first place the building stands in the middle of the town, 
wedged in among a mass of other buildings; but this is the case in 
England with many institutions of the kind in the large towns, which 
have grown go rapidly, that people have not been able to get out of 
town fast enough with buildings of this kind, for which fresh air is 
so desirable. In the next place, being the only institution of the 
sort in Birmingham, the workhouse is much too small. It provides 
a shelter for 500 adults, and 300 children, and it can require little 
rhetoric to show how very inadequate such a provision must be for a 
town of 200,000 inhabitants, of whom thousands have sometimes 
been without bread at once. These defects have been of late re- 
cognised, and a larger building is about to be erected in the vicinity 
of the town; still the fact must remain upon record, that, so late as 
1843, Birmingham, with a vast number of poor requiring relief, and 
a vast amount of wealth very competent to afford all the relief re- 
quired, had only a very inefficient and very insufficient institution 
tor the administration of that relief. 

I was particularly struck by the crowded appearance of every part 
of the building, by the want of information and coarseness of man- 
ners shown by all the persons employed about the place, by the strict 
and rough manner in which the poor were treated, by the deficiency 


of neatness and order, and lastly by the union of so many different 
things in one institution and under the same direction. Besides the 
principal division of the building, set apart for the pauper inmates, 
there was a wing for the education of poor children, and another for 
the treatment of the sick. Here were a school and a hospital under 
the same roof with a poor house, and if my memory does not deceive 
me, a separate part of the house was used for the confinement of 
lunatics f In most of the large towns of England these antiquated 
parish workhouses have become matter of history, and exist no longer; 
lor this very reason, it may be the better worth while to cast a glance 
at those which still remain. 

The paupers are divided into two classes, — the " in poor" and the 
" out poor," — of whom the former are lodged in the house, and the 
latter, without residing there, receive periodical relief from it. Of 
the former, on an average, there were every week 476, each of 
whom, as the governor told me, cost two shillings and tenpence, in- 
cluding building repairs, salaries of officers, &c. Each of these 
poor, accordingly, cost the town about fifty of our dollars a year, 
in addition to these, there were always in the house, on an average, 
277 children, and the out poor averaged, one week with another, 
2182. The expense to Birmingham of this relief given to the poor, 
amounts in the year to about 41,000/., and as the rate payers in a 
population of 200,000, do not probably much exceed 40,0CK), it may 
be calculated that every independent townsman of Birmingham pays 
twenty shillings to the maintenance of the poor. The real amount 
of the poor rates, however, is more than double this (88,000/.), but 
this is owing to the circumstance that many other expenses of the 
town are charged to the poor rates, including many of the expenses 
of the police, the cost for the registration of births, and deaths, &c. 

One of the customary divisions of these old workhouses is the 
" Tramp room," as it is called, a room in which an asylum is given 
for the night to the paupers who are wandering through the coun- 
try. I found there a few wretched beings, women covered with 
rags, who had spent the night in the place. Notwithstanding the 
filthy condition of the room, I was about to enter, when some of 
my mends pulled me back, and warned me that by doing so I 
should expose myself to contagious diseases, and to every descrip- 
tion of vermin. These trampers, vagrants, migatory depredators, 
" and travellers," for there is a close affinity between them, are a 
peculiar class in England, and abound, more than anywhere else, 
in the manufacturing districts, where, during the late years of de- 
pression, they have augmented most astonishingly in numbers. From 
the reports of the constabulary force commissioners, it appears, that 
many of the poor in the large towns are constantly tramping about, 
living a life of professed vagrancy, and making a precarious income, 
sometimes by begging and selling trifling articles, and sometimes 
by various frauds and occasional depredations. In many parts of the 
reports I have just alluded to, the witnesses examined, admitted that 
they had started from this or that town, " expressly to travel about, 


and live by robbing." Birmingham and Sheffield are said to be 
the towns from which, in particular, great numbers of trampers are 
continually starting. This is partly owing to the circumstance that 
the articles manufactured at those two places are light, of general 
use, and therefore well calculated for hawking about the country. 

Besides the tramp rooms of the workhouses, there are lodging 
houses in almost every town, large and small, and even in many vil- 
lages, where the wandering poor can obtain shelter for the night 
for a few pence. In so small a place as Chester, according to the 
reports mentioned above, there are no less than 150 such houses, 
and in many towns there are night asylums, supported by the 
public, and where the relief given is confined as much as possible to 
the deserving poor. 

It is in consequence of the great number of distressed and often 
depraved wanderers that are continually starting from these manufac- 
turing towns, that the country about them has become so notorious 
for highway robberies. According to the evidence given before the 
commissioners, by several commercial travellers of considerable expe- 
rience, England would appear, in the year 1839, to have been sur- 
passed only by Spain and Italy, in the insecurity of the public high- 


Leaving the " metropolis of the inland counties" by the Grand 
Junction Kailway, the power of steam seemed in a few moments to 
have transported us to all the charms of an English rural residence, 
in the centre of Staffordshire, and close to the chief town of that 
county. I was delighted to have a clear view of the sky again. In 
Birmingham you can form no speculation on the weather. The rain 
is not felt till it has worked its way through the smoke, and the sun 
shows himself only as a yellow patch. Sunrise and sunset, stars 
and moonlight, are things unknown. It is easily understood why the 
English, having such towns, should be so passionately fond of rural 
life, that even those whose avocations bind them to the town, all en- 
deavour to have their residences as fer away from it, as their means 
will allow. 

I now, for the first time, became acquainted with the admirable 
arrangement of an English country household, — with the tranquillity 
and the thorough comfort of an English rural residence ; and I now 
began to understand how our way of life must appear to English 
people a mere make-shift, a state of existence in which they observe 
numberless wants and deficiences, of which we, in general, remain per- 
fectly unconscious. I spent a few days most agreeably in a circle of 
esteemed friends, and made several excursions into the various depart- 
ments of the household, and to several interesting places in the 
neighbourhood, to an old castle, to several farmers' houses, and to 
the town of Stafford. In the house itself I was particularly interested 
by the neat kitchen, with its manifold arrangements for boiling and 

flXAWQRD. 10 

roasting the daily bread of the family, with its hot closets, heated by 
steam, to warm plates and keep the viands from cooling. Then there 
was the tidy dairy, glittering aggain with its snow white Staffordshire 
ware, while each vessel containing milk was constantly kept cool by 
a stream of spring water floW around it. Nor did I feil to admire 
the cleanly pantry nor the airy larder with its excellent arrangements 
for the preservation of the food deposited there ; nor the orderly 
scullery, in which the plates and dishes were cleaned. Many of these 
things are with us made a part of the kitchen, whereas in England 
they have their separate places. In an English household, the more 

Jou enter into details, the more you see to admire. Even in the 
ouse of a substantial farmer, these little accessories to domestic 
comfort are not wanting, and if fitted up with less luxury than in the 
mansions of the wealthy, the same order and neatness usually prevails 
in both. At the first farm house I visited, every piece of bacon was 
found wrapped up separately in paper, as a protection against flies. 
What farmer in Germany would nave dreamt of such a precaution ? 
The floors and staircases of the house were neatly carpeted, and the 
rooms were patterns of tidiness. In the farmer s own room hung a 
map of the county. He regaled us hospitably with primrose wine, 
currant wine, and other native delicacies, described by Goldsmith in 
his Vicar of Wakefield. In the garden were roses and other flowers, 
tended with as much care as if a scientific gardener had formed a 
part of his establishment. In his rick yard he showed us the abun- 
dance of the preceding harvest, and explained to us the way in which 
the straw ana hay are cut out of these compact ricks. The English 
have large knives for the purpose, with which they make perpendicular 
cuts into one of these rides, and bring out pieces as regularly shaped 
as could be taken out of a loaf of bread with a carving knife. 
This farmer threshed his corn only with machines; in his stable he 
showed us some " lovely little pigs," and in his own person he pre- 
sented an excellent specimen of what is usually called a " j oily fellow," 
having a cheerful, well-fed, well-contented, " well to do" look about 
every part of him. 

It is really astonishing how Ml these well cultivated parts of Eng- 
land are of large and small country seats. In the course of a little ex- 
cursion that we made to a neighbouring chateau, Ghartley Park, to 
see some wild cattle kept there, we passed at least a dozen handsome 
seats, iTiftlndiTig Ingestrie, the property of the Talbot family, and 
Tixall, belonging to a Clifford. The latter is celebrated for one of 
the handsomest sets of stables in England, built entirely of stone and 
iron, at an expense of 15,0002. 

Ghartley Park is an ancient seat of the Lords Ferrer. The wild 
cattle kept there are a part of the original British breed. We went 
with one of the keepers into the pari:, and found the animals col- 
lected in one place, nearly as much tamed as ourselves by the coidr 
ness and se verity of the weather. They were always tolerably tame, 


"we were told, in autumn and winter, when there was little grass for 
them to feed on ; but in spring, when the fresh herbage came up, 
they were as wild as deer, and often dangerous. In colour and marts 
they were all exactly alike, all being white, with black noses and 
ears. Not one of them had a spot on his body to break the uni- 
formity. If by any chance a calf is born with his body differently 
marked, the event is looked upon as boding a disaster to the Ferrer 
family. The number kept at Chartley Park, on the occasion of 
my visit was thirteen, and they have never been able, it appears, 
to increase them beyond twenty 4 At Christmas, when it is cus- 
tomary in England to make presents of game, poultry, and other 
eatable articles, the Lords Ferrer sometimes shoot one of their wild 
cows, and send the most delicate parts to their favoured friends. 
For this purpose, when I was there, they had recently separated a 
cow from the herd, and were endeavouring to fatten the creature 
by keeping her away from her calf, on a more confined piece of 

f round. To milk them is impossible, and if confined in a cow- 
ouse, they sicken and die in a short time. They are mostly kept 
in the wildest part of the park, called Chartley Moss, where they 
are sometimes minted. They are not large, but very neatly built, 
and seem to have much more intelligence than our tame cattle. 

Stafford itself is a small town, containing only about 1200 inha- 
bitants. What most interested me there was the county prison, where 
a number of prisoners were at the time confined, in consequence of 
the late riots. For Staffordshire, in the first place, includes the 
very remarkable district called the Potteries, in which many thou- 
sands of excitable beings are busily employed in making crockery ~ 
and digging up coals; and in the second place, the industrial ter- v 
ritory of Birmingham stretches a good way into Staffordshire, in 
which are situated Wolverhampton, Walsall, Dudley, and other 
towns busied in the manufacture of hardware. Some of these dis- 
tricts having been the chief scenes of the disturbances that had 
occurred a few months previously, the county prison was crowded. 
Originally the building had been calculated for 150 prisoners, but 
with the growth of the neighbouring towns, the increase of crime 
had more than held pace, and from time to time it had been found 
necessary to enlarge the prison. The present building, the governor 
told us, could conveniently contain about 500 persons, but the 
number then confined there amounted to 750, the largest number 
ever known to have been there at the same time. The riots had 
brought 220 prisoners within the walls, including twenty female 
rioters. In consequence of the crowded state of the prison, extra- 
ordinary measures of precaution had been taken. Soldiers had been 
quartered in the town, and sentinels were posted about the prison, 
a measure not at all customary in ordinary times. In the rooms of 
the persons employed about the prison we found muskets and pis- 
tols ready for use, and upon the wall which enclosed the whole 


building, loose stones had been laid, that these might fall down and 
alarm the guard, if an attempt were made to escape by throwing a 
r ope o ver the wall. 

Within the walls of this prison I saw a cemetery of a kind com- 
pletely novel to me. It was a piece of ground in which had been 
buried, side by side, a number of criminals who had been executed. 
I was told, at the same time, that it was customary in England to 
inter within the prison walls, criminals who had suffered the ex- 
treme penalty of the law. 


Again entrusting myself to the railroad, I was deposited in the 
neighbourhood of jButterton, a small antique country seat, with a 
mansion of the Elizabethian order of architecture, situated in the 
pleasantest part of the north of Staffordshire. Here also I spent a 
few days, during which I saw some of the interesting objects in the 
neighbourhood. Among these were, first, a very handsome but 
not a very important object, namely, Trentham, the celebrated seat 
of one of the richest men in England, the Duke of Sutherland; and 
secondly, a very important and very useful, but not a very hand- 
some one, namely, the district of the Potteries. I determined to 
reserve the most important matter for a future visit, and, hiring a 
fly, drove to Trentheim, i. e. Home on the Trent, — a river the 
name of which some old English writers attempt to derive from the 
French word trade, because thirty tributary streams pour their 
waters into the Trent, and because it contains thirty species of 

Trentham is beautifully situated. The most ornamental side is 
turned towards a magnificent terrace of flowers, beyond which is a 
handsome piece of water, and beyond that the picturesque wilderness 
of the upper valley of the Trent. The garden terrace is adorned by 
some beautiful bronze statues of stags, tastefully grouped with other 
sculptures among the flower beds. The interior of the house is 
splendidly fitted up ; but all these are things so frequently to be seen 
in England, that I found nothing sufficiently eminent to deserve a 
detailed mention in a country which has its Warwick Castles to 
boast of. I saw nothing at all unique in its kind, in all the " fuchsia 
bed-rooms," "butterfly dressing-rooms/' "bird drawing-rooms," 
** bird sitting-rooms," " honeysuckle-room," the " rosebud-room," or 
his grace's private rooms. Trentham, as the housekeeper told us, is 
not properly speaking a " show-house," nevertheless, every corner 
of it was shown us. In each bedroom I observed a Bible and a 
Prayer-book lay on the table. With us there is seldom more than 
one Bible in a house, while in England we thus find one man the 
owner of several hundred copies. On board of ships and steamboats 
there are also generally several copies of the Holy Scriptures for 


the use of the passengers, and in many hotels in England a Testa- 
ment or Prayer-book lies in almost every room. This may afford 
some idea of the immense consumption there must be in the country 
for this class of books. Indeed, I should not be surprised to learn 
that England alone possessed more copies of the Bible than all the 
other countries in Europe together. 

On the ground where Trentham now stands, there stood formerly 
a convent, the residence of the royal and sainted Virgin Verburga. 
Of the walls of the ancient convent not a trace remains, yet some- 
thing better has survived than an ancient piece of masonry; namely , 
an old " priory dole," in virtue of which every traveller who 
knocks at the gate is relieved with bread and beer, and I was as- 
sured that several hundreds often applied for the dole in the course 
of the day. A lodge not far from the principal entrance, has been 
fitted up for the distribution of the dole; and as many of the poor, 
since the spread of temperance, decline the beer, a spring of water, 
neatly enclosed in marble, has been provided expressly for the use 
of the abstemious. 

Staffordshire borders on Cheshire, and in the same way that the 
hardware trade of Birmingham has extended itself over a large part 
of South Staffordshire, so the manufacturing of Cheshire cheese 
may be said to have its ramifications in North Staffordshire. On 
our return from Trentham to Butterton, we visited one of these 
cheese factories, kept by a farmer who had forty cows constantly kept 
for this purpose only. He told us he expected to get three and a 
half hundred weight of cheese from each cow in the course of a year, 
and then he showed us his cheese room, in which several hundred 
delicate Cheshire cheeses were lying, each weighing from sixty to 
seventy pounds. Here also I was doomed to hear complaints of the 
badness of trade. The farmer did not know what he should do this 
year with all his cheeses, for which he was not able to get more 
than forty-five shillings a hundred weight. 


Each of the principal branches of English manufacture has appro- 
priated to itself some particular town or district, and, following this 
example, the makers of earthenware have chosen for themselves a 
small locality, within which there is more crockeryware made than 
in all the rest of the kingdom. This district, situated in the north- 
ern part of Staffordshire, and comprising several small towns and 
villages, lying so close to each other that they might almost be said 
to form only one, is called the Pottery District, or the Staffordshire 
Potteries, or sometimes more briefly the Potteries. 

The places comprised within the Potteries are: Tunstall, Burslem, 
Sneyd, Rushton, Grange, Hanley, Shelton, Penkhull, Boothen, 
Stoke, Fenton, Vivian, Longton, Laneend, Etruria, and a few small 


-villages. The most important of these places are Burslem, Hanley, 
Stoke, and Laneend. They all lie close together, like so many cher- 
ries on one stalk, and extend down the valley of the Trent a distance 
of about seven English miles, that being the distance between the 
two extremities of the land of crockery, — Tunstall and Laneend. 
They are all included within the one parliamentary borough, and as 
the members are described as sitting for Stoke-upon-Trent, the whole 
district is sometimes called the borough of Stoke-upon-Trent. The 
population of this remarkable district has increased fifteenfold within 
the last hundred years. In 1738, the population of the whole did 
not exceed 4000, in 1838 it was upwards of 70,000, and nearly all 
of them more or less connected with the making of crockery. 

Camden, in his "Britannia," makes no mention either of the Pot- 
teries generally, or of any of the places that are now included within 
that name. Nevertheless, it is known, that, two hundred years ago, 
earthenware goods were manufactured at Burslem, particularly a kind 
of butter pots; but these must have been of a very rude kind, for 
we hear that an old Burslem butter pot, large enough to contain four- 
teen pounds of butter, was sure not to weigh less itself than six 
pounds. The fact is, that, as the looms in use at Manchester and 
Leeds, till about the middle of the last century, were but little better 
than those with which the ancient Romans wove their cloth, so the 
pottery kilns continued till nearly about the same time, to be con- 
structed according to the ancient fashion. About the middle of the 
last century it was that the Wedgwoods began to bestir themselves in 
the potteries, at the same time that the Arkwrights revolutionised 
the looms; it was a remarkable time, for, almost simultaneously, great 
reformers and improving geniuses sprung up in all the chief branches 
of English manufacture, and made the rivulets of national prosperity 
swell on a sudden into broad and stately streams. 

Josiah Wedgwood was the name of the great man whose excellent 
taste gave grace and beauty to the earthenware of Staffordshire, and 
at the same time so materially improved its intrinsic excellence, that 
the article has become one in general use in every part of the civi- 
lised world, and continues, in most countries, to be still known by 
bis name. He it was who first gave a classical form to our teapots, 
our coffee cups, our sugar basins, and our water jugs. He it was 
that scattered flowers over them, and graced them with Greek and 
Etrurian figures, with endless varieties of colour, that his chemical 
knowledge enabled him to produce and render permanent. In the 
place of the old heavy butterpots, that had remained unchanged for 
centuries, appeared vases and bowls of all imaginable sizes, forms, 
and colours, and suited for an endless variety of uses. In his cele- 
brated establishment, which he called Etruria, and which, when com- 
pleted in 1771, was the largest earthenware manufactory that the 
world had ever seen, he introduced and effected all his reforms; and 
these in time found imitators, several establishments similar to that 
of Etruria having successively been organised. 



The ancestors of Josiah Wedgwood had long been settled as pot- 
ters at Burslem. In 1743 an old man of the same name died there 
who had made his fortune by making crockery, so much so that his 
two sons were able to retire from trade, and live in independence. 
The celebrated Josiah, who died in 1795, was, I believe, their cousin. 
The family still play a prominent part in the potteries, and when, in 
1832, the borough of Stoke-upon-Trent first obtained the privilege 
of sending representatives to the House of Commons, it was a Mr. 
Josiah Wedgwood who was the first member elected by the new 

In the olden time, that is to say about a hundred years ago, when 
every potter had his own little establishment, in which he worked 
diligently, assisted by a few journeymen, the people in this part of 
the country had no knowledge of political combinations, of trades 9 
unions, of socialism, chartism, riots, or strikes. Each dug the clay 
from before his own house, shaped the earth into a pot, dried it 
under his own shed, or, perhaps, for greater expedition, in the smoke- 
house, and then sold the produce of his workmanship at the markets 
of Utoxeter or Newcastle-under-Lyme. Every industrious man could 
obtain his living, and that contented him. When, however, the 
population increased in so astonishing a degree-when hundreds 
came to work together in the same establishment— when the small 
villages swelled into towns, and approached so closely to each other 
as nearly to form only one great community — when the spirit of im- 
provement and invention set even the potters thinking — when the 
general equality among potters was disturbed, by some of them be- 
coming masters of millions, while the majority were depressed to the 
condition of workmen; then politics crept in among them, and com- 
binations and conspiracies began to be formed, even as among the 
cotton spinners of Lancashire, the woollen weavers of Yorkshire, 
the cutlers of Sheffield, the hardware-makers of Birmingham, and 
the colliers of Newcastle, as, in short, among all the workmen of 
England, who are packed together in certain districts as closely as 
bees in hives. 

The first associations among the potters took place about the be- 
ginning of the present century, when military associations were 
formed for the defence of the country against the Armee de VAngle- 
terre, with which Napoleon threatened to invade England. Asso- 
ciations of a different character, animated by a spirit of hostility to 
the British government, arose on the occasion of the continental 
blockade, when the retaliatory measures of England led to difficul- 
ties with the Americans, the best customers of the potters, whose 
meetings, petitions, and deputations, contributed not a little to in- 
duce the British government to withdraw measures so prejudicial to 
the American trade. 

After the peace with France, at the time when the German stu- 
dents began to enter into patriotic unions, political clubs and radical 
meetings were organised in all the manufacturing districts, the pot- 


teries not excepted, and the burden of taxation, and the defects of 
the representative system, were eagerly discussed, and parliamentary 
reform loudly called for. Simultaneously with these political com- 
binations, there arose others, known by the name of "Trades' 
Unions," which were directed against the master manufacturers, 
and the effects of these unions showed themselves in the events of 
1836 and 1842. In the former of those years, a formidable associa- 
tion was organised in the Potteries, with a view to raise the rate of 
wages, and to regulate them according to the interest of the work- 
men. They had their union lodge, their committee, and their secre- 
tary, and they quitted their work at every establishment where the 
terms they prescribed were not submitted to. The men thus thrown 
out of employment were maintained, as is usual on such occasions, 
by small weekly advances from the lodge. 

Some of the masters allowed themselves to be dictated to by the 
union, but others organised a counter-combination, which they called 
the Chamber of Commerce, where they had their weekly meetings. 
The result of their deliberations was to close their establishments 
altogether, for several months, well assured that the poorer work- 
men, unable longer to carry on this system of hostilities, would by 
that time be willing enough to return to the old terms. If the poor 
fellows did but know that there was a natural price for labour, de- 
termined by competition, under which the employers dare not go 
without injuring themselves, as little as the men can force their 
masters to go beyond it, such melancholy scenes could scarcely 
occur; scenes from which no one derives advantage, and least of all 
the workmen. I have seen many Chartist, and Anti-Bread Tax 
lectures advertised in the manufacturing districts, but I never heard 
of any lectures given with a view to convey correct information to 
the people on the influences that regulate the natural price of labour, 
and yet of all information there is none which it is of more import- 
ance for the poor workmen to receive. 

For a long time the people in the surrounding country had missed 
the cloud of smoke that hail been wont to hang suspended over the 
district of the potteries, when the works were all in full activity. I 
was therefore the more gratified, as I approached the place, to 
see that the accustomed cloud was not wanting, and that it appeared 
of a most satisfactory thickness, as it floated over the beautiful 
landscape of the Trent valley. On approaching from Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, Burslem and Hanley are seen lying somewhat high, 
and the view that presents itself is unique in its kind. A stranger 
might be tempted to believe he saw a vast line of fortifications rising 
before him. The surrounding hills are all crowned with the lofty 
columns and the huge pyramids of the chimnies, and with the great 
rounded furnaces, of which dozens are often seen close together, 
looking like colossal bomb-mortars. The high roofs of the drying 
houses, the magnificent warehouses, and the massy walls that encloses 


the whole great establishment, or " workhouse bank," with the 
piles of clay, flints, bones, cinders, and other matters, serve rather 
to strengthen the illusion. Nor does the scene lose in interest as you 
proceed through the district. Between the great workhouse banks 
lie scattered the small houses of the shopkeepers, the workmen, the 
painters, the engravers, the colourmen, and others, while here and 
there the intervals are filled up by churches and chapels, or by the 
stately houses of those who have grown rich by pottery, — the Wedg- 
woods, Spodes, Wieldons, Parkers, Davenports, &c, all people who 
from potters have become millionaires, and from millionaires, mem- 
bers of parliament, high sheriffs, and proprietors of stately man- 
sions and broad lands. From one place to another you pass along 
roads constructed with as much care as the floor of a ball-room. 
Nor are means of communication of a higher order wanting. A 
large canal traverses the district, and a magnificent system of rail- 
road places it in immediate communication with Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, Liverpool, London, &c, thus enabling the potters to 
forward their wares to the best markets, and at the same time to 
receive the ponderous raw material required by them : their coals, of 
which they burn 8000 tons a week; their China clay, of which they 
receive yearly 7000 tons from Cornwall; their soapstone, of which 
the same county furnishes them 5000 tons; the flints, of which in- 
calculable quanties come to them from Ireland and Wales; the gold, 
of which they are said to consume every year to the amount of 
33,000/.; besides the clay from Devonshire, and the bones and 
many other articles which are supplied to them from all parts of 

My first visit was paid to a large establishment at Burslem, that of 
Aslock, which comprises no less than twenty large porcelain furnaces. 
Some houses confine themselves to earthenware, some to porcelain, 
while others work in both. It is in earthenware alone, nowever, 
that they excel, for their porcelain is inferior to that of Dresden and 
Berlin, and of course much more so to that of Paris. Their painting 
on porcelain indeed is so far inferior to ours, that comparison is 
entirely out of the question. Most of those to whom I spoke ad- 
mitted this inferiority, but maintained, on the other hand, that "in 
flower, lace, and wicker work, none could beat them." This point 
I will not take it upon me to decide, but I certainly did see some ex- 
quisite specimens in this department of art. I saw the most delicate 
baskets, filled with beautiful flowers, all of white unglazed china clay, 
and all so true to nature, and so admirably executed, that it is difficult to 
imagine the workmanship could be surpassed. One man had under- 
taken* to make a bird of paradise in porcelain, and had laboured to 
rive to the clay all the delicacy and beauty of the natural plumage. 
The clay had been spun out into long feathers, some of them an ell 
in length, and certainly he must have had an astonishing knowledge 
of the material he worked with, and must have been able to calcu- 


late with great precision the effect of the heat, to draw out such thin 
long feathers, that neither bent tinder the manipulation, nor broke 
while in the furnace. 

The town-house of Burslem was full of soldiers, and sentinels were 
mounting guard in every public place. The people stood and stared 
at the red uniforms, and nearly the same scene presented itself in the 
other places comprised within the district. Burslem was one of the 
places which played the most prominent part during the riots, and I 
saw the ruins of a house that had been destroyed, belonging to a 
clergyman, who had never interfered either with chartism or the 
regulation of wages. Individuals, however, when their civil pas- 
sions are excited, are often blind in their fury, and wreak their ven- 
geance on those who have least of all done any thing to offend them; 
and shall we look for greater wisdom from a mob? Nevertheless, the 
reports that went abroad of the destruction effected here, were grossly 
exaggerated. The chief injury had evidently been done to the win- 
dows, for in addition to the house just mentioned I saw only the ruins 
of one other that had been demolished. The collision of the people 
with the soldiers at Burslem has been represented as a grand battle, 
and in some English prints I have seen it described so pictorially . In 
one I saw the people composed of men, women, and children, in rags, 
marching along on one side, with a huge flag, on which are inscribed 
the words " Give us bread," and to this petition the soldiers are re- 
plying by hurling cannon balls at the people instead of loaves. One 
artilleryman wears the features of Wellington, another those of Peel, 
and the latter is seen trampling on a paper bearing the words " The 
people's rights." Now while 1 was at Burslem I inquired into all 
the particulars of this affair, and saw the street where it occurred. 
The poor, hungry, misguided multitude, composed chiefly of silk 
and cotton weavers from Lancashire, reinforced by malcontents from 
among the collieries and potteries, came on and had advanced as far 
as Burslem, without encountering any resistance, stopping the works 
everywhere as they marched along. Their intention was to proceed 
on to London, and there force the parliament and ministry to the 
desired concessions. All these high-flown designs were scattered to 
the wind on the appearance of a handful of soldiers. The mob, as 
they advanced, became aware that they had military in front of them, 
and conceived the plan of dividing themselves into two bodies, and 
outflanking the soldiers. In doing this they only weakened them- 
selves. The body that entered Burslem found its advance stopped 
by the armed gentry and yeomanry of the county, while the main 
body, reduced by the absence of so many of their companions, fled 
in confusion on the first attack of the soldiery. One life, there is no 
doubt, was lost during this attack, and many were hurt, of whom, it 
is probable, some died of their wounds; but the number of these is 
not known, as the rioters carried off all their wounded, and had 
them attended to in private, that the law might not lay its hands 
upon them. On this occasion, as in Birmingham in 1838, and re- 


cently in Wales, it was seen how greatly an English mob stands in 
awe of shedding blood, and how easily it allows itself to be dispersed 
by a few soldiers. Had a French mob, with plans and views similar 
to those of the populace at Burslem, found themselves opposed to 
soldiers, the issue would have been of a much more sanguinary cha- 
racter. Whence comes this? Nobody will dream of attributing 
cowardice to the English as a national characteristic. 

Omnibuses ply at all hours between the different places belonging 
to the Potteries, and I did not fail to take advantage of these con- 
veyances to visit all the most important points. The carriages were 
generally crowded with workmen, clerks, and artists; engravers with 
their copper-plates or pictures under their arms, o r> painters armed 
with rolls of paper, containing, probably new designs. Not only 
were the carriages filled, but they migjht fairly be said to be hung 
with passengers, for many seemed satisfied if they could but cling 
with one foot and one hand. The great object is to save time, and 
the omnibuses always drive fast. Comfort is quite a secondary 
consideration. When I started for Hanley, the driver seated him- 
self on my lap, and then asked me whether I was comfortable. I 
was not a little surprised, among the outside passengers, to find a 
wealthy manufacturer from Manchester; the masters, therefore, are 
not above riding in the same carriages with the workmen. 

In Hanley I saw a large magazine of earthenware, with which I 
was much better pleased than with the porcelain show-rooms that I 
had just before visited. English earthenware is, in fact, one of the 
finest and most complete articles in the world ; and if all other things 
were equally perfect, this would be a world of perfection in- 
deed. We know little of English earthenware in Germany, be- 
yond tea-pots and milk-jugs, partly because we are content to put 
up with things of an inferior quality, and partly because many of 
the articles in common use in England have not yet become matters 
necessity to us. It would be difficult to enumerate all the articles 
here manufactured of clay. There are tea and coffee services of all 
imaginable sizes and kinds, ornamented in the most varied manner, 
and yet always with good taste. Then there are endless varieties of 
vessels, large and small, pitchers, jugs, dishes, bowls, basins, and 
every kind of apparatus for washing, and for bathing the feet and 
the different parts of the body, articles with which an English sleep- 
ing-room is usually so richly furnished, and of which the uninitiated 
stranger is often at a loss to divine the use. All these things in 
England are not only handsomely ornamented, but are also made 
large. The English complain, and not without reason, of the 
diminutive size of most of the apparatus of our bed-rooms. 

We must not forget the neat vessels made for the English dairies, 
nor the wine-coolers, the butter-coolers, and the water-coolers. The 
latter, admirably suited to the purpose they are intended for, are 
chiefly made for the East and West Indies. I was told that the 
clay used for these cooling vessels was not to be found in any part 


of England, except in the vicinity of the Potteries. An article, not 
at all known to us, but for which there has lately been a very great 
demand in England, is known by the name of " tesselated tales." 
These are small thin tiles, elegantly formed, either square or six- 
sided, and are used for paving halls, and particularly for churches, 
where they are used at present in astonishing quantities. They are 
of a red colour, ornamented with yellow or black designs. The 
floors of almost all the new churches in England are paved with them. 
Sometimes the designs on the several tiles are made to correspond, 
and in that case large pictures may be represented, or the tiles may 
be made to imitate the pattern of a rich carpet. A floor thus paved 
might not inaptly be said to be covered with a stone carpet. It 
forms really a very elegant species of mosaic, and is unquestionably 
the least expensive that has yet been invented. 

In some of the workshops I was much interested by the sim- 
plicity of the manner in which the little wreaths of flowers and other 
ornaments were fastened to the articles they were intended for. These 
little ornaments, often of a different colour from the vessels to which 
they are about to be attached, are, of course, moulded apart. They 
are then taken up quite dry and laid loosely on the places to which 
it is meant they should adhere. A workman then comes, and with 
a pencil, filled apparently with water, moistens the parts and places 
the ornaments in the desired position. This moisture, quickly im- 
bibed by the clay, makes the parts adhere firmly, and all this is done 
with astonishing rapidity; but every thing is done twice as fast in 
England as it is with us, for in no other country is the principle so 
well understood, that to save time is to save money. 

The copper-plate printing, on one of these large establishments, is 
also carried, on upon an astonishing scale. Many thousand copies 
are often taken from one plate, and for this purpose a remarkably 
thin paper is used, that the ink of the engraving may be the more 
readily transferred to the clay, and that the paper may all the more 
easily be rubbed off. The paper-makers form no unimportant class 
of the population of the Potteries. 

All these things I saw with great convenience in the enormous 
warehouses of Mr. Copeland and Mr. Mintor, probably the two 
greatest manufacturers of crockery in the world, for they told me 
that each of them had from 800 to 900 persons in his employment. 

If we compare the common earthenware of England, with that of 
the French and Germans, or of any other nation, it appears not only 
excellent in quality, but also highly ornamental and unsurnassably 
beautiful. The common French and German earthenware, is com- 
paratively ugly, coarse, and misshapen. On the other hand, Eng- 
lish porcelain, as I have already remarked, particularly those articles 
in which beauty and elegance are the main points aimed at, are far 
behind those of the continent. I believe there is something charac- 
teristic of the English in this. In articles of ordinary use, the Eng- 
lish seem better than we, to know how to combine excellence of 


quality with outward elegance and beauty, whereas in those articles 
in which grace and beauty alone are to be kept in view, the English 
are never equally successful. Their tools, their furniture, their ma- 
chines, their knives and scissors, their bread, and their joints of meat, 
are not only excellent, vigorous and nutritious, but also beautifully 
formed, and not to be at ail surpassed; whereas their pictures, their 
sculptures, their pasties, and their cakes, and in short every thing in 
which fancy takes precedence of usefulness, are far behind ours in 
excellence. Look, not merely at the earthenware of the French, but 
at their tools, and their implements of gardening and agriculture. 
They are all strikingly rude and little suited to the purposes they 
are intended for. Even the common bread in France is inferior to 
that used in England. On the other hand, how much loftier flights 
of fancy are displayed by the French in works of art. 

Mac Culloch estimates the value of the earthenware and china an- 
nually manufactured in England at 2,300,000/. Of this, the 
Potteries alone furnish to the amount of about 1,600,000/. Spack- 
man calculates that the earthenware, china, and glass together, 
amount annually to 4,991,126/., or about five millions, of which, in 
1840, four millions were consumed, and about one million exported. 
Of earthenware of all sorts, exclusive of glass, the exports are some- 
what over half a million, and if we deduct this from 2,300,000/., 
about 1 ,800,000/. will remain, to represent the amount of crockery 
consumed by the English themselves. The rise and fall in the ex- 
ports of earthenware (exclusive of glass) during a period of seven 
years, are shown in the following table: 

1834 493,382 

1835 520,421 

1836 837,774 

1837 563,237 

1838 651,344 

1839 771,173 

1840 574,600 

From these fluctuations, however, no distinct conclusions are to be 
drawn respecting the real prosperity of the manufacture, for some- 
times over production has led English merchants, as they themselves 
express it, " to force a market," by sending abroad large quantities 
of goods on speculation, to be sold for what they will bring, in the 
hope that people will accustom themselves to the new merchandise, 
and afterwards become regular customers for it. 


Upon our German railroads, over the entrance to a tunnel, we have 
frequently neat and appropriate inscriptions. Thus, over the tunnel 
on the Austrian railroad from Vienna to Baden stand the words 
recta sequi ^follow the right course, or go ahead) in golden letters. 
The fashion is unknown in England, where tunnels are things of 
much too ordinary occurrence to be deemed deserving of inscrip- 
tions. On the railroad from Leipzig to Dresden, at every station 


where the train stops, young girls and lads present themselves with 
heaps of sandwiches, and little packages of cherries and strawberries, 
and glasses filled with beer, and cups with bouillon; for the people 
calculate with tolerable accuracy, that whenever a train stops, it 
will bring with it a hundred or so of hungry and thirsty travellers, 
well disposed to satify their appetites. This commendable railroad 
fashion is also wanting in England. It is customary on the conti- 
nent to speak of the English as great eaters, but it would seem that, 
in Germany, we, at all events, feel the desire to eat more frequently. 
At none of the stations in England have I seen refreshments handed 
to the travellers; there are merely refreshment rooms at the principal 
stations, where the train stops a few minutes longer than at the 
others. On my leaving Butterton to proceed towards Liverpool, 
Crew was the first place where I could get any thing to eat. Ano- 
ther disagreeable characteristic of an English compared with a Ger- 
man railroad, is that whereas at a station on the latter, all these 
little gastronomic luxuries are to be had for a penny, or at most 
twopence, nothing is to be obtained on the former for less than six- 
pence. A sandwich, a glass of wine, a piece of cake, or a plate of 
fruit,— each cost sixpence. Even for a glass of porter at Crew I 
was charged sixpence. It was Dublin porter (Guiness's) which, 
although made on the other side of the English Channel, has ob- 
tained so much favour in England of late years, as almost to beat 
the London manufacture. 

At this same station I made the acquaintance of a gentleman who 
was in some way or other connected with the Times newspaper. 
He confirmed to me a fact which I had heard before, but which I 
had found it difficult to believe, and which is calculated to afford 
some idea of the gigantic scale on which the operations of that paper 
are carried on. The matter stands thus: American and Transatlantic 
news, often of great importance for England, are generally received 
in Liverpool sooner than in any other part of England. The agents 
of the Times in Liverpool, on such occasions, if they deem the news 
of sufficient importance, are authorised to forward it to London by 
a special train, which from Liverpool to London costs 100/. These 
special trains are rarely used, except by the government, by the 
most eminent mercantile houses, and lastly by the London news- 
papers. The utmost that can be gained by such a special train, is 
to receive a piece of news six hours earlier that it could have come 
by the ordinary train. I asked how often it might happen in the 
course of the year that such a train might be forwarded. This the 
gentleman who gave me the information was unable to say, but he 
thought it must happen at least once a month. 

Midway between Crew and Liverpool lies Chester, a town of 
much more ancient fame than Liverpool itself. Indeed it may be 
considered as the mother of Liverpool, for at a time when nothing 
was yet known of Liverpool commerce on the Mersey, the fame of 
Chester, and her trade on the Dee, was widely spread in Germany, 


Spain, and France. In time, however, the navigation of the Dee 
was injured by the accumulation of sand in its bed. Camden already 
remarks that the sea was receding there, — and thus the trade of 
Chester got aground, and Liverpool, as lying nearer to the sea, 
began to flourish. To be sure, it may be taKen as a general rule, 
that when new commercial relations develop themselves, new towns 
spring up into prosperity. Old towns, even where their local advan- 
tages are equal, are sure to be wedded to their old routine, are 
some time before they are able to assimilate themselves to new 
circumstances, do not immediately trust to the new prospects open- 
ing before them, and therefore fail to draw profit from the specula- 
tions to which those prospects invite. Chester belonged to the 
middle ages; to the Hanseatic and the Venetian system of cities, 
but when the commerce of America and the world began to 
develop itself, Liverpool quickly outstripped her more ancient 

Chester, more particularly West Chester, derives its name from 
the Roman castrum, like Winchester, Worcester, Leicester, Dor- 
chester, Chichester, and like our German Cassels. Chester was the 
usual station of the twentieth Roman legion, and there are few cities 
in England where, if the Roman soldiers were to return, they would 
sooner find themselves at home, for it belongs to the small and con- 
tinually lessening number of those that have preserved an appearance 
of antiquity. The plan of the city is the simplest that I know. Its 
walls form a parallelogram, and the two main streets intersect each 
other at right angles, dividing the parallelogram into four equal 
quarters, and then extend somewhat beyond the walls. From these 
main streets a number of bye streets run off on both sides. On the 
walls is a footpath, with room for two or three persons to pass each 
other, so that one may walk completely round the city. Indeed 
these city walls, two miles in circumference, form the chief prome- 
nade of the townspeople. According to tradition, they were built 
by Cymbeline, in the century before the birth of Christ. Of course 
they have undergone many alterations since then, and in later times 
they have been much reduced in height, and converted to their pre- 
sent purpose of a public walk five feet in breadth ; and a curious 
promenade it is; sometimes up hill, and sometimes down; at one 
point closely wedged in between houses, while at another the narrow 
path passes under some ancient watch-tower; here it runs under a 
gateway, and there we must descend a flight of steps, because the 
wall has been cleared away to make room for a street; now we pass 
behind the venerable cathedral, and now in front of the spacious old 
castle, which has been converted into a military barrack. There is 
only one other town in England that can boast of an equally singular 
public walk, namely, York, which is surrounded by just such an- 
other old wall. 

To say the truth, Chester is the very town for curious promenades, 
for it contains walks even more curious than the wall I have endea* 


voured to describe. These are " the Rows," as they are called. 
They are long covered passages, running parallel with the streets, 
through the first floors of the houses. The thing is not very easy 
to describe. Let the reader imagine the front wall of the first 
floor of each house to have been taken away, leaving that part of 
the house completely open towards the street, the upper part being 
supported by pillars or beams. Let him then imagine the side-walk 
also to have been pierced through, to allow a continuous passage 
along the first floors of all the houses. How the people of Ches- 
ter came, in this way, to spoil their best floor in so many of their 
houses, is a matter that was never made perfectly clear to me. 
We have also a number of towns in Germany, particularly in 
Silesia and the Austrian dominions, where covered passages, for the 
accommodation of the public, have been made to run through or 
round private houses; but then these passages or galleries are always 
on the ground floor, and on a level with the street. Some English 
antiquarians will have it, that these rows were intended as a means of 
defence, Chester being exposed to frequent attacks, from the Welsh 
on one side, and from the Scots on the other, when, after the city 
walls had been forced, the citizens were able to defend themselves in 
these Rows. In support of this theory, it has been asserted, that in 
all the battles which, during the civil wars in England, occurred in 
Chester, the party in possession of " the Rows" almost invariably 
obtained *.££,. 

It must not be imagined that these Rows form a very regular or 
uniform gallery. On the contrary, it varies according to the size 
or circumstances of each house through which it passes. Sometimes, 
when passing through a small house, the ceiling is so low that one 
finds it necessary to doff the hat, while in others one passes through 
a space as lofty as a saloon. In one house the Row lies lower than 
in the preceding, and one has, in consequence to go down a step or 
two, and perhaps, a house or two farther, one or two steps have to 
be mounted again. In one house a handsome new fashioned iron 
railing fronts the street, in another only a mean wooden paling. In 
some stately houses, the supporting columns are strong and adorned 
with handsome antique ornaments, in others the wooden piles appear 
time worn, and one hurries past them apprehensive that the whole 
concern must topple down before long. The ground floors, over which 
the Rows pass, are inhabited by a humble class of tradesmen, but it 
is at the back of the Rows themselves that the principle shops are to 
be found. This may give an idea of how lively and varied a scene 
is generally to be seen there. Indeed the Rows are generally full of peo- 
ple, either making their little purchases in the shops, or mounting to 
these boarded floors, to avoid the disagreeable pavement of the streets. 

Perhaps these rows may be in some way connected with another 
singularity pointed out to me at Chester. The streets do not, as in 
other towns, run along the surface of the ground, but have been cut 


into it, and that, moreover, into a solid rock. The rows are in reality 
on a level with the surface of the ground, and the carriages rolling 
along below them are passing through a kind of artificial ravine. 
The back wall of the ground floor is everywhere formed by the solid 
rock, and the court-yards of the houses, their kitchens, and back- 
buildings lie generally ten or twelve feet higher than the street. The 
English historians and antiquaries have given themselves a great deal 
of trouble about this matter, without having ever been able to assign 
a rational hypothesis as to the motives which could have induced the 
ancient settlers in Chester to undertake so colossal a work as to hol- 
low out all their streets. For my part, I own myself unable to sug- 
gest either a reasonable motive or an unreasonable one. 

Chester, the reader will by this time be aware, has other pecu- 
liarities besides its walls, and certainly among the curiosities of the 
town, not the least curious, to a German, presents itself at the ca- 
thedral, where the first tomb to which his attention will be directed, 
is, he will be told, the tomb of the German emperor, Henry IV. 
The Chester people, who have invented such singular streets, and 
such singular side walks, have taken it very positively into their 
heads that this famous German emperor, of whose death a very dif- 
ferent history is told in his own country, did retire to Chester when 
wearied of the continual disturbances in his own dominions; and 
that the people of Chester took care of him to the end of his days, 
after which they buried him in their cathedral, and erected a monu- 
ment to his memory. I told the man that showed me over the ca- 
thedral that I doubted the truth of the whole story. He replied, 
that there were some people in the town who believed it as little as 
I did, " but for my part," he continued, " I have not the slightest 
doubt about it, for why should they print it in the books if it were 
not true?" The monument itself, I must not forget to observe, is 
more richly ornamented than any other in the cathedral, and a hand- 
some inscription is there to confirm the popular tradition. Now there 
is nothing very inconceivable in people abandoning themselves to 
historical errors, in their traditions and popular tales; but I own I 
am at a loss to understand, how such an historical error can force its 
way into broad daylight within the walls of an eminent cathedral, 
to be there chiselled in stone and wrought in iron. This unfortunate 
emperor, as our authentic records inform us, died at Liege, on the 
7th of August, 1106, after having been deprived of the crown by 
his son Henry V. Otbert, bishop of Liege, caused the body at first 
to be interred in the cathedral, but as the emperor had died under 
sentence of excommunication, the bishop, in obedience to the com- 
mands of the papal legate, had the body taken up again, and de- 
posited, unbuned, on a small island of the Meuse, where, history 
further tells us, a pious monk sung penitential psalms night and day 
for the emperor's soul. Henry V. had the body brought to Spire, 
and buried there in St. Mary's church; but the fanatical bishop of 


that city would not allow repose to the imperial remains, which were 
taken up and placed in an unconsecrated chapel, where they re- 
mained for five years longer above the ground. Then only, the sen- 
tence of excommunication having been recalled, the bones of the 
unfortunate emperor were interred with great solemnity in the ca- 
thedral of Spire. Even there they were, however, disturbed, for 
towards the end of the seventeenth century, when the French de- 
solated the palatinate, the bones of Henry were again torn from their 
resting-place. They have since been replaced there, and a monu- 
ment is in the course of being raised over them, though not so mag- 
nificent a one as the English have raised at Chester over the grave 
of our emperor's counterfeit 

Now, in every tradition there is wont to be some truth, and, if 
so, the next question is, where is the truth that appertains to this 
famous Chester tradition? The following were not impossible: 

Firstly: That the emperor, after his dethronement, and the ill- 
treatment he had received from his son, fled down the Meuse to 
England, and that the person who died at Liege was not the emperor 
at all; or, 

Secondly: That a stranger, an impostor, availing himself of the 
stormy end and obscure death of the emperor, went over to England, 
and there to excite pity and extort support, gave himself out for the 
unfortunate emperor. 

If neither of these suppositions can be shown to be correct, the 
question remains, who was this Henry IV. who was honoured at 
Chester with the title of Emperor of Germany, and whence came he to 
be taken for that emperor? This is a question which it will probably be 
as difficult to answer as that respecting the identity of the man with 
the iron mask. 

Although the cathedral of Chester is not to be ranked among the 
first churches of England, it is a celebrated and a highly interesting 
one. It must, nevertheless, be placed in the second class, along 
with those of Carlisle and Dublin. It is built of a red sandstone, 
which must be very soft, for many of the architectonic decorations 
have been so completely defaced, that they look like the half- 
melted architectural fancies in the saltworks of Wieliczka. 

Chester, quaint and interesting as the city is, is less visited by 
tourists on its own account, than for the sake of Eaton Hall, the 
brilliant seat of the Marquis of Westminster, situated in the valley 
of the Dee, a few miles above the town. It is one of the most cele- 
brated among the country seats of the English nobility, and as the 
park begins as soon as one leaves Chester, the whole walk to the 
house passes through the marquis's grounds. There are several en- 
trances to the park, and all these, as is customary in English parks, 
have large gates, with dwellings, called " lodges," on each side, for 
the park and gate-keepers. These lodges are, in general, very neatly 
decorated, are surrounded by small flower beds, and usually built in 


a style to harmonise with that of the mansion. At Eaton Hall, the 
lodges, like the principal building, are all of gothic architecture, and 
often of such extent and splendour that they might themselves be 
taken for handsome country houses. One of these lodges, — the New 
Lodge, — is a copy of St. Augustine's Abbey at Canterbury; another 
represents the gateway of a large gothic castle, with turrets and bat- 
tlements, and a third is taken from some other original. The new 
lodge alone cost 10,000/. From these lodges the road passes several 
miles through the park to the palace itself. 

The building is as long and capacious as any of the largest English 
cathedrals. It measures 500 feet in length, that is to say the main 
building, for if the stables and other dependents are included, the 
whole presents a mass of gothic architecture of 700 feet long. 

Eaton Hall is what is called a " show house;" which means that 
the owner gives permission to his upper servants to show the build- 
ing to every stranger, when he is himself away, and the consequence 
is that a crowd of visiters, at such times are continually pouring in 
and out, to gape at the profuse splendour everywhere displayed. 
The house, with its innumerable eight-cornered turrets, its orna- 
mented columns, its spires and battlements, looks like a vast, wealthy, 
old English abbey. Between the columns were numberless shields 
bearing the arms of the Grosvenor family, and of the various fami- 
lies to which the Grosvenors have become allied by marriage, and 
whose arms they have thereby, according to English custom, become 
authorised to quarter with their own. There are noble families in 
England who have an endless number of these quarterings. In Earl 
Spencer's coat of arms I counted no less than 163 such quarterings, 
including a whole Noah's ark, full of lions, bears, eagles, dogs, stags, 
boars, wolves, foxes, and dragons; besides the heads of oxen and 
negroes, the feathers of ostriches, the wings of what you please, to- 
gether with stars, swords, shells, crescents, and other heraldic em- 
blems. Such a coat of arms may be said to bear some affinity to the 
great house of the Grosvenors, for besides the above-named heraldic 
shields, there were a number of heads and other decorations sculp- 
tured along the walls, as is often seen in our gothic cathedrals. 
The window-frames are of cast-iron, and elegantly decorated with 
gothic figuring, and the whole house is surrounded by a massive 
gothic railing, also of cast-iron. 

As a number of architects and painters, such as Messrs. Porden, 
Gummon, Jones, and Harrison; besides gilders, cabinet-makers, 
turners, carvers, and other artists, have taxed their ingenuity to 
furnish and decorate this magnificent palace with all the richness 
and profusion possible, it would be a difficult undertaking to give a 
detailed account of all that the inventive genius of these gentlemen 
has produced and collected. Let the reader give a free rein to his 
imagination, and picture to himself as much luxury and splendour as 
his fancy can conjure up, and he will scarcely go far beyond the 


mark. To me the chief fault of the place was, that it was too full, 
too crowded with ornament; in one point, — the gilding, of which 
there is an astonishing profusion in every room,— I think the artists 
have decidedly gone beyond the line of discretion. 

The largest and most splendid room in the whole house is the 
library, which looks as if a monarch had converted his coronation 
hall to that use. It contains an interesting collection of books, ma- 
nuscripts, and antiques, among which again are distributed a num- 
ber of the most luxurious divans, sophas, and armchairs; for in the 
country houses of the English nobility, the library always ranks 
among the customary sitting-rooms of the family, even when it does 
not happen to be the one most frequented. 

In the centre room, the saloon, is a large organ, an instrument 
often seen in English country-houses. Of wonderful chimney* 
pieces, fine statues, remarkable specimens of carving, valuable pic- 
tures, and other matters of the same kind, there is, of course, no 
lack, and there are many things, which if seen alone would be 
studied and admired, but which here, amid the mass of objects, lose 
their individuality to the intoxicated eye. 

It was my misfortune, moreover, to visit the place in company 
with some gentlemen who had just returned from the Doncaster 
races, and wno had been attracted, less by their admiration of the 
fine arts, than by their desire to see fine horses. The late lord had 
been & celebrated breeder of horses, and Eaton Hall had in conse- 
quence become famed on every race-course in England, and still 
continues to be so, for the admirable horses reared there. The pre- 
sent marquis has several times carried off the chief prize at Doncas- 
ter, a prize often worth more than a 1000/., and many an aristocratic 
breeder of horses is as proud of carrying off the crown at Doncaster, 
though only once in his life, as was ever a Greek youth of having 
been crowned as victor in the Olympic games. 

Among the most celebrated horses shown me at Eaton Hall, 
were Launcelot, a crowned victor; Touchstone, one of the most 
far famed and most highly prized stallions in the country; and Pan- 
taloon, another courser of high distinction. Launcelot reposes at 
present on his laurels, for he is now so fat and corpulent, as my con- 
noisseurs told me, that he would not be able to run 100 yards ac- 
cording to the prescribed rules of the art. My unscientific eye 
could not indeed discover any greater appearance of fatness about 
Launcelot than about the other horses, but my companions assured 
me that the animal had fat upon his lungs, and would therefore not 
have breath enough to run a race. I took a liking to Launcelot, 
on account of an intimacy between him and a cat. The two crea- 
tures were almost inseparable, the cat always sleeping either on the 
horse's back, or in his manger, and the portraits of the two have 
even been published in a prmt, the original picture being preserved 
in the hall. The grooms told me when Launcelot returned from 
a walk or from the paddock, to re-enter his stable, the black cat 



would come jumping eagerly from manger to manger, and from the 
back of one valuable horse to that of another, to resume her accus- 
tomed place near her friend. 

One of the most valued mares bred at Eaton Hall was Violante, 
who died a few years ago. I asked the stud*groom (with us he 
would at least have been Stuterei Inspector, or Superintendent of the 
Stud), where the monument was that had been erected to so distin- 
guished an animal. " What monument?" he exclaimed; " we erect 
no monuments here to horses; when they die they all go to the 
dogs.'— '* And Violante like the rest?" — "Aye, to be sure."—- 
There seemed to me to be something hard in this, something unfeel- 
ing. If we were to make so much of our horses in Germany during 
their lifetime, as is done in England, we should show some marks 
ef kindness to them after death. In many parts of Germany I have 
seen monuments erected to horses and does, and other favourite 
animals. To us there appears a feeling of delicacy and humanity in 
this, but the English, I believe, look upon it as something profane, 
something degrading to humanity. Touchstone we found in his 
paddock. These paddocks are handsome pieces of pasture ground, 
surrounded by high walls, and for the stud we were now visiting 
there were no less than twelve such paddocks. For Touchstone, the 
groom told us 4000 guineas had been refused, the customary ex- 
pression of an English groom, who would always rather say how 
much has been refused, than how much has been offered for a horse. 
I wish I could adequately describe the enthusiasm manifested by my 
sporting friends, on being introduced to Touchstone, or that I could 
even give the words in which their enthusiasm found a vent when 
the creature trotted up to us, and standing before us, looked at us 
with such an intelligent expression, that one might almost have 
imagined it understood the fine speeches addressed to it. The 
groom was particularly eloquent about the " sweet temper" of the 
ajiimal.' "Oh, there's nothing like him for sweet temper." This 
is a commendation I have so often heard from English grooms, 
when speaking of their horses, that I suppose it is considered an 
essential characteristic of a distinguished horse, as among the Arabs 
also, a mild disposition is particularly admired in a fine horse. 

Other horses were shown us, of which we were told that they had 
already been entered for races to be run in 1844 and 1845, for 
horses in England are often engaged for races a great way off, as 
ladies in Vienna engage their partners for many balls in advanoe. 
Young horses are sometimes advertised to be sold by auction, as 
"yearlings with their engagements;" and as these engagements 
have often necessitated the payment of stakes of 25/. and upwards, 
and open a prospect to the " Oaks," the " Derby," and the " Don- 
caster Cup," the value of the animal is considerably enhanced in 

In an establishment of this sort in England, the stud-groom and 
the training-groom are the two most important personages. We 


had them both in attendance on us, and h appealed to me that the 
stud-groom aaramed a considerable degree of superiority over Ida 
colleague in office, telling us, that if the " breeder" showed any 
want of judgment in properly crossing the races, all the u trainer's'* 
pains would be thrown away, for fleetnees, beauty, coinage, and 
emulation, could never be installed into a bone, unless be bad them 
in his blood. The training-groom, an experienced veteran in bis art, 
refused to admit the absolute truth of all this, m^ntni^g that 
without a good education, to develop and confirm these good 
qualities in the horse, the breeder's pains would be equally useless, 
for the entire race would degenerate in a short time. 

The gardens and grounds about Eaton Hall are delightful, the 
beautiful river traverses them, and at a short distance are seen the 
Welsh mountains, among which it takes its rise. The park extends 
to the borders of Wales. The Grosvenors are an old Norman family, 
and their chief, the Marquis of Westminster, belongs to the fortu- 
nate class of English noblemen, a class including the Dukes of 
Sutherland and Northumberland, to whom common report, on what 
grounds I know not, attributes the possession of incomes of 300,000!.; 
or 350,0001 a year. Of the Marquis of Westminster I was more- 
over told, that in a few years his income would be materially in- 
creased, for the ground on which stands Grosvenor-square and many 
of the adjoining streets, belongs to him, and many of the building 
leases will be falling in, in a short time, when a number of valuable 
houses will fall into his hands. Here I would notice a small dis- 
tinction between the high nobility of England and Germany. The 
officers in the employment of an English noble of high rank and 
great wealth, know nothing of the endless titles lavished on the 
functionaries in the service of a Idchtenstein or a Schwarzenbergy 
who have their administrators, chief administrators, councillors,- 
councillors of agriculture, court councillors, &c. &c. &c. An Eng- 
lish duke or a marquis has seldom any officer higher than an agent in 
his service, but the places of these untitled agents are often worth 
more than 2000/. a year. 


I went on that same evening to Liverpool, and at ten o'clock arrived 
on the f * Cheshire shore," on the south side of the Mersey, opposite to 
the great town itself. This * ' Cheshire shore" has risen and flourished 
simultaneously with Liverpool) and rural houses of entertainment, and 
villages rich m country seats have been gradually scattered along the 
river side, serving to the townspeople as watering-places, and as places 
of residence and amusement. Tne town receives, likewise, a large 
portion of its supplies from this side of the river. The broad Mersey 
ues between the Liverpool people and the Cheshire shore* whicb 
for that very reason, probably, is a greater favourite with them as at 


J lace of recreation. To each little place on the opposite side of tha 
fersey, a steamboat plies from Liverpool as a ferry. At certain 
hours of the day, about twelve of these ferry steamers assemble at 
the same wharf to take in their several cargoes, and at a given signal 
they all start, scattering themselves in different directions over the 
Mersey, like a pack of cards over a table. 

We arrived at the chief of these ferries called Birkenhead, where 
we and our luggage were packed with railroad speed into a steamer, 
and within view of the widely spreading and brightly illuminated 
Liverpool, we glided swiftly over the dark waters of the Mersey. 
Every moment the echo of the noise made by our paddles as they 
struct the water, announced that we were passing some stately 
vessel lying at anchor. These echoes increased in number as we 
proceeded, and traversing a forest of masts, among which lamps and 
lanterns were glittering like so many glow-worms in a grove, we 
speedily reached our landing-place, and the neighbouring hotel to 
which we were consigned. 

Chester boasts that, though she be nothing now, her glory and 
greatness stand recorded in tne works of the most ancient writers; 
Liverpool, on the contrary, prides herself upon the fact that no 
author of bygone days makes mention of her glory, but that what 
she now is, nas been the work of a generation still living. If Liver* 
pool is spoken of in any ancient book, it is perhaps to say that the 
place probably derives its name from the marsh or pool lying near 
it. In 1561, Liverpool contained only 7 streets, 138 cottages, and 
690 inhabitants. Towards the middle of the seventeenth century 
the town began to grow into importance, and now it may be looked 
on as the second commercial town in the world. As its growth 
still continues, there are not wanting prophets who foretell that it 
will some day rank as the first. 

In 1801 Liverpool contained 77,708 Inhabitants. 
1821 „ „ 118,972 „ 

1831 „ „ 165,221 „ 

1841 „ „ 224,954 

The population has accordingly trebled in forty years, and seve- 
ral places lying in the vicinity, and almost belonging to Liverpool, 
have, in the meantime, increased in an equal proportion. Everton, 
Kirkdale, West Derby, and Toxteth Park, contained, in 1821, a joint 
population of 22,103 inhabitants. Now the number is 71,009. 
If we add these to the population of Liverpool, and the 13,000 sea- 
men belonging to the town, but absent on voyages, and not there* 
fore included in the census, we shall have 309,000 inhabitants. 

The revenue derived from the Liverpool custom-house amounts 
to one-fourth of the entire customs revenue of the United Kingdom. 
The harbour receives annually 16,000 vessels from the different 
parts of the world, and these vessels carry away with them 2,400,000 
tons, or, 48,000,000 cwts. of merchandise. The vessels belonging 
to the port are in number about 10,000, forming one-twelfth of the 


entire British mercantile marine — coasters, of course, included; and, 
notwithstanding the badness of the times, so loudly complained of, 
I had sufficient proof that the shipping of Liverpool must still be oil 
the increase in the zeal with which the workmen were labouring 
night and day at the completion of a new dock calculated for the 
reception of 200 vessels, a dock which of itself, in any German 
commercial town, would have been looked on as a colossal under- 
taking, as forming of itself a magnificent harbour, but which here 
was only one among a dozen. 

Some branches of the Liverpool trade, particularly those influ- 
enced by the unfortunate state of things in America, have indeed 
suffered seriously of late years, but there are others which even 
lately have been growing in prosperity, and among these I may 
particularly mention the trade with the East Indies. To India, in- 
cluding China, the South Sea, the Cape of Good Hope, the Indian 
Archipelago, Arabia, and all Africa, except the Mediterranean ports, 
there sailed from Liverpool: 

In 1840 234 vessels carrying 90,350 tons, and 4402 seamen. 

1841 266 „ „ 115,106 „ 5161 

Being an increase of... 32 „ „ 24,75$ „ 759 

. This shows an increase of 20 per cent, in one year, and though 
only in one branch of the trade, yet in one of the most valuable and 
most interesting. 

Let us compare the increase in the Indian trade of Liverpool with 
that observed at the same time in London, Bristol, Hull, and the 
other ports of Great Britain. 

T , Bristol and Glasgow and the 

•Kwidon. HulL remaining porta. 

Wm«i*~ Af RW«. 51840 512 12 155 

Number of Snips... J lg41 530 2Q 190 

T™„««~ 5 1840 205,458 7716 56,048 

tonnage ^ lg41 213,407 7272 72,822 

g^unen U840 12,210 392 2,950 

oewnen 1 1841 12,101 872..... 3,758 

From these tables it results that the East Indian trade of Great 
Britian employed shipping in 1841 to the amount of 408,607 tons, 
and that of this shipping nearly one-fourth sailed from the port of 
Liverpool, and more than one-half from London; secondly that 
in the Indian trade of London, in 1841, as compared with the 
preceding year, there was an increase of only three per cent., while 
in that of Liverpool there was an augmentation of 24 per cent. 

As Odessa's trade increased with the increasing cultivation of the 
Steppes, and as New York and New Orleans rose in proportion as the 
interior of the United States became more thickly settled, so has the 
growing prosperity of Liverpool been dependent on the development 
of the manufacturing districts. Manchester has been the nurse of 
Liverpool, and in proportion as Manchester, out of the old Mancu- 
nium, grew into its present vast dimensions, so, step by step, did 
Liverpool advance aradtweouply in wealth, popuUtiop, and activity. 


.The corresponding progress of the two cities will be sfeen on com* 
paring the following statement of the increase of population of Man* 
Chester and Salford (the two form in fact one town) frith that 
ftbeady given of Liverpool. 

1801 118,000 

1811. ..i »•..,....*»%..»». 142,000 

1821...».» >»,... 193,000 

1831 275,000 

1841... t.t 334,000 

'fhfc chief source of the commercial prosperity of England is not 
to be sought in the amount of her exports of her own raw produce, 
but tether in her exports of thfe taw produce of other countries, after 
that raw produce has been worked up by native industry* Thus, in 
1842, the native raw produce exported, (including coals, metal, salt* 
Wool, &c.) amounted in value to 6,606,6521. In the same year the 
exports of the manufactures of cotton, wool, silk) linen, metal, and 
earthenware, amounted to 36,527,999/. To this amount must be added 
about 6,000^000/. for a long list of manufactured articles of minor 
importance, such as soap, candles, leather* refined sugar, beer, &c* 
We .have^ therefore, an exportation of about 7,000,000/. of raw 
British produce, and an exportation of upwards of 42,000,000/. of 
British manufactures. Now the districts that furnish these manu- 
factures are all much nearer to Liverpool than to London, which has 
fiot a single manufacturing district of any importance in its vicinity. 
From Manchester, the centre of the great cotton district, Liverpool 
is only thirty miles distant, and London 170 miles. To Leeds, thfc 
eehtre of the woollen district ; to the Potteries ; and to Sheffield) the 
gteat emporium for knife and scissors-grinding, Liverpool is much 
nearer than London. Even Birmingham is nearer to the Mersey 
than the Thames. With all these manufacturing districts, Liverpool 
is closely connected by canals and railroads, so as to be able to receive 
merchandise thence, with greater facility than London can. Let us 
now cast a glance at the countries whither the great mass of these 
goods are conveyed. North and South America heTe assume a 
position which makes all the other countries appear comparatively 
unimportant. I do hot happen at the moihent to have a table show- 
ing the countries to which the exports went in 1842, but I have such 
a table for 1839, which, as we are now dealing chiefly in round 
numbers, will answer my purpose sufficiently well. In 1839 then I 
find the exports to all countries in the world, amounted to 53,&33,000& 
Of these were exported to the principle customers of Great Britain, 

; To the United States of North America it ,... % £8,839,000 

British West Indies , w 3,986,000 

„ North American Colonies -. 8,047,000 

Brazil 2,650,000 

Chile 1,103,000 

The Foreign West Indies..... 891,000 

Bio de la Plata * 710,000 

Mexico 660,000 

Peru • > 635,000 

Hayti 392,000 

Columbia , 267,000 

Making to North tmd South America,..,,.. ,.,„..,,„.,,„.. £23,160,000. 


Nearly one-half, therefore, of all the British manufactures ex- 

Sorted in that year went to America. Now Liverpool lies consi- 
erably nearer to America than London does, so much so that the 
duration of a passage from the United States may, on an average, 
be calculated to occupy six days less to Liverpool than to London* 
Next to America, the principal customers of England are Germany* 
Holland, and the countries on the Baltic and the Mediterranean; 
with respect to these London is, of course, more advantageously 
situated than Liverpool * It is to the foreign customers of England 
that the foregoing remarks chiefly apply, but we must not lose 
sight of the important fact, that the best customer for the produce 
of English industry is England herself. It is impossible to estimate 
very accurately how far the home consumption of England exceeds 
her exportation to foreign countries, but there are some articles 
respecting which there exist authentic returns showing the home 
consumption to amount to twice, thrice, or even four times the 
exportation to all parts of the world. In articles of raw produce 
the home consumption is even larger in proportion than this, 
amounting to twenty or thirty times the exportation; and with 
respect to agricultural produce, there is probably no exportation 
at all. Spaceman estimates the entire produce of English industry 
at an annual amount of 514,000,000/. sterling. Assuming this to 
be correct, it would appear that the exportation (50,000,000/.) 
amounted to little more than one-tenth of the home consumption. 
In these 514,000,000/. it is true, are included articles of produce that 
never become objects of trade, such as the agricultural produce and 
manufactures that are consumed on the spot where they are grown 
or made; but when the diversity displayed in the local industry of 
different parts of England is considered, when it is remembered 
that one district grows corn, and another is devoted almost exclu- 
sively to pasture, while the limits within which are confined the 
various branches of manufacturing activity are yet more strictly 
marked out, it follows that the quantity consumed on the spot 
where it is produced must be very trifling, and that by far the 
greater part of the above named 514,000,000/. must become an 
object of domestic trade and internal intercourse. The commercial 
city, therefore, that enjoys the position best suited for commanding 
and carrying on this domestic trade, must have immense advan- 
tages over every other commercial town. 

First, however, let me mention one or two points calculated to 
throw a light on the importance of the domestic compared with the 
foreign trade of Great Britain. The earthenware manufactured in 
England annually, according to Mac Culloch, is estimated to amount 
in value to 2,300,000/. of which only to the extent of 600,000/. is 
exported. The whole remainder, to the value of 1 ,700,000/., is con- 

• Hull has of late years ran away with a large portion of the commerce formerly 
carried on by London to the northern countries of Europe.— Tr. 


gumed at Home, and becomes an object of inland commerce. We 
are in possession of detailed information relative to the linen ex- 
ported from Ireland. From these returns it appears that the ave- 
rage exportation to foreign countries, during a series of years 
amounted to three or four millions of yards, while the average ex- 

Jiortation to England and Scotland, at the same time was between 
brty and fifty millions of yards. In the next place, as the United 
Kingdom may be said to be composed of a number of islands, and 
those much intersected by the sea, the greater part of the domestic 
trade of the country is carried on by means of small vessels (coasters),, 
the traffic on the common roads, on canals, and on railroads, stand- 
ing in a much less proportion when compared to the coasting trade 
than in any other country. According to the statistic tables of 
Spackman, 19,710 vessels, carrying 3,392,626 tons, cleared out in 
1841 for foreign countries, from the several ports of the United 
Kingdom; in the same year, 146,127 coasting vessels, carrying 
11,417,991 tons, cleared out for all British ports. The tonnage 
of the vessels employed in the coasting or domestic trade of Great 
Britain, was more than three times as large as the tonnage em- 
ployed in the foreign trade, and the same proportion will be found 
to apply to other years. When to this we add the traffic on rail- 
roads and canals, some idea may be obtained of the vast magnitude 
of the domestic commerce of England. 

Now when we come to examine the geographical position of 
Liverpool, we find it situated almost in the centre of this great 
domestic trade, all the extreme points of the United Kingdom lying 
nearly at an equal distance from that centre. London, on the con- 
trary, lies itself at one of the extremities of the kingdom. The cen- 
tral situation of Liverpool makes it the place to which the great 
bulk of the merchandise intended to serve as an aliment to the in- 
land trade will naturally be directed, there to await the demand 
that may manifest itself in this or that part of the country. The 
trade between England and Ireland, for instance, naturally takes 
its chief course over Liverpool. Dublin lies as conveniently to the 
west as Manchester does to the east of Liverpool; and if Liverpool 
and Manchester are united, or brought near to one another by an 
admirable railroad, Dublin and Liverpool are not less intimately 
connected by an admirably organised system of steam navigation. 
Indeed, so conveniently for the trade with Ireland is Liverpool situ- 
ated, that the Irish is the most ancient branch of trade it can boast 
pf, and the gradual extension of the Irish trade has not failed to 
exercise its influence on the growth of Liverpool, in the same man- 
ner as the increasing prosperity of Manchester has stimulated the 
prosperity of Liverpool. The great increase in the Irish trade dates 
from the introduction of steam navigation in 1820, since which 
time Liverpool has thrown a net of steam-boats about Ireland, 
where the Liverpool vessels are in every part those which carry on 
the chief commerce. It would no doubt be highly interesting to 


know the entire amount of the British inland trade carried on 
through Liverpool, particularly the Irish trade, and then to com* 
pare it with the inland trade carried on through the other com- 
mercial towns; hut for such an inquiry, I believe, there exist no 
data in any English statistical work. The inland trade of Liverpool 
must, however, be enormous, as may be inferred from one item 
which I will mention. In a local work on Ireland I find it stated, 
that the cattle alone exported from Ireland to Liverpool amounts to 
a yearly value of about 7,000,000/. 

Next to the trade with Ireland, the most ancient branch of Liver- 
poors commerce, one which most materially contributed to advance 
the prosperity of the place, was the detestable trade in human flesh. 
This trade commenced in 1709, when the first ship sailed from 
Liverpool to Africa for a cargo of slaves. In 1730, fifteen vessels 
were already engaged in this disgraceful traffic, and in 1765 no less 
than eighty-six vessels, which were supposed to convey 25,720 poor 
negro slaves every year from Africa to tne West Indies, whence they 
brought back 10,000 chests of sugar to England, and at that time 
more than half the vessels engaged in the African trade were owned 
by Liverpool. In the year when the slave trade was abolished, 
Liverpool had 126 ships engaged in it, and though immediately on 
the abolition the African and West Indian trade manifested at first 
some decline, yet both have since very greatly increased, so that it 
may be assumed that, on the whole, the commerce of Liverpool has 
not suffered any material loss from the abolition of the slave trade. 

It follows from what I have stated, that Liverpool enjoys in the 
first place a really commanding position, in reference to tne home 
trade of Great Britain, and that it possesses many advantages over 
London and other ports, for carrying on the foreign trade with those 
countries which happen to be the best customers of England. Liver- 
pool is still a young city, and has probably not yet availed herself 
of all the advantages of her position. This town may yet rise to an 
importance far beyond that which it has yet reached. 

Among the great cities of the world, of first or second rank, there 
is no other so exclusively devoted to commerce. Every house in 
Liverpool is either a counting-house, a warehouse, a shop, or a house 
that in one way or other is either an instrument or the result of trade. 
The great buildings and institutions of the town are a custom-house, 
an exchange, a set of docks, a railway station, or something else that 
is intended, directly or indirectly, to be serviceable to commerce, 
and the inhabitants are nearly to a man traders or the servants of 
traders. Not even the authorities of the county reside at Liverpool, 
for the county town is Lancaster. 

Trivial as the name and object of such a building may appear in 
the eyes of philosophers, the custom-house of Liverpool is really a 
wonderful pile, and the enthusiast for the fine arts will not fail to 
admire it, however worthless or odious may appear to him the business 
transacted there. To me it seems that this building is not merely 


the fitttbf its kind id the World) and incomparably the finest of any 
kind in Liverpool, but that it deserves even to rank with St. Paul's 
Church and with other architectural marvels of the first order. If * 
Stranger were placed in the front of the pile, without knowing where 
he Was, he would certainly be apt to believe that there, at the least, 
must be held the meetings of a senate, to whose consultations the 
welfare of a mighty empire was committed. It is not merely the 
extent of the building (500 feet by 100) that commands our admi* 
ration, but the simplicity of the style harmonises so beautifully with 
that extent. The Ionic columns which support the porticoes of the 
centre and of the two wings, are fifty feet in neight. The whole was 
finished in eleven years, and government alone contributed 150,000/* 
to the expenses of the building. It is unquestionably one of the 
tnost magnificent pieces of architecture that our age has produced; 
and if it nas not acquired as much faine as the Isaac's church in St. 
Petersburg, or the Museum in Berlin, or the Glyptothek, the Pina« 
kothek, or the Walhalla, in Bavaria, or the church, of St. Magdalen 
in Paris, or other colossal piles of modern erection, the reason must 
be the comparatively vulgar use to which it is applied. Not that it 
is confined to the purpose which its name would seem to indicate; 
for not only the business of the customs is carried on there, but also 
that of the excise, the stamps, and the post-office, together with all 
that relates to the harbour and docks. In short, all the public offices 
in Liverpool connected with trade are comprised within the walls of 
the custom-house. 

To give some idea of the amount of business transacted within 
this building, I will merely mention the amount received annually 
for customs, which exceeds four millions and a half sterling, or about 
thirty millions of our dollars. In 1840, the amount was 4,607,326/* 
or about a hundred thousand dollars a day. This was equal to one-* 
fifth of the customs paid by the whole of the United Kingdom, to 
two-fifths of those paid by London, and to more than was paid by 
all the custom-houses of Scotland and Ireland put together. 

Close to the custom-house lie the docks, and these offer to the 
stranger a spectacle of commercial bustle, and a multitude of splendid 
harbour and marine works, unequalled, I believe, in the world, not 
even excepting those of London. Some of the London docks are 
perhaps larger than any of those of Liverpool, and majr therefore 
afford accommodation to a larger number of vessels; but, in the first 
place, they are fewer in number, and not being destined for such 
various branches of trade, offer not the same variegated scenes as 
those of Liverpool ; and secondly, being at a distance from the central 
part of the town, they do not afford the same convenience to the 
merchant. London was already a great town before she began to 
think of her present commercial importance, whereas Liverpool, her 
trade, and her docks, grew up together. In London, when docks 
came to be thought of, it was impossible to clear away half a town, 
so they had to be placed somewhat out of the way ; but in Liverpool, 


a odnttntent site was from the first teft far th* docks, and th* 
custom-house, the exchange, and the merchants' counting-houses, 
grouped themselves about them. In London, a merchant when he 
wants to send an order to his ship in the docks, must often send his 
clerk down by the railroad; in Liverpool* a merchant might almost 
make himself heard in the docks, out of has counting-house window. 

The whole length of the river side at Liverpool is filled up wi tk 
docks. To have an idea of the grandeur of these works, taken as & 
whole, the reader must imagine a length of three English miles run- 
ning along the river, and this occupied, in a breadth of from 250 to 
500 yards, with all descriptions of harbour works; with basins cut 
into the rock, and then lined with solid masonry; with admirable 
quays surrounding these basins; with entrance docks and canals, 
provided with various kinds of locks, and crossed by handsome iron 
bridges, or by wooden pathways. He must next imagine the whole 
length of three miles armed with a lofty wall, whose imposing great- 
ness can be properly admired only at low water; these basins filled 
with ships, the quays crowded by busy workmen, engaged ih load*- 
ing and unloading merchandise, with the imposing warehouses, attd 
the really elegant residences of the officers of the docks. 

It would be difficult to state the precise number of all the basins 
and other artificial harbours for the reception of large and small ves* 
sels, but, including those belonging to the canals, there are certainly 
more than forty. Of the docks, properly so called, there are about 
sixteen. When in these docks, the vessels have the advantage of an 
unvarying depth of water, and great facilities for loading and unload- 
ing, and for effecting all necessary repairs. Most of the docks are 
intended for the use of a particular class of ships. Thus the Bums* 
wick Dock is for vessels laden with timber from America; the 
Queen's Dock for West Indian, Baltic, and Dutch vessels; the Co- 
burg Dock for the large class of sea-going steamers; the King's Dock 
for the tobacco vessels from the West Indies and North America \ 
and the Prince's Dock, the most magnificent of all, for ships from 
India and China, and for the largest class of American vessels. 
Each dock is differently arranged, with a view to the accommoda- 
tion of the class of vessels for which it is intended. Thus at the 
Brunswick Dock the quays are particularly calculated for the unload-* 
ing of timber, and often one side of the dock is arranged for loading 
and the other for unloading. 

The graving docks are a particular class of small docks, intended 
for caulking and other repairs. 

To each dock is attached what is called a basin, into which, as it 
is generally in direct communication with the Mersey, vessels may 
enter at every period of the tide, and through which all vessels must 
pass before they can enter the docks themselves. These basins are a 
sort of preliminary docks ready at all times to afford shelter, while 
the docks themselves, where it is required that the water should 


always remain at the same level, can be opened only at high 

Astonishment and admiration are awakened in no ordinary degree, 
at the contemplation of the bulwarks which man has here erected 

r'nst ocean ; of locks often fifty feet high, with which he regulates 
and flood in his docks; sea-gates, often seventy feet wide, of 
the most magnificent and solid workmanship; and the immense re- 
servoirs which he has dug into the rocks, for the reception of his 
vessels. The Prince's Dock, the largest of all, cost 561,019/., and 
more than half of this sum was expended in wages to the men em- 
ployed in digging, excavating, &c. The expense of the whole of 
the works along the Mersey quay is incalculable, but must have 
^mounted to many millions; and it is not merely the extent of these 
works that deserves our admiration, but also the short time within 
which they have been completed. Most of the docks have been con- 
structed during the last thirty years. The first ever built in Eng- 
land was begun in 1708, but this great ancestor of all the docks of 
Great Britain no longer exists, the custom-house having been erected 
on its site. If all Germany would but consent to expend on the 
cathedral of Cologne, as much as the single town of Liverpool has 
expended on her docks, the noble pile would soon stand complete 
in all its details, to the admiration of centuries, and to the honour of 

In general, it is impossible to judge the real magnitude of the 
work expended on one of these docks, as they are mostly filled with 
ships and water, but it is when we happen to see one of them empty 
that we are surprised at their depth and capaciousness. I saw the 
Salthouse Dock empty. It had been found not to be deep enough, 
and there had been a wish to correct the irregularity of its form. 
These alterations were proceeding, at the time oi my visit, with great 
rapidity, it being deemed desirable that the whole should be finished 
before the autumn. To accelerate the works they proceeded night 
and day, relays of workmen relieving each other every twelve hours. 
The men who work at night, slept by day, breakfasted at eight in 
the evening, and had an hour allowed them, from midnight till one, 
for their dinner. At eight in the morning they were relieved by 
the day party. On Saturdays the night party worked only till 
midnight, and resumed their work on Monday morning at one 
o'clock, the hour from midnight being, as usual, allowed them for 
dinner. This night-work presented a spectacle unique in its kind. 
The entire cavity, in some places at least fifty feet deep, and cover- 
ing at least five acres of ground, was filled with numberless torches, 
lights, and fires, and 300 workmen were busily engaged, — hacking, 
digging, and breaking and exploding the rock. In five weeks, it 
was hoped, the dock would be ready for the reception of vessels. 

On looking more closely into the details of these docks we see 
how admirably the English have arranged every little matter con*. 

LiTOittooL; 45 

nected with these great commercial institutions, and koW imperfect 
most of these things continue to be in other countries. At certain 
distances round all the docks are large, broad-headed, cast iron posts 
to which the vessels are made fast. Now it seems almost incredible 
that in so old a commercial city as Bremen there should still be 
public walks where the trees have continued to be applied to this 
use for I know not how many centuries. The patient projnenaders 
of the German city, as they stroll along the Neustadtsdeich, have, 
for centuries, been accustomed to jump over the ropes, in which their 
legs are in momentary danger of becoming entangled, as in so many 
snares, and yet, to the present day, it seems never to have suggested 
itself to these good people, that for so serious an inconvenience so 
easy a remedy might be found. In the next place, every dock is 
surrounded by iron cranes, on each of which is marked the weight 
it is able to lift, as thus: " Not to lift more than two tons." Now 
certainly, it seems natural that before people make use of a machine 
intended to raise heavy weights, they should know the weight it is 
capable of lifting, but I know seaport towns enough were so self* 
suggesting a precaution is never dreamt of. Close to the edge of the 
quays are large long sheds, under which the merchandise can be 
sheltered immediately on leaving the vessel, and from which it can 
be packed into the waggons that are to carry it away. These sheds 
have side walls, consisting either of wooden boards or of canvass 
stretched on iron rollers. These side walls are moveable, and are 
generally put out of the way when the weather is at all favourable; 
but they can quickly be restored to their places should a storm or 
heavy rain come on, when the sheds are, for the time being, con* 
verted into small warehouses, sheltered on every side. 

It is to the Prince's Dock one must go, to see all these arrange* 
ments in the greatest perfection, or to contemplate the finest among 
the vessels that visit Liverpool. Among those most admired are the 
American packet ships, and particularly the British and North Ame- 
rican Royal Mail Steamships, the Acadia, the Britannia, the Colum- 
bia, &c. — specimens of architecture quite as wonderful as many a tem- 
ple or custom-house. I visited the Caledonia, of which the crew was 
too numerous, that at a draper's shop I saw the uniform of a Caledonia 
feeaman exhibited as a regular article of sale. These vessels are rated 
at 1200 tuns, and their steam-engines are of 440 horse power. They 
are all precisely alike, having been built after the same model. They 
cany the mail to Halifax and Boston, generally performing the 
voyage to America in fourteen-and-a-half days, and the voyage nome 
in eleven or twelve days. The quickest voyage hitherto performed 
was that of the Britannia, in July, 1841, when she ran from Halifax 
to Liverpool in nine days and a half. These beautiful vessels lie 
somewhat out of the way in the Goburg Dock. In the other docks 
may be seen other steamers, such as the boats of the Glasgow line, 
those of the Dublin line, the Isle of Man line, the Cork line, &c 

In consequence of this regular and rapid communication with 
America, Liverpool has become the principal point of departure for 
that continent, not only for England but for all Europe, the main 
ferry to unite the old world and the new. The same circumstance 
has made Liverpool the principal port of embarkation for emigrants, 
who are certain, at all times, to find opportunities there for Canada 
and the United States, more so than even in London. In the month of 
April, 1842, no less than 13,055 persons embarked at Liverpool for the 
United States, and 1945, to the British North American colonies, 
making in all 15,000* This is more than emigrate from Germany, 
by the way of Bremen, in a whole year. From the whole United 
Kingdom, the emigration amounts, on an average, to about 100,000 
individuals a year; in 1841, the number was 118,592, of whom 
72,104 were from England, 32,428 from Ireland, and 14,060 fiom 
Scotland, but many, no doubt, of those who went fiom England 
were Irish and Scotch, who had come to Liverpool as the most con- 
venient port of embarkation. Of these emigrants, 45,017 went to 
the United States, 38,114 to Canada, 28,724 to Australia, and 3901 
to New Zealand. 

A spectacle particularly calculated to awaken interest, is the sight 
of a noble vessel, which, after bravely struggling with the storm and 
the other perils of the sea, now, with her broken ribs and limbs, 
reposes quietly in harbour. In Liverpool, where there are always a 
thousand or two of vessels in the docks, it can seldom happen, that 
one or other of them has not her tale to tell of some imminent danger 
recently encountered* Such a vessel I saw in the Laurel, which 
I found lyins in one of the graving docks. On her way from Ca- 
nada, and when still a thousand miles from Liverpool, she had en* 
countered an iceberg, that had broken her bowsprit, and knocked in 
one of her sides. She would infallibly have sunk, but that her cargo 

Many of the extensive warehouses in which goods are deposited 
(in bond) till the duty has been paid, receive all descriptions of 
merchandise, but others are set aside for particular articles. Of 
these the tobacco warehouse, near the King's Dock, is the largest of 
all. This building goes on increasing in extent, to make room for 
the increased masses of this merchandise for which accommodation 
is required, to the sorrow and vexation of many an English house* 
wife, who would fain keep the atmosphere of her house clear of the 
poisonous fumes of the tobacco leaf. Behind this warehouse, along 
the quay, is a promenade, and a similar one exists behind the 
Prince's Dock. These " marine parades 1 ' are genuine Liverpool 
promenades. Their trees are masts; their flower beds and par- 
terres are groups of tar barrels, tea chests, and tobacco easks; the 
occasional vistas that open, carry the eye along rows of warehouses, 


and the view ifenges over the broad green meadows of the Maraey, 
with the blue ooean and its sportive billows melting away in the 
distant mist. 

Such of the tobacco as has been spoiled, or is not considered by 
the merchant to be worth the duty, together with the " scraps" 
that are swept together, are burned in a stove constructed for the 
purpose. I found a very old feeble man in attendance on this 
stove, so feeble that I could not help expressing some surprise at 
his not having been pensioned and relieved from active duty. I 
meant no offence by the remark, yet he seemed almost to have 
been offended by it, answering— 4 ' Allow me to say, sir, as long as 
I can do a man's duty, I will stay here." If every public office* 
would think and act in the same way, our governments would have 
fewer pensions to pay. 

Few of the houses near the docks are inhabited, most of them 
being either warehouses or counting-houses, and one house often 
contains many counting-houses, the names of the different firms 
being painted on the sides of the doors. The streets are con- 
stantly filled with long caravans of waggons laden with mer- 
chandise, like the narrow streets of that part of London which lies 
between St. Paul's and the Thames; but this warehouse quarter of 
Liverpool is much more elegant and convenient than that of Lon-i 
don, where, on account of the narrowness of the streets, constant 
stoppages are occurring. 

in the vicinity of the docks are situated various establishments 
for the manufacture of articles required for the equipment of vessels, 
such as rope-walks and the like. Among others, a vast machine 
established by the Liverpool corporation, for the testing of ohain 
cables. I saw a chain tested, whose links were not above two 
inches in diameter, and this comparatively thin chain was subjected 
to a pressure of sixty tons. 

I also visited the establishment of a sail-maker, but, as it was a 
Monday, not a very busy day either in Liverpool or in any part of 
England, I found most of the workmen absent. "They had not 
time on Saturday evening," observed one of the directors of the 
concern, in an ironical tone, " to spend the whole of their week's 
earnings; and as they could do little that way on Sunday, they must 
have their Monday into the bargain." A great deal of canvass is 
exported, and, to give it a more attractive look, it is generally 
bleached. " We Liverpool people, however, prefer bleaching our 
canvass at sea, as the bleaching on shore always weakens it." The 
Liverpool people, I found, considered their sails to be very superior 
to those made at London. In sails also, I here learned, there is 
such a thing as mutation of fashion; so of late years it has become 
customary to introduce a narrow blue stripe into the sails, and the 
innovation has found great favour in the eyes of sailors. I wanted 
to have some idea of the quantity of canvass required to equip a 
large vessel, and to gratify my curiosity the books were referred to, 


when it appeared that a new vessel of 500 tons that had lately 
been fitted out, had required 4841 yards of canvass to make her 
a complete set of sails; and that 3300 yards had been used up for 
the sails of a smaller vessel of 340 tons. The fragments that are cut 
off are sold as rags to the paper-makers, at the rate of twenty 
guineas a ton (equal to 2£d. a pound), and when the rags are 
mixed with rope ends the price is from twelve to thirteen guineas 
a ton. If a poor Parisian chiffbnnier could be transported from his 
muddy streets to a place so rich in rags, how eagerly would he 
strike his iron hook into the tempting mass ! How rich, how happy 
would he feel ! As happy as Napoleon in Germany, when he was 
hooking one principality after another into his great basket. 

When T said Liverpool was no manufacturing town, I made an 
assertion, it will be seen, that must not be taken without some qua- 
lification. Besides the establishments to which I have already 
alluded, there are large manufactories of steamboats and steam- 
engines, anchor smiths, chain smiths, oil mills, sugar refineries, large 
bakehouses for making ships' biscuits and others; but all these are 
industries immediately connected with commerce and shipping, or 
with the immediate wants of the town itself. There is but one 
manufactory, in the common acceptation of the term, namely, a fac- 
tory for spinning cotton, which is consequently looked upon as a 
little curiosity in its way. One of the largest and most interesting 
of the establishments to which I have alluded, is that of Messrs. 
Fawcett and Preston, for the construction of cannon and of large 
marine steam engines. SoAe idea may be formed of the im- 
portance of the concern, when we are told that the house under- 
takes the execution of such orders as 300 pieces of heavy ordnance 
for the King of Holland. Steam-engines are made here of more than 
500 horse power. Their largest was of 520, the engines of the 
steamers on the Boston line of 440, and the largest employed in 
any manufactory in Manchester of 300 horse-power. I saw a cy- 
linder, eighteen feet in circumference, making for a steam frigate. 
Sugar-mills for the West Indies and Brazil are also made at these 
works. Having, however, seen steam-engine manufactories of even 
superior arrangement at Manchester, I will postpone, for the pre- 
sent, my description of such a one. 

To see how many things are now made of iron in England, one 
must visit one of the iron warehouses, as, for instance, that of Coal- 
brookdale, at this place. Tables, sofas, vases, inkstands, and an 
endless variety of articles fashioned into the most graceful forms, 
may there be seen. Liverpool, however, is scarcely richer in iron 
than in gold and silver, which are everywhere displayed in manifold 
forms in the shop windows. For my own part, were I to begin to 
wish, my wish would be a very modest one, for I would wish only 
to be master of all the dust of Liverpool — not forgetting, of course, 
the gold and silver dust, which may here be seen displayed most 
temptingly in bowls in the windows, like the many-coloured bon- 


bona in the window of a Parisian confectioner. It is owing to this 
wealthy city of Liverpool (not, of course, forgetting Manchester), 
that Lancashire is reckoned, after Middlesex, the wealthiest county 
in England. From the report of the Poor-Law Commissioners, the 
real property of England and Wales (that is to say, the houses and 
lands alone), appears to be worth 62,540,000/. a year; hereof 
7,293,369/. fall to the share of Middlesex, and 5,266,606/. to that 
of Lancashire. These sums, in 1815, were respectively, 51,898,423/., 
5,595,537/., and 3,087,774/., showing a much greater propor- 
tionate increase in the northern than in the metropolitan county. 
How much greater, however, would the proportionate increase ap- 
pear, if the accumulated capitals and the mighty steam-engines that 
nave been erected, were taken intp the account. 

The Liverpool Exchange may also well be termed " a magnificent 
pile of masonry, a splendid range of buildings." The most inte- 
resting room in connection with it is the news-room, where mer^ 
chants meet to transact business, and to read the papers. It looks 
like an immense school-room, for a vast quantity ot newspapers are 
here displayed upon a number of small desks, over which the pupils 
of Mercury may be seen diligently engaged in their studies. In 
Liverpool alone there now appear ten weekly newspapers. The 
three principal ones are Conservative, five are Liberal, and two con- 
fine themselves to mercantile matters. 

In the centre of the Exchange stands the Nelson monument, in 
which are represented — his death, his victory, and his reward; the 
joy and sorrow of Britannia; the combat of the soldiers, and the 
subjugation of the foe. This monument alone was enough to con- 
vince me, how much more difficult it is to erect a classical, tasteful 
group of this kind, than to criticise it when erected. There is quite 
enough to criticise about the Nelson monument, though it has cost 
9000/. The English, as I have already said, seem unable to repre- 
sent the merely beautiful in its ideal sublimity; but for matters of 
real utility, their embellishments are remarkably beautiful, classical, 
and well suited. To take only the railroad terminus at Liverpool — 
what pomp, what architectural adornment does it not display ! A 
noble facade built of solid stone, rich in columns and in handsome 

Steways, fit to compare with the triumphal arches of Athens, Ber~ 
l, and Paris. Few of our German railroads are adorned with any 
of these magnificent propylaei, yet it is but right that we should pass 
through a triumphal arch to the triumph of science. A friend, him- 
self connected with the railroad, showed me the admirable details of 
its management. At this terminus, I found, a number of railroad 
companies had their separate offices: the Grand Junction Company, 
the North Union Company, and several others. 

Among the carriages that run on English railroads are some en- 
tirely unknown to us; for instance, the bullion waggons, intended 
for the conveyance of money, and of gold and silver bars. These 
carriages are chiefly used by the Bank of England, the Mint, the 


private banking-houses, and the great bullion merchants. With 
most of the trains, the Post Office has two carriages, or rather flying 
offices, with huge nets at the side, to receive the letter bags at the 
stations where the train does not stop. The bullion waggons do not 
occur on all the railroads, but only on the principal lines, as those 
between London and Liverpool, and Liverpool and Manchester. 
As nearly a million of pigs and cattle arrive annually from Ireland in 
Liverpool, it may naturally be supposed that the cattle waggons must 
play an important part on all the railroads radiating from that town. 

Liverpool stands everywhere u ? on a rocky bottom, and as its 
docks and cemeteries have been cut into the rock, so have the tunnels 
of its railroad been bored through it. Immediately behind the ter- 
minus, which stands in the heart of the town, the railroad disap- 
pears, and does not emerge again to the light of day till after it has 
run a distance of 2230 yards. We went as far as the Edgehill sta- 
tion, which offers the most bustling scene of any, for thence branches 
off another tunnel, which also runs 2300 yards under the town to 
the docks, and is intended for the conveyance of merchandise. Two 
large steam engines are at work at this station, dragging immense 
masses of goods and passengers out of the two huge caverns. The 
dock tunnel terminates in Liverpool at Wapping, close by the docks. 
I went there likewise to see the empty waggons shooting forth on 
their return. They come down the tunnel from Edgehill merely 
impelled by their own weight and day and night the engine con* 
tinues at its never ending work. 

The railroad between Liverpool and Manchester, as most of my 
readers are probably aware, was the first constructed in England for 
the conveyance of passengers by locomotives impelled by steam, and 
the experience gained upon this railroad, since 1830, has been of 
the greatest value to all the other railroads in the kingdom. Ex- 
periments have been made here with all kinds of rails, substructions, 
engines, and carriages, and, in little more than ten years, such have 
been the improvements effected, that the trains run the thirty-one 
miles between Manchester and Liverpool in half an hour, whereas 
originally they required an hour and a half, and the consumption of 
coal, formerly from twenty to thirty pounds a mile, has been reduced 
to twelve or eighteen pounds. The rails have, meanwhile, become 
much stronger and heavier than they were. At first they weighed 
thirty-four pounds per yard, now from sixty to seventy. The en- 
gines also have become heavier and more powerful, weighing at first 
only ten tons, whereas at present they weigh from fifteen to sixteen. 
The largest weighs seventeen tons. 

It is but little, in general, that the public at large know of the 
history and development of railroads, for the rapidity with which 
we are impelled over them, and the hurry and bustle of the people 
employed there, leave but little time to gather information; and the 
many prohibitions to which one is subjected at the several stations, 
hare the effect of throwing a kind of mystery about the thing. 


There are people enough who travel thousands of miles by railroad, 
-without having any thing like a rational idea of the present condition 
of this great invention, or of the immense improvements that have 
been made or are still in rapid progress. We travelling authors of 
modern times are, usually, very concise on the matter of railroads, 
whereas when we travelled with our two grays and a postilion we 
used to have an astonishing deal to tell about the merits and defects 
of our equipage. Not even in England have I found a well written 
work on railroads; not, at least, a work in which the attempt was 
made to give an adequate account of the early history of this yet 
growing giant. 

Perhaps the largest of all the excavations, made into the rock at 
Liverpool, is the St. James's Cemetery, extending over a surface of 
44,000 square ells. It was originally a stone quarry, and a more fit- 
ting site for a burying ground could not easily be imagined, for the 
place looks like a gigantic grave, though magnificently decked out 
with walks and parterres, with trees and flowers. This cemetery re- 
sembles the Valley of Jehosaphat near Jerusalem. On one side rise 
the steep, hewn, rocky walls, along which run terrace walks. The 
vaults or catacombs are hewn into the rock itself. The other side is 
less abrupt, beautifully planted, and the most delightful garden walks 
lead into the valley of the dead, already filled with a multitude of 
graves and monuments. The principal way leads through a tunnel 
under the rock, an allusion, perhaps, to the narrow gate by which 
we enter the fields of Paradise. On the summit of a steep rock is an 
oratory, a tasteful building in the Doric style, and in the centre of 
the grounds stands a monument to Mr. Huskisson, the martyr of 
railroads, the lamented of his country. This is unquestionably the 
most beautiful cemetery I have seen, and its appearance is the more 
remarkable, as it lies in the middle of the town, and is surrounded, 
on every side, by broad streets and high buildings. For the poor, 
in this cemetery, there are deep square pits, hewn deep into the rock, 
in which the coffins are placed in order, slightly covered with earth, 
but the hole is not filled up until it has received its due complement 
of dead. 

This great rendezvous of the dead lay half way to an assembly of 
certain living beings, in whom we are disposed to take considerable 
interest, because, with many points of resemblance to us, they are 
still essentially different creatures, — I mean to the Liverpool Zoolo- 
gical Garden. Any thing new that makes its appearance m London, 
is quickly imitated in Liverpool. Thus I already saw the bright 
flame of the Bude light burning here, in one of the public places, 
though it was only a short time before that I had seen a similar light 
in London tried as an experiment. So also Liverpool had already 
its Centrifugal Railway, and an artificial field of ice, for skating on 
in summer, such as had recently been established in London, was 
spoken of as about to be opened at Liverpool. Liverpool is generally 
the first provincial town in England to adopt any novelty that ap- 



pears in London, it was not, therefore, to be expected that Liverpool 
should be without its Zoological Garden, seeing that several English 
towns have institutions of the kind. 

I never visited a zoological garden in England, without seeing some 
animal that I had never seen before, or without witnessing some 
scene completely new to me. These gardens, however, are less in- 
tended for the promotion of science than of recreation. They are the 
favourite promenades, are beautifully laid out, and music, illumina- 
tion, and refreshment rooms are never wanting. The lions roar an 
accompaniment to the orchestra, and when the animals are fed,, 
there's almost sure to be a fight between the tigers or hyenas, a spec- 
tacle particularly attractive to an English public. I witnessed here a 
very interesting battle of the kind between two hyenas, and all the 
promenaders in the garden crowded to the show. The quarrel began 
thus. Like most of the animals, the hyenas began to be very restless 
as the usual feeding time approached, and went round and round 
each other, like two horses in an oilmill, grumbling and gnashing 
their teeth all the while. One was considerably larger and stronger 
than the other, and the smaller fellow of the two, seemed to have nis 
imagination very much excited beforehand by the prospect of the 
handsome joint about to be served up to him. Perhaps he feared 
his more vigorous companion might have some unlawful designs upon 
the said joint, and perhaps the occurrence of former appropriations 
of the kind might be fresh in his recollection. Be this as it may, the 
little fellow was decidedly in an ill humour, and at last, setting his 
hair on end, withdrew into a corner of the cage, and sat grinning 
and showing his teeth at the big one, who continued his rotatory 
promenade for some time longer, till at last some remark of the little 
one's, unintelligible to me, seemed to give particular offence, and the 
big fellow suddenly stood still, set his hair also on end, and howled 
and grinned most potently. The explosion was at last brought about 
by one of the spectators throwing a stone at the head of the smaller 
hyena. The creature may have supposed the insult to have come 
from his companion ; at all events, the two were at close fight with 
one another in an instant. The blood of the odious creatures soon 
began to flow, and the combative little champion soon got the worst 
of it, so much so, that I apprehended he would soon lose his life 
under the feet of his more powerful antagonist. The keepers, how- 
ever, were not long in making their appearance. They separated 
the combatants, and laid a stick between them. Immediately the 
two animals withdrew respectfully to the opposite corners of their 
cage, ogling the innocent and motionless stick with such submis- 
sive looks as the frogs in the fable are said to have cast on the log 
that Jupiter gave them for a king. When the keepers were gone, the 
creatures crept forward a little, and timidly smelt the stick from 
their respective sides, and at the two opposite ends, but neither ven- 
tured to overstep the barrier, and trembling evidently all over, they 
continued at a peaceful distance, and as quiet as mice, till they re- 


ceived their food. In a German menagerie these two animals would 
long ago have been separated ; in England they are left together, 
that the public may now and then be diverted with a spectacle such 
as I have described. 

The elephants in this garden were as tame as in India, and walked 
about, led by their keepers, to draw water for themselves from a 
pond. As the elephant was returning with his water, the keeper 
made him kneel down, and some children who were present with 
their parents sot upon his back, whereupon he trotted away with his 
little load, ouch are the juvenile diversions of those who are here- 
after to rule India and Africa. The one elephant was a male, Rajah 
by name, and the son of Sultan, one of the finest elephants of Cal- 
cutta ; the other was a female, and her name Poodah. The two lived 
together in great domestic happiness, and their's, I was assured, was 
the first case in Europe of a pair of elephants living quietly with one 

No part of an English zoological garden is more frequently visited 
than are the monkey cages, and to say the truth, the comic gestures 
of the monkeys are so varied and so entertaining, that they afford an 
inexhaustible fund of amusement. They have this advantage over 
most animals, that they never seem to lose their spirits in captivity, 
but skip as restlessly and as extravagantly about their cages, as 
though they were still in their forests. The consequence is that in one 
of these little houses, filled with some dozens of monkeys, scenes may 
every day be witnessed of a truly African or American character. 
" Visitors are requested not to tease the animals," is posted up in 
large letters at every cage, nevertheless, the creatures are teased in- 
cessantly, for to tease is a characteristic propensity of man; other 
animals are either friendly with each other or they fight, but they 
never tease one another. 

Something quite peculiar in their way, in these gardens, are the 
" Typoramas," as they are called ; faithful and colossal representations 
of celebrated buildings or landscapes, of mountain ranges or city 
views. These Typoramas, in the form in which we see them in 
England, offer, in some respects, the most complete representation of 
such scenes, very far surpassing the dioramas of Gropius. ^ The 
Typoramas present the various objects almost in their natural dimen- 
sions, or appear to do so, and to produce the required effect have no 
occasion for any artificial light. Every year the subject of the 
picture is generally changed. Thus, in the two preceding years the 
people of Liverpool had had an opportunity of admiring Mount 
Vesuvius and St. Jean d'Acre, and noyr the city of Rome was 
brought home to them. A large pond is made use of as a foreground, 
and is made to represent a sea, a lake, or a river, as may best suit the 

Surposes of the picture, which is thus thrown into the necessary 
istance from the spectator. The whole is so admirably painted and 
put together, that one can discover none of that " harness" and in- 
completeness which even the brilliancy of illumination is unable to 


conceal in theatrical decorations. In die evening lights appear gm» 
dually in the different windows of this artificial city of Rome, and on 
its becoming completely dark St. Peter's Church was illuminated, 
and at last, the girandola was fired off from the Castle of St. Angelo. 
To me, however, the picture, when illuminated, appeared much less 
deserving of admiration than when seen by dayligk 

In the vicinity of Liverpool, at the Earl of Derby's park, there is 
a very valuable collection of living birds, which I should have had 
much pleasure in visiting, but I was deterred from doing so on learn- 
ing that a number of troublesome formalities were, necessary before 
the requisite permission could be obtained. 

With the exception of these zoological and botanical gardens, and 
the sailing and rowing parties on the Mersey, the public amusements 
of Liverpool, as of all English towns, are extremely limited, though 
perhaps not so much so as in the manufacturing towns. There are 
two regular theatres for the cultivated classes, and an amphitheatre 
for the equestrian, military pantomimes, and other noisy pieces in 
which the lower order of playgoers delight. I went to see such a 
piece at the house in question, which is said to be calculated for the 
accommodation of 4000 spectators. The piece was called " The 
Five Stages of Intemperance; or, the Life and Death of a Drunkard" 
The first act represented the interior of the house and family of 
Mr. Jones, where the birth of a child, the hero of the piece, is cele- 
brated by plentiful libations of tea and coffee, together with singing, 
dancing, &o. In the second act, the child has grown into a school- 
boy, who plays truant, and goes with other young vagabonds to a 
public-house, where he is initiated into the mysteries of drinking 
and smoking. The third act displays the " parents' troubles. 
Edward returns home drunk for tne first time, but the offence is 
frequently repeated, and he is evidently a confirmed drunkard. 
In the fourth act we have " character lost and turned highwayman"-— 
" mpders his master." The fifth act has its " dungeon," the 
criminal's remorse, the " day of execution," an interminably long 
leave-taking of the murderer from his family, accompanied by 
the dismal music of two or three fiddles and flutes out of 
tune, reverberating sadly through the spacious building. Last of 
all came the " ignominious death of the drunkard." In Schiller's 
" Maria Stuart," there is heard, or rather the Earl of Leicester is 
supposed to hear, the sound of the fatal blow. I was curious to see 
how the execution would here be managed. It was all true to the 
life. A gallows was erected, and Jack Ketch (the popular name in 
England for the hangman) duly made his appearance, bound the 
delinquent's eyes, and suspended him (or rather a figure substituted 
for him) in the back-ground. The most remarkable to me were the 
acclamations and evident delight with which the appearance of Jack 
Ketch was greeted. "Jack Ketch! Hurrah! Jack Ketch!" as if 
the hangman had been a popular buffoon or jester. The excite- 
ment lasted even for some time, and several oranges and orange- 


peek were thrown on the stage, which Jack Ketch might take at he 
pleased — as insults or as marks of homage. I observed, however* 
that he took them simply for what they were, for he picked up one 
of the oranges, and with a slight bow in token of gratitude, put the 
fruit in his pocket There followed a second piece, " The Drunkard 
Reclaimed; or, Teetoialism Triumphant" but I had no inclination 
to stop and see it, for the first piece had been quite enough, as a spe- 
cimen of the way in which the cause of temperance is promoted on 
the stage of an English popular theatre; and I think I shall not be 
much overstepping the limits of truth, if I assert that one in four of the 
spectators of this temperance drama, were to all appearance drunk, 
and conducted themselves accordingly. 

Such scenes afford no very advantageous idea of the moral con- 
dition of the lower classes of Liverpool, and the immense number of 
imprisonments that yearly take place, axe not calculated to weaken 
the impression. According to the report of the Bev.T. Carter, chap- 
lain of the borough gaol, no less than 5485 persons were confined 
in prison in the course of 1841, making one prisoner for every 
twenty»four inhabitants, and yet many arrests at station-bouses, &c, 
are not here included. A Mr. Walmsley, a few years ago, estimated 
the losses sustained annually by the people of Liverpool from direct 
theft, at about 230,0002. In 1836 a sub-committee was appointed 
by the town council, to investigate the truth of this estimate, and 
the report of the committee declared, that so far was the statement 
from being overcharged, that the losses were in feet still greater. 
According to this report, the cost of her thieves to Liverpool is as 
follows: — 

1000 grown-up thieves, living entirely by depredations on the public, 
and gaining each, on an average, 40s. a week, amount annually to . £104,000 

500 grown-up persons, living partly by labour and partly by theft, and 

gaining, on an average, 20& a week by thieving 26,000 

1200 juvenile thieves, at 10s. a week 91,200 

The thieves who attach themselves to the docks are 
enumerated separately, as:— 

70 notorious young thieves under fifteen, making weekly 20s. each, 
and consequently in the year 3,640 

50 hawkers and receivers of stolen goods, either stealing themselves, 
or encouraging ethers to do so, and making 20s. each 2,600 

100 dock wallopers, at 20s. each M00 

400 men who assist in unloading ships, and steal either from the pas- 
sengers or in some otheT way, to t^ vahie of 60s. a week each €2,400 

Total for one year £238,040 

or 1,631,280 dollars. 

However roughly this calculation may have been made, dealing 
wholly with averages and round numbers, it is probablv not altoge- 
ther undeserving of belief, seeing it has been made out by men well 
acquainted with the affairs of the town. The only crime here taken 
cognisance of is theft. Swindling, and other frauds and violations 
of confidence, are left unnoticed. Then we have to consider the 


many indirect losses and expenses to which so high a rate of crimi- 
nality must lead; — public and private watchmen, police, prisons, and 
other measures for L securit/of property to be LrintaLd;.rnany 
business transactions remaining unrealised, through apprehensions of 
fraud and theft; and many individuals deterred from settling in the 
town, in consequence of its bad name. In this way the indirect 
loss occasioned by this vast amount of crime, may amount to mil" 
lions. In the same report it is stated, for instance, that the houses 
of ill-fame, whose inmates, for the most part, are addicted to theft, 
cost the town 499,200/. In one house of the kind alone, " the rob- 
beries brought before the magistrates in twelve months, involved no 
less a sum than 1000/." 

The last day I spent in Liverpool was a Sunday, and I took 
advantage of the day to visit several churches and chapels, or 
" places of worship," as the English call them. They are very 
numerous, but none of them are at all remarkable. The rise of 
Liverpool happened in the eighteenth century, when few churches 
were built, and none of any importance. The town has inherited 
nothing from the church-building middle ages, and could, therefore, 
derive no advantage from the church-restoring age — the nineteenth 
century. Including all the innumerable sects which exist in Eng- 
land, the Primitive Methodists, the Wesleyan Methodists, the In- 
dependent Methodists, and the New Connexion Methodists; the 
Baptists and the Welsh Baptists ; the Roman Catholics, the Anglo- 
Catholics, and the mere Catholics, together with many others, whose 
names I confess myself unable to enumerate; there are in Liverpool 
157 churches and chapels, a really large number even for so large a 
town. The Jewish synagogue makes the number 158. The dis- 
senters are in possession of the greater part. In most of these 
churches and chapels, divine service begins in the morning at half 
past ten, and in the evening at half past six. The Roman Catholics 
only have different hours. The constant increase of the Roman 
Catholic churches is a remarkable phenomenon. There are now 
about ten of them, and they are chiefly built for the poor Irish, who 
are to be found in great numbers in Liverpool. Perhaps in no 
other English town are there so many Welsh as in Liverpool, where 
there are no less than twenty chapels in which sermons are preached 
in the Welsh dialect. It is admitted, however, that this number 
of Welsh chapels is far greater than is required. 

I shall refrain from a description of the marvellous kinds of divine 
service which I witnessed in some of these chapels, for were I to tell 
the naked truth on this point, I am sure that many of my readers 
would look upon me as guilty of a very unbecoming burlesque. 
One need not, however, go to church in Liverpool to hear a ser- 
mon, for there are preachers to be found preaching in the public 
streets, in the squares, and on the quays about the docks. They 
are to be seen thus engaged, in fair weather and foul, and are 
mostly themselves of the lower classes. They mount upon a tar- 


barrel, or a bale of cotton, and preach and pray in a loud voice, and 
with the greatest perseverance, whether they succeed in collecting a 
circle of listeners or not I listened to one Methodist, who had 
selected a pulpit such as I have described. He announced, in a 
sonorous voice, that he had once been himself a drunken blaspheming 
sailor, and his looks certainly bore out his words; but his under- 
standing, he went on to say, had been enlightened, and his eyes 
opened. " And you, do you now go, and have your eyes opened. 
Go, and be converted, and you also will see what truth is, even as I, 
a miserable sinner, have seen it. But who is there that can do this 
to you ? Do you suppose I can ? I, a poor wretched sinner ! No ! 
Can your parish priest? No, he may be a very good man, but he has 
none but human force. It is Christ alone who can open your eyes 
for you. Hold still to him, and he will bring the work about, as he 
has brought it about with me, sinner that I am. Tou need do no- 
thing towards it yourselves but stand still. The thing will cost you 
no trouble, no labour, no pain, no shilling, no penny. Keep your- 
selves still, and your eyes will be opened, and you will yourselves 
wonder at the glory and the splendour that will be unfolded to 
you." Policemen, armed with their staves, hover about the groups 
that gather around such preachers, because disturbances sometimes 
take place. Properly speaking, however, the police ought to be 
instructed to prevent such people from preaching at all. These fel- 
lows have such confined and grovelling notions of religion, that they 
are utterly unconscious of their own unworthiness to pronounce the 
sacred words and names that are constantly on their lips, and are 
bawled out by them in the most familiar manner in the public 

The most remarkable church in Liverpool is the floating chapel, 
lying in the middle of the docks. It is a large East Indiaman, of 
800 tons, that has been bought by the Bethel Union, and fitted up 
for a congregation of 600 persons. 1 found here white, black, and 
brown Christians assembled in prayer. The congregation consisted 
chiefly of sailors. 

The silent "KWligh Sunday is followed by the animated Monday, 
the greatest drinking day in the week, and the busy Saturday has 
gone before, the great market day of England. On this day it is, 
that a stranger should visit the markets, which offer the most in- 
teresting scenes of popular bustle and traffic. These market halls, 
things unknown to us in Germany, because with us the articles dis- 
posed of in such places, are usually bought and sold in the open 
air, are in England also of recent origin. In almost every Eng- 
lish town a market hall was shown me, and I was always told at 
the same time that it had only been recently erected. The market- 
halls of Liverpool, buildings admirably suited to the purpose they 
are intended for, were all erected in 1822, 1831, and 1841. The 
largest is St. John's market. This is a building covering 8200 
square yards, and must therefore contain space enough to allow 

09 WALBfiL 

8000 persona to buy and sell there with tolerable convenience. The 
light roof is supported by 116 slender iron columns, and like most 
of the distinguished buildings of the town, has been constructed 
after the design of a Liverpool architect, Mr. Foster, whose name 
was continually repeated to me, and whose works, wherever I saw 
them, appeared excellent o me. Li the evening the whole is lighted 
with gas, and looks really very brilliant, considering the homely 
nature of the merchandise exposed there for sale, 


I cannot tell how many flags were hoisted on the following 
morning at the different piers of Liverpool, to inform the several 
passengers where to look for the Glasgow boat, the Isle of Man 
boat, the Dublin boat, the Cork boat, the Pembroke boat, and all 
the rest of them. I for my part ranged myself under the flag of 
Bangor, the most frequented place of transit, to those about to visit 
North Wales. Uninvited assistants, among whom no doubt were 
some of the thieves of whom I spoke a few pages back, together 
with beggars, and other importunate solicitors, surrounded us, 
and took care that our roses on that morning should not be without 
thorns. Newsmen offered us the news of the same morning. 
Others had telescopes for those who wished to contemplate the 
Welsh coast at their ease. Oranges and gingerbread, with other 
delicacies of the same kind, were hawked about, and altogether the 
noise and apparent confusion were enough to make a man run 
away in despair. The steamers, meanwhile, were humming, hiss- 
ing, and shrieking around us, but with all their noise and well- 
known vigour, they lay not the less quiet and orderly at their 
several places, and gradually as the ear and eye became familiarised 
with it, the noisy bustling scene became a source of amusement and 
pleasurable excitement. 

" The mouth of the Mersey" is armed with light-houses, land 
marks, beacons, telegraph stations, and private signal poles, as a 
mouth with teeth. The Kock Lighthouse is the most important, the 
most solid, and the handsomest of all these erections, so I was not 
surprised to learn that Mr. Foster had contributed the design. It 
is built of hard granite from the island of Anglesey. The stones are 
all dovetailed into one another, and the whole has been united into 
one solid mass by a cement of volcanic origin. The coloured light 
thrown out at night upon the ocean, is said to be one of the most 
brilliant along the whole English coast. When we passed the 
place the windows were carefully closed, that the powerful re- 
flecting mirrors might not, by concentrating the rays of the sun, 
act as a burning-glass, and so perhaps give occasion to a fire some* 
where or other. 

On account of the frequent fogs to which the English coast is 

WALES. 59 

liable, peculiar precautionary arrangements have been deemed ne» 
cessary, that will probably never be thought necessary on the con* 
fines of more sunny regions, such as Arabia, Persia, &c. Among 
these means of precaution, the fog bells deserve to be first men- 
tioned. These bells are fixed upon empty casks or buoys, and as 
these are tossed to and fro by the waves, the bells toll in single irre- 
gular strokes, to warn the seaman of his proximity to rocks and 
sandbanks, when the fog makes it impossible for him to see them, 
or even to distinguish the lighthouses. He is thus enabled, when 
he can no longer see his danger, at least to hear it. The steam* 
boats have likewise adopted precautionary signals to prevent aw£» 
dents during a fog. They have their " fog-whistles," for instance, 
which are connected with the steam-engine, and every now and 
then, in foggy weather, send forth a few shrill piercing notes over 
the bosom of the ocean. 

We were soon out at sea, but even there on the waste of salt 
water I saw more smoking chimneys at one glance than I had seen 
altogether on the Steppes of Southern Russia. The chimneys I 
allude to were those of the various steamers hastening to and from 
Liverpool. Each observed its line of way, as strictly as if it had 
been marked out for her by a regular macadamised road. Our line 
passed at no great distance from the north coast of Wales. We 
looked into the mouth of the Dee, a wide, hollow, lifeless space, 
whence nothing proceeds, now that Chester has become so inte* 
resting to the antiquarian. The weather was beautiful as we 
rounded Orme's Head, a Welsh promontory that stretches far into 
the sea, while sea birds and rock-pigeons nutter around its chalky 
summit. We then passed into the Bay of Beaumaris, and dropped 
anchor in the middle of the Menai Strait. I landed immediately 
along with another passenger, in whose company I proposed on the 
following day to ascend Snowdon, the highest of the Welsh moun- 
tains, and with whom, meanwhile, I started for Caernarvon, the 
more immediate place of our destination. We hired a small boat 
in which we sailed a little way up the strait, and then landed at a 
place whence a carriage conveyed us along die coast to Caernarvon. 
On the watery element, where we might so easily have got wet, we 
remained perfectly dry, but we had scarcely set foot on dry land 
when we were drenched to the skin, a heavy rain coming on, which 
never ceased till we and our open carriage had arrived at Caer- 
narvon, where we were well pleased to obtain at length the shelter 
of a roof, a shelter of which we stood no longer in need when we 
bad it, for as soon as we were housed the rain ceased. 

We saw the Menai Strait under very unfavourable circumstances; 
nevertheless we saw enough to convince us of the interest and 
agreeable variety afforded by its banks, beautifully wooded accli- 
vities, while the naked mountains rise in stately majesty behind. 
The Anglesey side is more flat and monotonous; and indeed An- 
glesey, though on the maps it appears as a part of Wales, is of a 

60 WALES. 

conformation so different from that of the principality, that it 
might with fairness be treated as a different country. The Menai 
Strait is always animated by the presence of vessels engaged in the 
exportation of slates, the staple produce of Wales. These Welsh 
slates are of such excellent quality, that they have obtained 
the preference throughout England, and every little harbour along 
the coast is full of vessels taking in cargoes of slates. 

It is to a work of human hands, however, to a work of our own 
times, that the Menai Strait owes its wide-spread fame. I allude to 
the Menai Bridge, which crosses the narrowest part of the strait, 
and unites Anglesey and Caernarvonshire, but which was built chiefly 
as an improvement to the main road through North Wales and An- 
glesey to Holyhead, whence the principal packets start for Ireland. 
This narrowest part of the Menai Strait is supposed to have formerly 
been an isthmus, for even in the time of the Romans, it is said, the 
Roman and British cavalry were able to ride across at low water. 
At present the channel is deep enough to allow coasting vessels of 
all sizes to pass through, at any period of the tide. This bridge, as 
most of my readers are probably aware, is a chain suspension bridge, 
but its dimensions are so enormous, that they cannot fail to excite 
wonder. It is supported by sixteen chains, each of the length of 
1714 feet, and made fast at each end in the solid rock. These chains 
are supported at each end by two immense columns, whose bases 
rest in the sea. From the surface of the sea, at high water, these 
columns rise 156 feet, but to the roadway of the bridge only 103 
feet. On the top of each column is a large roller, over which the 
chains are passed, to allow of the contraction of the metal in winter, 
and its expansion in summer. The length of the roadway of the 
bridge is 1000 feet, and it is borne by 796 iron bars made fast to 
the chains. Coasting vessels can pass under the bridge with fell 
their sails set. 

Magnificent, however, as all these figures appear on paper, the 
proportions of the bridge often produce an impression of disappoint- 
ment when seen for the first time. The mountains of Wales, the 
vast plains of Anglesey, the long Menai Strait, and the open ocean 
on the other side, are all of such vast dimensions, that the wonder- 
ful achievement of human science appears lessened by the compari- 
son; but when we come close to the bridge, when we pass over it, 
and yet more when we sail under it, an impression is produced 
quite in accordance with the greatness of the work, and the genius 
which alone could triumph over the difficulties of the undertaking. 

It was towards evening that we arrived at Caernarvon, the chief 
town of the county, and one of the largest in Wales. Like most 
Welsh towns, it contains a mixed population of native Welsh and 
English residents, and being surrounded by slate quarries, its chief in that article, one apparently insignificant, but which, 
like many a branch of British manufacture, acquires immediate im- 
portance in our eyes, when we are told whither it is carried for sale. 

WALES. 61 

Ask a Birmingham button maker whither his buttons go, and his im- 
mediate answer will probably be, — " All over the world, sir." Ask a 
similar question of a maker of crockery in the Staffordshire Potteries, 
and you will receive the same answer; and here in Caernarvon, when 
I asked where all the slates went to, I was again told that they went 
" all over the world." They are so excellent, it seems, break into 
such large pieces, are so elastic, so little apt to crumble, so black, and 
their colour, at the same time, so durable that there is a demand for 
them " all over the world," particularly of late years, so much so that 
slates have become the staple article of produce for North, as iron is 
for South Wales. A native writer, speaking of the prospects held 
out by this trade of recent growth, says: " Among the various causes 
which, in the last few years have effected a great alteration in the 
condition of North Wales, those most deserving of mention are the 
slates and date quarries, and the great and growing demand for the 
excellent material found in this part of the country. The several 
quarries give occupation to some thousands of workmen, promoting, 
at the same time the well being of all classes, and leading to the im- 
provement of roads, and to the establishment of other conveniences 
for travellers and internal communication. These circumstances have 
given birth in North Wales to a spirit of activity and speculation, 
that must lead to important results, and has, indeed, in some mea- 
sure already had that effect. The means of land and water carriage 
have been greatly increased, and this remark applies particularly to 
the increased number of steamboats. New interests starting into life, 
compete with the old establishments long in possession of public 
patronage. Good inns and public carriages spring up in the wildest 
districts and the most remote mountain passes. Commerce has 
already so far advanced in its work of improvement, that many arti- 
cles of luxury and comfort, rarely seen here a few years ago, and 
scarcely known among us, even to the world of fashion, are now to be 
seen in the greatest abundance. 

In all directions, in this part of the country, the mountains may 
be seen to have been bitten into by the slate quarries. The largest 
and most famous of them all is that of Llandegais, six miles from 
Bangor, formerly the property of Lord Penrhyn, but now of Mr. 
Pennant. The number of workmen employed there (in 1842) ex- 
ceeded 2000; a gentleman from Liverpool, commercially connected 
with the quarry, said the number was at least 2500. ^ this quarry 
has its own seaport, Port Penrhyn, capable of sheltering vessels of 
300 and 400 tons, whence the dates are shipped direct for North 
America, as well as for all parts of Great Britain. This mav afford 
some idea of the importance of the quarry, as well as the met that 
the railroads, and inclined planes, constructed for the conveyance 
of the slates from the quarry to the harbour, cost Lord Penrhyn no 
less a sum than 170,000/. Immense masses of slate are here detached 
by the aid of powder, or of hammer, wedge, and crowbar, and the 
rude shapeless mass is then fashioned on the spot into the forms in 

68 WALES. 

which it is afterwards intended to be used, into school dates and 
slates for roofs, into chimney-pieces, gravestones, table slabs, &c. 

No other slate quarry is equal in importance to that of Mr. Pen- 
nant, yet I was told of several that employed 500 workmen, and of 
One in which upwards of 1000 were employed. The several quarries 
alone, of which the produce was shipped from the town of Caer- 
narvon, I was assured, gave occupation to at least 2300 men. Slates 
form, in fact, the chiefarticle of export from the place, and indeed 
the only one, with the exception of some copper from the neighbour- 
ing copper mines. About the pretty new quay I saw nothing but 
slates, and the vessels, large and small, that lay in the picturesque 
harbour, were all going to receive cargoes of countesses, marchio- 
nesses, princesses, duchesses, and queens. These are the vain-glorious 
titles that have been given to the various descriptions of an article 
in itself of so little intrinsic value. Nor must it be supposed that 
these are mere fanciful titles applied by an individual; they are the 
names current in the trade, and in the price currents the several 
descriptions of slates are regularly ranged according to the table of 
precedence, as: Imperials, Queens, Princesses, Duchesses, Mar- 
chionesses, Ladies, Fat Ladies, and a few others equally whimsical. 

Wherever any thing new springs up in England, a number of 
active hands and inventive heads are immediately in requisition, to 
improve and extend the sphere of its utility, ouch has been the 
case with the article of slates. This stone, though not to be reckoned 
among the precious ones, has the advantage of great cheapness, and 
of being easily worked, and somebody in London has lately invented 
a procef. of policing it, so as to give it the appearance of the finest 
black marble. Another has succeeded in turning it, and certainly 
these inventions seem calculated to increase very much the demand 
for the article, particularly in England, which is any thing but rich 
in the finer descriptions of stone. As slate can be split into very 
thin tablets, there is no difficulty in imagining that it may be worked 
up into neater and more delicate pieces of furniture and ornament than 
stones of a more brittle kind. I saw in London, at the exhibition of 
slate furniture, wardrobes, escritoires, tables, &c, of the most elegant 
form and workmanship. They looked like the finest ebony and black 
marble. The chief uses, however, to which slates are applied are to 
covering the roofs of houses, and then as tombstones and chimney- 
pieces; but it is probable that they will, in time, come to be applied 
to many other uses. 

Caernarvon Castle is the most interesting object which the town 
has to show to strangers. It is one of the largest and handsomest 
ruined castles that Wales, rich as she is in rums, has to boast of. 
This ruin lay almost opposite the door of our inn, and we accord- 
ingly climbed up to it that very evening. The castle, though it is 
said to have been built within the space of one year, does not look 
less solid than other castles of the middle ages, and in spite of the 
six centuries during which the tooth of Time, and the artillery of 
man have been at work upon it, the castle, with its massy walls and 

WALK*. 63 

numerous turrets, hoick itself rtfll stately and upright, and continues 
to present a vary imposing appearance. It is the castle, famous 
in British history, that was built by King Edward I., the con- 
queror of Wales, and in which his wife, Queen Eleonora, was de- 
livered of the first Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward H. 
Hie room is still shown in which this important birth occurred. 
The king, in presenting the native Welch prince to the proud chiefs 
of the country, used the Welch words Eych dyn (this is the man), 
which have since been preserved as the motto of each succeeding 
Prince of Wales. The words are now written Ich <&*, whence 
many have supposed them to be of German origin, and to signify, 
" I serve." There is another version of the story. Over these enig- 
matical words wave the ostrich feathers which constitute the crest of 
the Prince of Wales, said to owe its origin to the plume which Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, at Greasy, plucked from the helmet of King 
John of Bohemia. In England, not only the Prince of Wales, how- 
ever, but almost every child, wears ostrich feathers, if not in his crest 
at least in his hat, and I should like to know, whether this mass of 
ostrich feathers, with which the heads of little English children are 
so overladen, may not be in some measure a fashion taken from the 
prince's plume. In an English caricature the Utile Prince of Wales 
may always be known by his nodding feathers. 

From the Eagle Tower, to which we ascend by 158 steps, our 
eyes wandered over the flat plains of Anglesey, beyond which the 
son was just sinking into the sea. I remained till the sun had set 
completely, and till a number of small white owls, the resident in- 
habitants of the castle, began to flutter about the tower, and then 
abandoned myself to the pleasure of studying the tones of a language 
entirely new to me, but which here in North Wales continues to be 
everywhere spoken in its ancient purity. 

People generally suppose that as in a language there are usually 
from twenty to twenty-four letters, there are only the same number 
of tones; but these are liable to so many modifications, that it may 
be taken for granted, there are in every language, at least 100 ele- 
mentary tones, and if the different languages spoken in the world are 
attended to, many thousand such tones will be discovered. I gave 
myself a great deal of trouble yet could not at all succeed in articu- 
lating the marvellously rough and difficult sounds of the Welsh 
tongue, and my English companion seemed to find the thing just as 
difficult as I did. The flf, so liquid and melting from Spanish lips, is 
remarkably hard and difficult in Welsh. The / appeared to me to be 
followed by a guttural sound from the very bottom of the throat, 
except at the beginning of a word, where the guttural seemed to 
precede the /; and yet it was not a purely guttural tone, for when I 
listened very attentively I thought I could distinguish something like 
the sound of a t before the guttural. We also encounter again in 
the Welsh language the tone which gives foreigners so much trouble 
kk English, and which is represented by tf in English, and by dd in 

64 WALES. 

Welsh. This sound the English certainly did not receive either 
from the Angles, the Saxons, or the Normans, but have probably 
retained from the original Celtic language. 

South Wales is less mountainous and much more anglicised than 
the northern half of the principality, where, in the wild secluded 
valleys the old Celtic Welsh or Kymbrish has been preserved in 
greater purity, and not the language only, but the manners of the 
people likewise. Thus in a large town like Caernarvon, half the 
population speak only Welsh, and in the country round about, few 
people are to be found who can understand more than a few words 
of English. I entered several cottages near the town, but could no- 
where make myself understood. Even the children who begged on 
the road had but two words of English — " halfpenny, sir" — which 
they pronounced so well, we were surprised to find their knowledge 
extend no further. Even at the places where we changed horses, 
in this part of Wales and in Anglesey, I always observed that the 
coachman spoke to the ostlers and other servants of the inn, only in 
Welsh. I never made a similar observation in Ireland or in the 
Scottish Highlands, on any main road. Even in our inn at Caer- 
narvon, the servants spoke but a broken kind of English, and never 
addressed one another except in Welsh. Nothing like this either do 
I remember to have seen in Ireland or in the Highlands. Yet con- 
sidering the relative positions of the different parts of the United 
Kingdom, it is certainly surprising that the Celtic language should 
have offered so much more energetic a resistance to the English in 
Wales than either in Scotland or Ireland. In Ireland it is supposed 
that only one-third of the population are able to speak Irish, and this 
calculation, many think, is rather over than under the truth. I have 
in no English work met with any similar estimate respecting Wales, 
yet I think I am far within the mark, if I reverse the calculation, 
and assume that, in North Wales at least, not more than one- 
third of the inhabitants can speak English. I have already men- 
tioned that in Liverpool there were no less than twenty chapels 
in which the Welsh language was used, and yet Liverpool is not 
a Welsh town; neither in Cork nor in Dublin would there be 
found any thing approaching to that number of chapels in which 
sermons are delivered in the native Irish language. Firm, how- 
ever, as has been the resistance offered by the Welsh language, it 
has, of late years, been giving way very rapidly. The kindred 
dialects of Cumberland, Lancashire, and Cornwall, were a kind of 
outwork to Welsh, and they vanished altogether, early in the last 
century. Since then the Welsh language has been constantly 
attacked in its own fastnesses. English luxury, going hand in 
hand with industry and commerce, has extended even into the 
mountains; the roads and other means of internal intercourse have 
been improved; but it is by the establishment of good schools that 
the amalgamation with the mother country will be completed. In 
these schools, now springing up in all parts, the Welsh language, it 

WALES. 65 

is true, is e?ery where used as a medium of instruction, nevertheless, 
as the knowledge of English is felt to cany with it many advantages, 
when the people have been taught to read and write Welsh with 
facility, and have had their intelligence awakened, the importance 
of the predominant language will become moire and more sensibly 
felt by diem, and greater efforts wiQ constantly be made to ac- 
quire it. 

My companion with whom I spent the evening at Caernarvon, 
was of opinion that a close affinity existed between die Welsh and 
die Tyrolese. He told me he had been in the Tyrol, and had there 
remarked the admiration with which his servant, a native of Wales, 
observed everywhere the Tyrolese, their manners, and their cos* 
tome, and everywhere discovered something that reminded him of 
home. In some of the valleys of the Tyrol, he said, his Welsh ser- 
vant was even able to understand the language of the place, and to 
make himself understood by the people. Upon these facts my com- 
panion grounded an opinion, that the Tyrolese and the Welsh must 
be one and the same people. His opinion seemed to me the more 
deserving of attention, as ne was no scholar, nor at all pre-occupied 
by learned theories. He understood nothing of German, knew very 
little of the distribution of the Celtic race, and nothing of the various 
dialects spoken in the Tyrolese valleys. In these dialects, even 
among those who speak German, it is a well-known fact that a great 
many old Celtic words occur. Indeed, a part of the Tyrolese may 
be looked on as a tribe of German-speaking Celts. These Celtic 
words, no doubt, caught the ear of the Welsh servant. Much that 
is Celtic, it is equally true, has been preserved in the manners of the 
Tyrolese, and I am not surprised that the Welsh servant should be 
struck by a multitude of things that reminded him of home. The 
love of music, poetry, and song, is common to the Welsh and the 
Tyrolese, not merely because they are both mountaineers, but, pro- 
bably in consequence of their common Celtic origin. In the cos- 
tume I also was struck by many similarities, suck as the round* 
high, tapering, black beaver hat of the Welsh women, which is seen 
nowhere else in Great Britain, nor anywhere in Germany, except in 
the TyroL The Welsh women enjoy also in England the same repu- 
tation for personal attraction, or rather for the want of it, as the 
Tyrolese in Germany. In some parts of Wales, too, I am told, the 
men wear the same kind of short breeches as in the Tyrol, covering 
merely the thighs, without reaching to the knees. This naturally 
makes one think of the kilt of a Scottish Highlander, who disdains 
breeches altogether, seeming to indicate among the Celtic tribes, the 
most remote from one another, a general distaste for the nether 
habiliment. When I then thought of the bacon dumplings of the 
Tyrolese, of their millet porridge, buttermilk, and hard bread, and 
then turned to Leigh's book on Wales, and read that the Welsh 
" are very abstemious, bacon, oatmeal porridge, sour milk, potatoes, 
and a hard, heavy kind of black bread, being their chief food, I 


66 WALES, 

was almost inclined to agree with my companion that there must be 
a very close affinity between the two races. tl The Tyrolese are 
famous in Germany," said I, " for their quickness to quarrel and 
take offence." " There we have it again. Precisely the character 
of our Welshmen : quarrelsome, violent, a most violent people." — 
Temperate as the Welsh are, in general, it seems they are apt to 
be guilty of much intemperance at their weddings, fairs, and other 
festivities, when explosions and quarrels are by no means uncommon. 
Camden, perhaps, may have had some notion of this affinity between 
the Welsh and the Tyrolese, when he spoke of the Welsh moun- 
tains as the Alpes Britannicae, a title which the sublimity of nature 
in this part of the world certainly does not warrant. We might 
just as reasonably call the Lake of Constance the Bavarian ocean, as 
magnify the Welsh hills into Alps. 

On the following morning we started for Snowdon, the tallest of 
these Welsh Alps, whose summit is about ten miles from Caer- 
narvon. To reach the foot of the mountain we hired a small gig, 
and, as the morning was beautiful, we had an agreeable drive to the 
inn in the vale and village of Llanberris, which to Snowdon is 
what Chamouny is to Mont Blanc. Here we prepared ourselves 
for the ascent by a hearty breakfast, and then joined a large party 
of English sight-seers, of whom there is always a considerable 
influx into Wales at this season of the yea/, intent on seeing all 
the waterfalls and views of the country, not forgetting its valleys 
and its 126 ruined castles. These tourists have increased greatly 
in numbers since the facilities of internal intercourse have been so 
greatly increased. They are mostly people whose time or pecuniary 
means do not allow of continental excursions, and who are there- 
fore forced to content themselves with looking on the beauties of 
their own country. Be this as it may, I was myself very well sa- 
tisfied with my companions, agreeable, well-bred people, who en- 
tered with the true spirit into the enjoyment of the scenes around 

Behind our inn was a slate quarry, to which we first directed our 
attention. In this quarry, we were told, upwards of 1000 persons 
were employed. There were several smaller quarries in the neigh- 
bourhood, and from all of them we heard a constant succession of 
explosions of gunpowder, and an almost uninterrupted noise caused 
by the slate slabs rolling down the hills. That on which the great 
quarry was situated, had already been cut into a succession of ter- 
races to the height of 1000 feet, connected by a flight of steps each 
a hundred feet nigh, and on each the busy work of breaking and 
blowing up the stone was going on merrily. On several the blocks 
of slate were undergoing their metamorphoses into duchesses and 
princesses, and were tnen sent down, in large masses along the slanting 
railroads that wound themselves around the hill. One of their chief 
customers, some of the persons employed on the works told me, 
was the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, where, to judge from 

WALEff. 67 

the great demand that has lately sprung up, almost every house 
must by this time be roofed with slates. 

la the vale of Llanbeixis are two long narrow lakes, in which, I 
was informed " real beauties " of fish were to be caught, but the 
land beauty that was wont to charm these water beauties from their 
limpid retreat has quitted the scene of her protracted triumphs. She 
was a woman of great celebrity, and died here in 1801, at the age of 
105. Her name was Margaret uch Evan, but she was generally 
known by the more familiar appellation of Peg gy. According to 
Mr. Pennant, one of the best describers of Wales, Peggy had at 
least a dozen of sporting dogs on her establishment, and all ex- 
cellent in their kind. She killed every year a good round number 
of foxes, plied her oar with a vigorous hand, and was the undis- 
puted lady of the lakes. She played the fiddle moreover, admirably, 
and was well acquainted with all the old Welsh music. Nor did 
she neglect the mechanical arts, for she was a good carpenter, and 
at the age of seventy she was still so good a wrestler, that few young 
men would venture to try a throw with her. She shod her own 
horses, made her own shoes, and built and repaired the boats in 
which she used to convey the copper down the lake from the 
mines. All the neighbouring bards of the 18th century (she was 
born in 1696) had tuned their lyres to celebrate her achievements, 
yet she gave her hai^d at last to the most effeminate of all her 
admirers, as if determined, even in matrimony, to maintain the 
superiority with which she felt nature had invested her. 

The heights by which we ascended to the summit of Snowdon 
were perfectly naked, and without a vestige of wood. At the bot- 
tom the valley was covered with fragments of rock, but a little 
further up was grass, a great relief to the pedestrian. These pastures 
were everywhere occupied by sheep, grazing in a perfectly wild state, 
unguarded either by dog or shepherd. The animals, we were told, 
were accustomed to this way of life, and if taken into England began 
immediately to pine away. Nay at times when carried away and 
sold at the other side of the border, they would often run away, and 
find their way back to their native lulls. Formerly goats were 
more generally kept than sheep, and Wales was as famous for her 
goats, as the Tyrol for her chamois, and goats are still every- 
where to be seen here ; but in proportion as agriculture and horti- 
culture improve and extend, the goat falls into disfavour, and the 
sheep supersedes him. The sheep is not only more useful, but also 
mucn less mischievous, the goat being not only a bad gardener, but 
also a bad farmer. 

A little higher up, we were shown a level meadow, placed at a to- 
lerably high elevation, and called Consultation Hill, or Foylcynh- 
norion, where the old Welsh chiefs were wont to assemble and de^ 
liberate, when at war with the English. The meadow bears a 
striking resemblance to the Riitli, on which the three Swiss heroes 

swore weir patriotic oath. 



68 WALES. 

The summits of these hills are generally moist, and even after the 
dry summer of 1842, we still found places that were wet. This hu- 
midity and consequent slipperiness of their hills, gave the ancient 
Welsh many advantages in defending them against their Saxon 
Assailants, who found it difficult to maintain their footing on such 
unaccustomed ground. 

On our way, we passed several copper mines, among which lay 
many small lakes, the water of which had been dyed green by the 
metal. The place was surrounded by sheep, but the creatures, they 
assured us, had too much sagacity ever to taste the poisonous water. 
There are numbers of these small lakes among the mountains, and 
some even in very elevated parts. Two of the Snowdon lakes en- 
joyed at one time considerable fame on the strength of popular belief, 
that assigned to one of them a floating and erratic island, and to the 
other a stock of one-eyed fishes. 

Like most elevated points, — like Mont Blanc, the Imaus, Dava- 
laghiri, and others, which the people are accustomed to see wrapped 
in snow, it is to snow that Snowdon (the snow down) stands in- 
debted for its name. The name is Saxon, but the old'Cambrian name, 
Craig Eryri, has, according to Camden, precisely the same significa- 
tion. It is strange that while so many objects of minor importance 
should have retained their native denominations, that the whole 
country (Wales) and the highest mountain in it, should have been 
named by the conquerors. Wales is a general Germanic term for 
the Celtic lands ; the old British name is Cambria, or Kymria. 

The mountain tapered at last into a complete cone, terminating 
in a summit, on which there was just room enough to spread out a 
tent for the protection of some mathematical instruments. The 
soldiers in charge of this tent, erected with a view to a new survey 
of the country, had constructed a small path of stones around their 
canvass mansion, and thus it became easy to enjoy the prospect 
on every side. The officer of engineers in command of the post 
had pitched several tents, a little lower down, for the accommoda- 
tion of himself and his men. 

For an extensive prospect Snowdon is quite a unique point in 
England. There are higher mountains in Scotland, for Snowdon 
is only 3571 feet high, and Ben Nevis 4370, but these Scotch 
mountains, though higher, enjoy a much more limited prospect, 
because they are either hemmed in by other mountains, or are situ- 
ated at the extremity of Great Britain, so that the prospect from 
their summits ranges chiefly over the ocean, which affords but little 
variety. Snowdon, on the contrary, lies right in the centre of the 
British world, and commands from its summit, views at once of 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, and of the intermediate 
islands of Anglesey and Man. The atmosphere around these Eng- 
lish mountains, to be sure, is seldom clear enough to allow one the 
full enjoyment of the whole horizon. The officer told me that 
during the two months he had spent on Snowdon, he had not seen 

WALES* 69" 

the coast of Ireland more than four times, and yet the summer in 
England, as elsewhere, had been a remarkably beautiful one. The 
highest point to which the thermometer had risen during the months 
of July and August, had been seventy-four degrees of Fahrenheit. 
We had on the whole very favourable weather, for we were neither 
incommoded by fog nor rain, but large masses of cloud swept by the 
summit, affording us only at intervals delightful views of the slate 
teeming mountains of Wales, or the Irish Sea, covered with sailing 
vessels and steamers, and of the flat and sandy Isles of Anglesey and 
Man. Our officer of engineers told us that the breed of eagles on 
Snowdon had now been completely extirpated, though many of the 
birds were still to be found there only a few years ago. Even the 
old Cambrian name of the mountain, Craig Eryri, which, according 
to Camden, as I have already said, signifies the same as Snowdon, 
is derived by others from another Welsh word, from Craig Eryrod, 
or the Hill of the Eagles. 

On our return we visited several of the huts of the Welsh moun- 
taineers, of the " Kymrag, Kymrag," as they called themselves, 
when, with a shake of the nead, they endeavoured to intimate their 
ignorance of the English language in which we addressed them. 
These huts, which, on account of their wretchedness, are spoken of 
by the English with little respect, are nevertheless very superior to 
the cabins of the Irish peasantry, or of the Scottish Highlanders, 
and reminded me strongly of the Russian houses in the Ukraine, 
partly on account of the manner in which they were whitewashed 
all over. The Welsh, I was told, had inherited from their forefa- 
thers, the ancient Silures, the habit of whitewashing their houses 
every year. This gives them at least the appearance of great neat- 
ness, sometimes indeed too much so, for in their zeal to make all 
things white, they often whitewash wall, roof, window-frames, and 
door, and even then extend their favours to hedge, pigsty, and 
every other dependency of the little establishment. 

In the afternoon, we extended our excursions further into the 
interior of Wales. We hired a large open carriage, sufficient for 
the accommodation of our whole party, and drove through the cele- 
brated Pass of Llanberris, arriving, towards evening, at Beddgelart, 
a delightful little place to the south of Snowdon. The Welsh must 
really be a very pious people, to judge from the fact that the names 
of more than half their towns and villages are composed with the 

r" ble Han, which signifies church. On my map of Caermarthen- 
, I find sixty-three names of places, and forty-two of them, 
consequently two-thirds, are composed with llan. 

The Pass of Llanberris (the Welsh call it Cwm Glas, or the Blue 
Valley) is a very wild piece of mountain scenery, and my London 
companions were in a constant state of wonder and delight as they 
contemplated it. Nevertheless, there were too many small frag- 
ments of rock, and too few openings on a large scale, to allow of 

70 WALES. 

this pass being placed on a level with any of the mighty passes of 
our Alps. Then the rocks are altogether naked and desolate, and 
there is rio soft scenery to set off the wilder parts, and make us feel 
the beauties of both by the contrast. The half-wild sheep, of which 
I have already spoken, were seen scattered over all the surrounding 
mountains and rocks. 

Beddgelart is a pretty little village, surrounded by fresh meadows 
and fine large trees, and is charmingly situated in the centre of an 
amphitheatre of hills, at a point wnere three valleys meet. We 
found there an inn with all the comforts and accommodations of an 
English country-house, and as much life and bustle as an exchange. 
It was fair day, and a multitude of people were collected from the 
surrounding country ; " most violent people," but virtuous withal, 
if we may judge from the parliamentary criminal returns, from 
which it appears, with all their quarrels, that murder, theft, and 
similar crimes, are of less frequent occurrence in Wales than in any 
other part of the United Kingdom. 

In all the twelve counties of Wales, according to the returns al- 
luded to, there were 371 persons convicted of crime in 1841, whereas, 
during the same year, there were single counties in England — Lan- 
cashire and Middlesex for instance — where the convictions were 
nearly 3000, and even above that number. 

The population of Wales that year being 911,321, it follows that 
of 2400 inhabitants, one was convicted of crime. 

In all England, exclusive of Wales, there were in that year, 
19,909 convictions, and 14,999,508 inhabitants; consequently, of 
750 inhabitants one was a criminal. 

The criminality of Wales, therefore, compared with that of Eng- 
land, was in the proportion of 750 to 2400. 

If we compare Wales with Lancashire, the most criminal of all 
the English counties, we find that the said county had in the same 
year 3137 criminals, and 1,667,024 inhabitants, consequently one 
criminal to 530 inhabitants, making a degree of criminality four 
times greater than that of Wales. 

Even if we take Westmorland, the least criminal of all the English 
counties, we find twenty-eight criminals in a population of 56,469, 
which still shows a greater degree of criminality than all Wales. 

South Wales, the more cultivated and anglicised part of the 
principality, is more fertile in crime than North Wales. The worst 
county is Glamorganshire, with 193,462 inhabitants, and 136 con- 
victions, or one criminal in 1300 inhabitants; this is a degree of 
criminality double that of all Wales, but still only half that of all 

The two counties in Wales most free from crime were Anglesey 
and Merionethshire, in each of which, during the last eight years, 
there had been, on an average, six or seven convicted criminals, 
being one for every 7000 inhabitants. 

WALES. 71 

Most of the above facts are borrowed from the retains of 1841, 
bat these are accompanied by similar returns for the eight preceding 
years, which present results nearly the same. 

We spent a very agreeable evening at Beddgelart. The brightly 
illuminated little fair, encircled by the black forms of the mountains, 
appeared to great advantage. There was a negress in a van, who 
was shown for a halfpenny, and a *' royal shooting gallery," where 
there was abundance of shooting with cross bows, with large heaps 
of hazel nuts for prizes. These seemed to afford an infinity of diver- 
sion. The peasants were mostly of short stature, with broad fresh- 
coloured cheeks, and the women, if not beautiful, were at least 
cheerful and pleasing. When, to crown the whole scene, the moons 
rose in all her majesty over this remote valley, my cockney friends 
could not control their admiration and enthusiasm, and " beauti- 
ful !" " magnificent !" " glorious !" resounded on all sides, amid the 
mountains of Beddgelart. 

Nothing interested me more strongly at our hotel than a harper 
whom I saw there, who was almost always sitting in the hall, and 
playing his old native melodies. He was a regular member of the 
establishment, engaged for the entertainment of the guests. He 
played in a masterly style, and I was never tired of listening to him. 
His harp too was a splendid instrument; like all Welsh harps it had 
three rows of strings, and I could not but admire the dexterity with 
which the artist passed his fingers in, between the outer to touch 
the centre strings, which, however, are, in general, but Utile used* 
The playing on the harp (in Welsh Chwareu'r Tehpi) belonged in 
the olden time to the twenty-four most esteemed games of the ancient 
Britons, as cited by Williams in his " Observations on Snowdonia." 
These twenty-four games were divided into several classes. First 
came the domestic games : Bardorriaeth, or poetical composition ; the 
harp ; the reading of Kymrian books ; Singing to the harp ; P«i- 
Trillion, or the alternate singing of three or four individuals; heraldry; 
and lastly, drawing and painting, which were chiefly devoted to the 
illustration of heraldry. Then came the Gurolffampan, or manly 
sports, such as lifting weights, riding, running, swimming, jumping, 
casting the spear, and shooting with the bow. 

In Scotland the caverns are still shown, which, on memorable oc- 
casions, afforded shelter to Robert Bruce or to other Scottish worthies, 
and even so in Wales the caverns continue to be pointed out, where 
Owen Glyndwr, or some other hero with an unpronounceable name, 
concealed himself on the occasion of some inroad into England. 
Such a cavern was shown us near Beddgelart. Every spot in Wales, 
however, seems fertile in legendary lore ; quite as much so as Scot- 
land. The very place at which we were — Beddgelart — owed its 
name to the legend of Gelart, the faithful dog of Prince Llewelyn, 
who killed the noble animal in the belief that it had torn his child to 
pieces; but when the cradle was raised, the infant was found under- 
neath unhurt, and a dead wolf killed by Gelart. Llewelyn, in hi* 


grief erected a monument to his dog, and a priory, that was shortly 
afterwards built there, assumed the name of Bedagelart, — the grave 
of Gelart. 


As it was my intention to proceed to Ireland through Anglesey, I 
returned over Caernarvon to Bangor, an episcopal city, and the most 
ancient after St. David's, the Welsh Canterbury. 

Immediately beyond Bangor, we passed over Menai Bridge, and 
had now an opportunity of contemplating this noble monument from, 
a different point of view. It is a real pleasure to pass over it, for 
though the whole floats in the air like a spider's web, when seen from 
below, it assumes all the firmness and solidity of a rock on nearer 
inspection. It is only when the wind is very high, and then only 
towards the centre of the bridge, that any vibration is felt. 

Here then, thought I, when we had passed the bridge is the famous 
isle of Mona ! We left the picturesque mountains of North Wales, 
behind us, and rolled into what appeared to be a wild yet monoto-. 
nous country, bleak, bare, and destitute of natural ornament. The 
way to Holyhead passes in a diagonal line from one corner of Angle- 
sey to the opposite corner, and certainly, to judge from what I saw 
along this road, the celebrated Mona has few of those natural charms 
to recommend it, with which fancy has led history to endow it. 
Much more accurate is the description of Giraldus : Tellus arida et 
saxosa videtur, deformis aspectu et inamoena. Its fertility indeed is 
justly lauded, but even the decorations of a highly cultivated land are 
wanting. Trim hedges like those of England are nowhere to be seen, 
and the cottages are without neatness. The whole looks like a land 
of transition between England and Ireland. Fine trees and stately 
groves, that serve so well to relieve the monotony of a flat country, 
are nowhere to be seen. Paulinus Suetonius, who, according t<> 
Tacitus, cut down the druidical forests of Mona, (exisique luci saevU 
superstitionibus sacri) must have performed his work of destruction, 
with wonderful effect. There are two or three hills in the island, but 
they are of trifling elevation. The two usually pointed out to stran- 
gers are Holyhead and Parys mountain, the latter celebrated for its 
5>roductive copper mines, but both together are only a few hundred 
eet in height. Yet these two hills are constantly pointed out 
to a stranger's attention. If you enter the Menai Strait, in the 
steamer from Liverpool, the first things the captain points out to his 
passengers are Parys mountain and Holyhead ; nay, from the summit 
of Snowdon, whence you see Anglesey spread out like a map, Parys 
mountain and Holyhead were the first objects to which the officer 
of engineers called my attention. The island, as I have already ob- 
served, is, nevertheless, famed for its fertility ; so much so as to nave 
obtained among the Welsh the honourable distinction of being de- 
nominated " Mona mam Cymbry" (Mona the Mother of Cambria)* 


To the left of Menai Bridge we saw Has Newydd, the celebrated 
residence of the Marquis of Anglesey, to whom a large part of the 
island belongs. This marquis is another of the 300,000/. a year men. 
He lost his leg at Waterloo, and near his mansion, on a rock close 
to Menai Strait, a column, 100 feet high has been erected in honour 
of him. These magnificent private monuments are peculiar to Eng- 

Holyhead, the only striking object in a flat landscape, and visible, 
therefore, from a great distance, could scarcely escape being declared 
holy. It was probably a very ancient seat of Druidical worship. It 
has in more recent times become known as the most convenient point 
of embarkation for Ireland, and in proportion as the communication 
between the two countries has increased, a small fishing village has. 
grown up into a handsome town. On the rocks around, large light- 
nouses have arisen united by elegant suspension-bridges, that have 
taken the place of the rope bridges formerly in use here. We had 
little time, however, to examine all this, for, on the arrival of a 
second stage coach with the mail, the steamer lost no time in quitting 
the shore. It was a boisterous sea, and the fog bells on the sunken 
rocks rang out a loud continued peal. Gulls, puffins, and other sea 
birds, that inhabit the Skerry islands and the rocks round Holyhead, 
flew screaming to the shore. Our little vessel was soon tossing on. 
the angry waves, now sinking into the trough of the sea, and now 
lifted on the summit of some billow topping all the rest. It was 
little, however, that we saw of all this, for night was coming on, and 
soon the lights of Holyhead and the Skerry Islands glittering like 
two solitary stars, were the only objects we were able to discern. 

£As the account of the journey through Scotland and Ireland 
which follows here has been already published, we now proceed with 
the author to Carlisle where his next chapter opens, observing the 
same order in which Mr. Kohl has himself found it advisable to pub- 
lish his series of tours.] — Tr. 


From the beautiful border valleys of Scotland we passed into the 
"beautiful plains of Carlisle. Not that the county of Cumberland is 
everywhere a plain. On the contrary, to the north, the west, and 
the south, it is encircled by hills, that make of it a little district sepa- 
rated from the rest of the country. In the centre of the level part 
of the country are concentrated the waters and the population, in 
and about the city of Carlisle. 

The cathedral of Carlisle belongs to the same class as those of 
Dublin and Chester. Not only the style of their architecture, but 
the materials of which they are constructed, are precisely the same; 
and as they were built nearly about the same time, they are all three 
m a corresponding state of decay. The soft red stone with whicf 


they were erected, has in all three suffered much from the effects of 
the weather, till nearly each separate stone has been rounded off by 
the rain. The window of painted glass, respecting which my 
curiosity had been so much excited, seemed to me undeserving of 
mention, but the carving of the stalls was a beautiful specimen of 
antique workmanship. 

To see the cathedral, I repaired early in the morning to the old 
sacristan, whom I found at breakfast, with his family, on oatmeal 
porridge, which in Cumberland, as in the neighbouring Scotland, 
forms the chief diet of the humbler classes, and of children, even 
among the wealthy. It would seem to agree with them, for the 
people appeared to me to be a fine vigorous race, bearing a strong 
resemblance to their northern neighbours. 

Even in their political institutions, these parts of the country 
have preserved much to remind them of the wild times of border 
warfare. Certain local taxes, then imposed, continued to be levied, 
as was the case till very recently in Saxony (at Leipzig), where 
taxes were likewise paia that had originally been imposed in the 
times of the robber knights. 

In the cathedral, my old sacristan showed me a bell that had 
been cracked while ringing somewhat too joyously in honour of the 
victory of Waterloo. 

The city was very full this morning of country people, male and 
female, servants, farmers, and statesmen. The last word is used to 
designate landowners, and applied in the same manner as " lairds' 9 
in Scotland, and " squires' 1 in the more southern parts of England. 
As this was the 12th of November, the customary day for changing 
servants in the market place and alone: the principal streets, long 
lows of men were drawn up. Thos/among them who were iS 
search of service had whisps of straw in their hats, a custom, they 
told me, of very remote antiquity. When the statesman, or farmer, 
has hired a servant, the latter receives what is called the arl-shilling, 
which he keeps while he remains with his master, and to return 
which, is equivalent to a warning to quit. 

The beauty of the weather had, no doubt, contributed to draw 
great numbers of both sexes to Carlisle, and many, it may easily be 
supposed, allowed themselves to be beguiled by the temptations 
held out to them by their vicinity to Gretna Green. " I have no 
doubt," said a gentleman to whom I had a letter of introduction, 
" but fifteen couple at least will go over to Gretna to-night." 

It is generally supposed that the hymeneal priest of Gretna is by 
profession a smith, but I could learn nothing at Carlisle of any smith 
who had ever held the office. A tobacconist, a stone-mason, an inn*, 
keeper, and several others, had succeeded each other, and at present 
the nigh priest is one Simon Laing, whose father, Andrew Laing, 
officiated before him. As in other professions, however, so in this, 
there is no lack of competition, and the most fashionable operator re* 
sides, not at Gretna, but at the neighbouring village of Springfield*. 


The most remarkable circumstance is, that this handicraft, which 
might just as well be followed in any other border Tillage, has for 
more wan sixty years been confined to Gretna and its immediate 

^ Perhaps not the least disgraceful part of the story is, that the ser- 
vice of the Anglican church is often read on these occasions. All 
that is required to constitute a marriage in Scotland, is a declaration 
by the bride and bridegroom in presence of witnesses, but the mar- 
riage-smith is always ready to go through the English forms, if the 
consciences of his customers require it. Not less than from three 
hundred to four hundred couples are yearly joined together at Gretna, 
nearly all of them of the lower classes; but though the marriage thus 
contracted is legally binding, the greater part do not consider them- 
selves properly married, till they have been " married over again" in 
an English church. Now and then persons of respectability, and 
even of high rank, are married at Gretna. Perhaps the most illus- 
trious among the inscriptions in the matrimonial records of the 
place, is the following: — 

" Gretna Hall, Mav 7, 1836. Married here this day, Carlo Fer- 
dinando Borbone, Principe di Capoa, figlio del Francisco Primo, Re 
del Regno delle due Sicilie, and Penelope Caroline Smyth, daughter 
of the late G. Smyth, Esq., of Ballynatrag, in the county of Water- 
ford, in Ireland." 


A railroad now runs right across the island of Great Britain from 
Carlisle to Newcastle. There are four such railroads running 
across the island. That from Glasgow to Edinburgh, that from 
Liverpool over Leeds to Hull, the Great Western from London to 
Bristol, and that from Carlisle to Newcastle. 

As I saw nothing of Northumberland but the Tyne valley 
through which I flew along the last named of these railroads, I was 
disposed to set the county down for one of the most beautiful and 
delightful countries in the world. I never was upon any railway 
which afforded so agreeable a trip. Most railroads ran half their 
length through deep ravines, with ditches and walls on either side, 
and the other half along raised dikes. With the railroad I am 
now speaking of this is not the case, for it winds like a road amid 
meadows, corn-fields, gardens, and villages. There is a tunnel, 
however, not far from Carlisle and the Cowran Cut, 100 feet deep, 
and 2000 feet in length, one of the largest works of the kind to 
be seen on any railroad. 

Handsome villages, stately groves, teeming fields, busy towns, 
and here and there a hill or a group of rocks, crowned with the 
remains of some ancient castle lamed in the chronicles of border 
warfare, passed in quick succession before us. The most re marka ble 


town along the whole line is Hexham, the most interesting castle 
that of Frudhoe. Hexham was already a famous station in the time, 
of the Romans, and its history, down to the troubles arising from, 
the Jacobite insurrections, is a stormy and a warlike one; but col- 
lieries and railroads have an astonishing effect in pacifying a 

Prudhoe Castle is not very far from Newcastle, and, being situa- 
ted on a bold steep rock, is seen from a considerable distance. Two 
huge towers, one completely enveloped in ivy, like a Scottish chief 
in nis plaid, rise proudly from amid a mass of crumbling ruins. 
This castle also dates its history from the times of the Romans, who 
occupied a fortified station here. At a later period it became the 
seat of the Norman family of Umfranville, and subsequently it fell 
into the hands of the more famous Percys, who still own it. 


Newcastle, already a frontier station in the time of the Romans, 
and situated at the eastern extremity of their celebrated Wall, lies 
nine miles from the mouth of the Tyne, in a beautiful, level, fertile 
country, whose chief wealth, however, is buried below the surface 
of the earth. 

The museum of the town contains, as might be supposed, a rich 
collection of Roman antiquities, found in the vicinity or along the 
line of the wall These consist chiefly of the gravestones of Roman 
officers, surgeons, and civil servants, stationed at this northern 
extremity of the empire. I had seen similar antiquities at Carlisle 
in the Athenaeum, out the Newcastle collection is far more com- 
plete. Similar collections of funereal monuments raised in honour 
of the Roman frontier officers, are to be seen at Mehadia and Ka- 
ransebes, in the Austrian military frontier, and at several other 
points along the Danube border; as also at Carlsruhe, Mannheim, 
and other cities along the Rhine. What makes the Newcastle 
museum most interesting, however, is a complete collection of all 
the geological formations of the coal mines, including some beau- 
tiful specimens of the gigantic ferns discovered buried in the earth. 
These trees are more than five feet in circumference, and the spe- 
cimens at the museum are eight feet in height. Most of these trees,. 
I am told, are still found standing in a perpendicular position, just 
as they are supposed to have grown. 

Of the buildings of Newcastle, none surprised me more than the 
Newsroom, which bears about the same relative importance to si- 
milar institutions in Germany, that a double Times does to a Leip- 
zig or Frankfort paper. The room in question is a noble hall of a 
semicircular form, and its large and lofty dimensions are calculated, 
to awaken the idea rather of a temple than of a reading-room. 
Under the same roof are two banks, the post-office, club-rooms, the 


stamp-office, &c., and the whole building bears the name of the 
Royal Arcade. It was erected by Mr. Grainger, a very celebrated 
builder at Newcastle, who unfortunately, like many builders of 
houses, has ruined himself by his building. He has built whole 
streets, in many of which, on account of their distance from the 
central parts of the town, it is impossible to let either a house or a 

In the evening (it was a Saturday), the bustle in the streets wad 
quite astonishing. The side pavements were crowded with pedes- 
trians, idle and busy, most of whom, however, seemed intent on 
making purchases, and a few on begging. I was struck by the cir- 
cumstance, that it was generally the father and not the mother that 
carried a child on the arm. 

I was startled by the sight of several well-dressed beggars, stand- 
ing mute and motionless by the side of the pavement, with their 
hats stretched forward. One, a young man evidently capable of 
hard work, stood with his eyes so completely fixed, that I supposed 
him to be blind, and asked if he were so. " No, sir," was his re- 
ply, "I am not blind, but I am sorry to say I am out of employ- 
ment. I accept thankfully what is given me, but I should be 
ashamed to be troublesome in my appeal." The streets were 
brightly illuminated with gas, and large and handsome buildings 
rose on every side. I could almost have asked the beggars, whether 
they were not ashamed to beg in such a place. There was nothing 
but the coal black mud of the street, and the dense smoky at- 
mosphere that harmonised in any way with the wretchedness of the 
poor mendicant. 

Newcastle stands on a widely spread bed of coal, reaching south- 
ward to Durham, and to the north as far as Blythe. Eastward it 
extends under the sea, it is scarcely known how far. Newcastle is not 
the only town in England that stands on an extensive field of coal. 
Glasgow, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Birmingham, Wolver- 
hampton and others, are similarly situated. Newcastle has, how- 
ever, the advantage that its coals are raised at the mouth of a navi- 
gable river, and can thus be easily conveyed to a distant market, 
while the inland districts must find a way of using up their coals at 
home. England at present consumes annually 20,000,000 of tons 
of coal, of which more than 5,000,000 are raised in the neighbour- 
hood of Newcastle, and shipped from the Tyne, and from a few 
ports in the vicinity, such as Sunderland, Blythe, &c. Newcastle 
alone ships 3,000,000 of tons, which if each ship was large enough 
to carry 500 tons, would make 6000 cargoes oi coals shipped from 
Newcastle every year. 

Coals are sent from this place to all parts of the world. London is 
the chief customer, taking off no less than one-seventh of the whole 

3 uantity raised. France, Germany, Russia, the Baltic and the Me- 
iterranean, are also among the places to which the staple commo- 
dity of Newcastle finds its way; nay even at Odessa, on the Blf 


Sea, I remember to have seen large depots of Newcastle coab. 
Across the Atlantic they go to Brazil and the West Indies: the 
question indeed is, whither do they not go? 

From thirty-five to forty colliers sail from Newcastle weekly for 
London, and whole fleets of these vessels may be seen in the Thames. 
Indeed, in most of the large English harbours, a fleet of colliers 
is as constant an apparition, as a fleet of rafts of wood in one of our 

The sailors that man these colliers are highly esteemed in Eng- 
land as seamen, and enjoy in time of™^e privilege of exemp- 
tion from impressment. One would have thought that such excel- 
lent seamen were just the men government would be most anxious 
to impress, but perhaps the object is to foster so good a maritime 
school, whence a number of men are sure to find their way into the 

Intending, on the following day to travel across the southern 
division of the Newcastle field of coal, I chose the northern division 
for this day's examination. Lying entirely in Northumberland, it 
is also called the Northumbrian field, while the southern, for a similar 
reason is called the Durham field. The southern is more than twice 
as large as the northern field, the former comprising 590 English 
square miles, and the latter only 240. Under this surface lie many 
strata of coal of varying thickness. As many as twenty-three strata 
have been counted in some places, some, however, of the thickness 
only of a few inches, and much too thin, consequently, to yield a 
profit if worked. The average thickness of the coal strata in 
regular work, is from ten to fifteen feet. It has been calculated 
that there are still lying in these fields 9,000,000,000 tons of coal, 
enough, supposing the annual consumption of Great Britain to 
amount to 20,000,000 of tons, to supply the country with fuel 
for 450 years to come. Buckland estimates the coal-fields of South 
Wales as much more extensive, and capable alone, of supplying the 
present annual demand for the next 2000 years. 

Nature could not have provided any country with a more con- 
venient kind of fuel than she has furnished England with. Turf is 
to be obtained only from large marshes, injurious to the climate, 
and consequently to the health of the pe op le, and a constant obstruc- 
tion to the extension of agriculture. Where wood is burned, a 
vast extent of country must be occupied by forests, and withdrawn 
altogether from the labours of the husbandman. Coals, on the con- 
trary, a powerfully condensed species of fuel, lie below the surface, 
exercise no evil influence on the climate, and leave the soil above 
for human food to be raised upon it. It would seem as if nature 
had acted with a view to the economical, industrious, and calcula- 
ting nation, destined to dwell on British ground. By means of her 
coal mines, Grreat Britain is able to maintain double the population 
that she could without them. Indeed, the limits of the densely 
peopled manufacturing districts, are almost everywhere defined by 


the extent to which the several coal-fields go. Goals ore to England, 
what animal warmth is to the human body; they axe the nervus 
rerum, not only of British manufacturers, but of British commerce, 
and of British agriculture. 

A coal mine, in this part of the country is called a " coal pit," 
and the pit, with the buildings and other dependencies belonging to 
it, is called a " colliery." Along the Tyne, the whole country is 
covered with such collieries, lying like old smoky castles, among the 
green meadows and teaming corn fields. The owner of a mine is 
not in general the owner of the soil over his mine, and as the under- 
ground labours frequently lead to a subsiding of the surface, the 
landlords and minelords often come into collision, the latter having 
sometimes heavy damages to pay for injuries done to buildings, &c. 

The general appearance /fte country is very remarkable. Two 
classes of men are seen mingled together — the miners and the hus- 
bandmen — whose pursuits, manners, customs, and way of thinking, 
vary as much as it is possible to imagine. Close to the handsome 
farm-houses and the neat labourers' cottages, lie the black dismal 
openings to the pits. Here you see the seat of some wealthy land- 
lord or capitalist, there a rural village peopled by agriculturists, and 
a little further on, in a straight line, a regular uniform row of col* 
liers* cottages. These dwellings axe generally built for the colliers by 
the owners of the works, and are all fashioned after nearly the same 
architectural model. The houses mostly stand in a long row, all 
under one roof, partitioned off so as to give to each family as much 
space as is considered sufficient. I entered several of these houses 
at a venture, and found them all neat and tidy, and not deficient 
even in ornament. It happened to be a Sunday, so, no doubt, I 
saw every thing in its best array, but, if there prevailed much dis- 
order on ordinary days, I could not fail to have discovered traces of 
it. In many of these houses there were carpets on the floor, the 
grate and fire-irons were bright, and the steps in front of the house- 
door were everywhere neatly strewn with yellow sand. 

As it was Sunday, I was unable to descend into any of the pits, 
or to see the people engaged in their customary occupations; but the 
Sunday appearance of such a population is also a sight well worth 
seeing, and I had, moreover, the advantage of talking leisurely with 
a number of the men, which I could not nave done on another day. 
The men appeared to quite as much advantage as their dwellings. 
They were as well clad as men of moderate wishes could desire to 
be, and when I saw a number of the young men together, they at 
first appeared to me, to be a party of sailors in holiday attire just 
come ashore. The friend who accompanied me, and was himselt 
an owner of coal-mines, told me, indeed, that there was much simi- 
larity between the characters of the colliers and seamen, both classes 
being distinguished among the labouring population of England, 
for their cleanliness and love of dress. Like the manufacturing 
labourers, however, the colliers are a riotous and discontented race, 


and any unpopular measure on the part of their employers soon leads 
to a " strike, -which passes with all the rapidity of a bad example 
from one work to another, and soon becomes general. 

The colliers are not more famed in England for their insubordi^ 
nation than for the hardness of their work, which equals in severity 
any labour assigned to slaves in other countries. I had, therefore, 
expected to see a wretched, sickly race, and was surprised to find the 
very reverse. I visited a church and a Sunday school, and there, as 
everywhere else where I saw the people grouped together, they ap- 
peared to me to be cheerful and nealthy, always neatly, and often 
luxuriously dressed. Their wages are probably higher than those 
paid to any other description of miners in Europe. They live rent 
free, have nothing to pay for fuel or light, have small kitchen gardens 
attached to their houses, and the lowest wages paid them are two 
shillings a day, for which they remain at work in the pit for at least 
eight hours. There are of course many persons engaged on higher 
terms. ; Thus a common coal hewer can earn as much as five shillings 
a day. The dangers to which they are constantly exposed are partly 
the cause of the high wages paid them, but five shillings a day for 
so simple an occupation as that of hewing coals, must be considered 
good pay, even in England. The average earnings of the common 
labourers in the collieries about Newcastle, are from three to four 
shillings daily. Yet strange to say, they are by no means a contented 
race, are continually combining against their employers, and hang 
together much as was formerly the case with the clans of Scotland. 
This I attribute partly to the fact that most of the workmen are ex- 
tremely young. Half of them are under twenty and of the remain- 
der few are much beyond thirty. Such young men are naturally 
inconsiderate of the consequences to which their rashness may lead. 
Then, as they not only work together in the same mine, but may 
likewise be said to live under the same roof when above ground, they 
naturally acquire a family or clannish spirit. Agricultural labourers, 
on the other hand, neither work together nor live together, and the 
operatives in the manufacturing towns, though they assemble together 
at the hours of labour are afterwards scattered about the different sub- 
urbs. The employers say, and no doubt with much truth, that high 
wages are no protection against discontent, and that the more they 
concede the more is demanded of them. Besides the habits of the 
English are much more expensive than those of the continental la- 
bourer, and the collier, like the sailor, being engaged in a perilous 
and disagreeable pursuit, is the more anxious to indemnify nimself 
in his hours of recreation. 

In the collieries about Newcastle, about 16,000 pitmen, or under- 
ground labourers, are employed, and as Newcastle furnishes about one 
fifth of all the coals obtained from the various mines of England, it 
may be assumed that about 80,000 labourers are employed under 
ground in the several coalworks of the country. These men are 
under the direction of what are called " over-men" and *' under- 


viewers,." and the whole subterranean proceedings are placed under 
the guidance of the " viewer," who is sometimes also called the 
" agent" or " engineer." The particular office of the over-men and 
under-viewers, is to give the necessary orders to the men, and to look 
to the proper ventilation of the several seams. Another part of 
their duty is to superintend the placing or taking away of the props 
by which the roof of the mine nas to be supported. When a new 
seam of coal is worked, large square masses are left here and there to 
support the roof, but when the seam has been exhausted, it is naturally 
thought desirable to turn these temporary columns also to account. 
Before this can be done, props of a different kind must be substituted, 
and this is a delicate operation, to be performed only under the 
superintendence of the overmen. These props also are generally 
taken away when a stratum is about to be quite abandoned, wb$n 
the roof falls in, occasioning those alterations on the surface of the 
ground to which allusion has already been made. I was shown a 
place where I was told a seam, six feet in height had been allowed 
to fall in, but on the surface the ground had subsided only two feet; 
Several other places were pointed out to me, where the ground had 
evidently sunk, and one church, the wall of which had received a 
large rent, in consequence of the sinking in of a mine below. 

The deepest coal pit of which I heard was said to be 280 fathoms in 
depth ; but far as these works descend into the mysterious bowels of our 
planet, and rich as they are in noxious gases and other marvellous 
and unexplained phenomena, nevertheless, the imagination of these 
English pitmen Has invented none of those pretty traditions about 
under earth goblins, mountain spirits, and divining rods with which 
our German miners are so abundantly provided. These mines un- 
tenanted by demon or spirit, are illustrative of the sound, intelligent, 
but unimaginative character of the English people. 

In general, the coals obtained from the top or bottom strata are 
considered inferior to the " main coal," as it is called, and which is 
taken from the intermediate seams. The most usual classification, 
however, is made according to size, into " round coals," " small 
coals," " beans," &c. The coal-dust is allowed to accumulate about 
the pit mouth, where it often ignites of itself^ or is burnt by the 
workmen when the ground is wanted. We came to one colliery, 
where we found a mass of coals burning, and, on inquiry, I was told, 
that no less than 300 chaldrons, or a million and a half of pounds, of 
coals were then on fire. Of subterranean conflagrations in coal- 
mines I could learn nothing. 

Some of the coal-mines are estimated at the value of 100,0007., 
and some even as high as 300,000/. These are mostly owned by 
sharing companies, yet many of them are the property of private in- 
dividuals, and some of the large landowners, as the Marquis of Lon- 
donderry, and several others, are also owners of coal-mines. The 
capital sunk in these mines must be enormous, seeing that the re* 



venues derived from them are said to amount to 10,000,0007. sterling 

The works on the surface, intended to facilitate the conveyance of 
the coal to Newcastle, Sunderland, and one or two smaller harbours, 
are also highly interesting. Roads, most of them railroads, cross the 
country in all directions, many of the larger works having railroads 
for their exclusive use. The common roads, as well as the bridle 
and footpaths, are all made with the rubbish from the mines, and are 
said to be the firmest and driest paths in the world. Imagine these 
black roads winding through the verdant fields; the long trains of 
waggons, heavily laden with their black treasures, rolling lightly 
over the railroads; the burning mounds of coal scattered over the 
plain; the black pit mouths, and here and there a simple unadorned 
Methodist chapel or school house, and you have a tolerable idea of 
the country which the English delight to call their " Black Indies," 
and from which they have perhaps derived quite as much direct 
profit as from both the other Indies taken together. 

The men employed above ground are, of course, less numerous 
than the pitmen ; still they amount to one-half the number of these, 
and all are alike included under the general term of " colliers," by 
which not only the workmen are designated, but likewise the 
vessels in which coals are shipped, and even the wholesale mer- 
chants who deal in the article. The trade is so important a one, 
and so peculiar in its character, that it is separated from almost 
every other branch. So much so, that in London the colliers have 
their own exchange, exclusively devoted to the buying and selling 
of the produce of the Black Indies. 

The banks of the Tyne being in many places high and steep, 
are very inconvenient for loading vessels, and the works executed 
with a view to obviate the difficulty, are themselves well deserving 
of examination. Here and there a sloping tunnel has been made, 
down which the trains of coal waggons descend to the water side. 
In some places may be seen what are called " slopes," a kind of 
Russian mountain, down which the coals rattle into the very holds 
of the vessels. These slopes, however, are apt to break the large 
coals, and to avoid this, machines called " frame-works with coun- 
terbalance" have been erected, which place the full coal waggon 
itself upon the deck of the vessel to be loaded. The railroads tnat 
come from the works up the country, extend not only to the edge 
of the high shore, but are even continued a little way into 4he air 
over a strong scaffolding of beams and iron bars. Tnus the wag* 
gons can be Drought immediately over the vessel lying at anchor 
in the river below; and by a powerful machinery they are then 
deposited on the deck, and after delivering up their contents, are 
quietly lifted up again through the air. 

How large must be the number of vessels often collected here at 
one and the same time, may be estimated from the fact that 4000 


vessels, laden with coals, sail yearly from Newcastle. It may be 
doubted whether there exist another branch of trade giving occu- 
pation to the same amount of shipping. 

It is generally asserted at Newcastle that the great coal merchants 
realise on the whole much larger profits than the owners of the 
mines, who are frequently liable to unexpected expenses, and often 
form exaggergated expectations respecting their underground trea- 
sures. The merchants have a much less hazardous business, and 
there are many wealthy men in the town to whom the doggrel 

" At the Westgate came Thompson in, 
With a happing, a halfpenny, and a lamb's skin," 

would be just as applicable as to the gentleman in whose particular 
honour it appears to have been composed. 

Many foreign merchants have likewise been drawn to Newcastle 
by the coal trade, and among them several Germans and French- 
men, and as the foreign coal trade is at present rapidly on the in- 
crease, foreign mercantile establishments are likely to become still 
more numerous. One German merchant told me that he knew of 
eight or ten German houses at Newcastle, and that there were at 
least fifty young Germans there in counting-houses. The German 
houses nave the greater part of the coal trade with the Hanse Towns, 
Prussia, Denmark, and Russia, in their own hands. The foreign 
coal trade is at present in such a prosperous condition, that even the 
export duty lately imposed, has, 1 am assured, had no visible 

I spent the evening in an agreeable party composed chiefly of 
Scotch and Northumbrians. The conversation ran very much on 
the peculiarities to be observed on the two sides of the Tweed, and 
it afforded me considerable amusement to trace, in the friendly jests 
and repartees that passed between the borderers, a faint remnant of 
the sanguinary and warlike state of things that formerly prevailed 
here. I made the remark that the Northumbrians appeared to me 
to be half Scotch, instancing among other things that they said 
home for home, that they called the gipsies " fawgang," and that 
Kke the borderers on the northern side of the Tweed, the Northum- 
brians always wore clogs and the plaid. My Northumbrian friends, 
however, protested zealously against the idea of their having any 
thing Scotch about them. They were genuine Englishmen, they 
said, and more genuine perhaps than those that dwelt further south; 
for in Northumberland it was that the Angles settled in the greatest 
numbers, and thence it was that they extended their influence over 
the rest of England. The Scotch, on the other hand, had always 
been the chief enemies of the Northumbrians, and Newcastle, ge- 
nerally, the first object of every border inroad. The Newcastle 
people, in consequence, had known the borderers beyond the Tweed 
only as riever* (robbers), or as " moss-troopers," on account of their 
always pouring down from the mossy hills into the valleys in 



front of the town. The Highland drovers too, were formerly never 
allowed by the magistrates to enter Newcastle except on market 
days, and even then they were obliged to confine themselves within 
certain limits, they being at all times suspected of treachery and vio- 
lent designs. 

My Scotch friends admitted all about the frequent robberies of 
their ancestors; but then the Scotch, they said, were freebooters only 
in a barbarous age, when strife and violence passed for virtues, 
whereas the Northumbrians of Newcastle made their commercial 
dealings subservient to their plundering designs, levying contribu- 
tions upon their friends in a time of profound peace, not by open 
violence, but by cunning stratagem. 

I diligently led the conversation back to the subject of the col- 
liers, and learned many interesting facts respecting them. They 
have even dishes and cakes of their own ; and among these I was 
particularly told of their " singing hinnies," a kind of cake that owes 
its epithet " singing," to the peculiar hissing noise it makes when 
put into the pan, and to the custom of serving it hissing hot upon 
the table. These singing hinnies are great favourites. They are 
very buttery, and must. never be absent on a holiday from the table 
of a genuine pitman. 

The strikes and riots of the colliers, to which I have already made 
allusion, are of such frequent occurrence, that they have come to be 
designated by a provincial expression, " coalyshangie," the etymology 
of which I did not succeed in ascertaining. 

Of the different manufactories of Newcastle, I had time, on the 
following morning, to visit only one, namely, a rope-walk. I might, 
no doubt, have seen a similar establishment, in many of the English 
towns through which I had passed, but somehow or other I had 
never seen any thing of the kind. The place was " a mile and a 
bittock" from Newcastle, as my Northumbrian informant told me; 
nevertheless, I contrived to run out and see a good deal of it before 
the Durham train started. 

Not only the marine of England, but many of her manufactories 
likewise, require hempen ropes of all possible forms and dimensions, 
from the thinnest packthread to huge cables of more than eighteen 
inches in diameter. Sometimes the ropes must be round, at others 
square, and sometimes even flat. I saw one rope, three miles long, 
that was intended for the Edinburgh railroad, and similar ropes- for 
other railroads. In these great English ropewalks, it need hardly 
be said that every thing is not made out of the hand and the apron, 
as I have seen in our German ropewalks; machinery and contrivances 
of a peculiar kind have, on the contrary, been found requisite. I 
took a particular interest in observing the preparation of the large 
flat and cornered ropes, of which a great many are used in different 
kinds of machinery, and likewise in many of the collieries. Their 
form is riven to these ropes by immense pressure, after they have 
been well softened in warm water. 


Of nearly equal interest was the machine by which round ropes of 
the requisite length and thickness are prepared. This machine is a 
combination of large and small iron wheels and spindles. At first a 
number of small spindles are supplied with Russian hemp, which, 
they spin into thin threads. These threads are taken up by a 
second division of spindles, that spin the separate threads together. 
This operation is repeated several times, till the threads grow into 
ropes, and till at last the huge cable is seen to twist itself into 
existence, around the last iron spindle, a fellow of enormous 

I mentioned just now a rope three miles in length, intended for 
the Edinburgh railroad. This hempen colossus weighed fifteen 
tons; about enough to form the cargo of one of the Newcastle coal 
barges, called " keels." The hemp used in these works is almost 
all Russian, and so is the tar, which is obtained chiefly from Arch- 
angel. These afford agreeable reminiscences to England of her dis- 
covery of that part of Russia in the 16th century, for well may the 
first arrival of the English in Archangel be classed with the im- 
portant maritime discoveries of that age. In return for all this hemp 
and tar, England now sends to Russia the ingenious rope-machines of 
which I have been speaking, for I was told that several of them had 
been sent thither only a short time previously. 

St. Nicholas Church at Newcastle has a beautiful steeple, of a re- 
markably light architecture, resting on four elegant arches, which in 
their turn are supported by four columns. I regretted much that I was 
not able to mount this steeple, which appeared to particular advan- 
tage amid the smoke of the town. Newcastle has also a number of 
large glass manufactories, in which, as a German, I could not but 
feel a strong interest; the more so, as they told me that it was to Ger- 
mans the town was indebted for the introduction of this branch of 
industry. I am sorry to say, I could find no time to visit any of 
these works, nor any of the sword-makers of Shotlay bridge, likewise 
originally Germans. 

One whole evening I spent in examining a wonderful collection 
of shells, arranged in the most beautiful order, and, in point of com- 
pleteness, I was assured, unique in its kind. Here I had leisure to 
examine the houses of snails, from the largest dimensions down to 
those perceivable only by the aid of the microscope. 


The country lying to the south of the J* coaly Tyne," is inter- 
sected by railroads even more than that lying to the north of that 
river. Here are railroads to Shields, to Sunderland, to Stanhope, 
and to many other places. Durham may indeed be said to be of 
all counties in England the one in which there have been con- 
structed the greatest number of railroads of small extent. This gives 


to the country an aspect remarkably new and surprising in the eyes 
of a continentalist. In all directions he sees small trains in motion, 
small locomotives with two or three passenger carriages, for, as the 
intercourse is between places at no very great distance from each 
other, the trains can probably run frequently, but on that very 
account, perhaps, are obliged to content themselves with a small 
number of passengers at a time. If, however, the passenger trains 
are small, the trains of coal waggons are all the longer, and to one 
who could take a bird's eye view of the country, it would seem to 
swarm like an ant-hill, with locomotives, hurrying trains, and long 
lines of coal waggons. The most delightful part of the story is, 
that despite this busy movement, the country looks everywhere so 
beautiful, so verdant, so hilly, so undulating, so charmingly wooded, 
that it has none of the prosaic business-like appearance of Holland, 
but, on the contrary, wears quite a face of romance, quite an Arca- 
dian air. It suggests the idea of a lovely girl, with a mind all 
Eoetry and eyes all fire, occupied by the domestic avocations of the 
itchen, or the unimaginative duties of a shop. 
Notwithstanding this abundance of small railroads, the great one, 
between Newcastle and Durham, and which eventually is to con- 
nect those towns with London, was not yet complete, and I could 
avail myself of its services only for a part of the journey. The 
hilly, or, at least, the uneven character of this part of the country, 
has led to the construction of some of the most distinguished spe- 
cimens of English civil engineering. Among these the Victoria and 
Sunderland bridges are particularly deserving of admiration. The 
latter crosses the Wear near Sunderland, at a height of 100 feet 
over the level of the river. The former crosses a tributary of the 
"Wear; is 130 feet high, 820 feet long, and is supported on four 
arches, of which two have a span of 100 feet each, one of 160, and 
the fourth of 144 feet. Let the reader picture these proportions to 
himself in the air, let him, in his imagination, fill up the outline 
with stone and iron, and he will have an idea of the magnificence 
of the work. 

The coal trains are of astonishing length. In some I counted as 
many as fifty waggons. Each waggon contains two tons and a half 
of coals, and the whole weight of the loaded waggon is four tons. 
A train of this kind, therefore, must weigh 200 tons, and with this 
astonishing load behind them, equal to the cargo of a small vessel, 
the steam engines start at a rapid pace. 

Upon these, as upon most of the railroads of England, the rails 
were originally laid upon large blocks of granite, partly with a view 
to greater durability, and partly, perhaps, owing to the scarcity and 
high price of wood in tnis country. Experience, however, has 
shown that carriages running over railroads resting on stone, are 
liable to more violent concussions, and wear out much more quickly. 
For this reason, in the construction of new railroads, wood is now 
everywhere preferred to stone, and even on the old lines, as oppor- 


tunity permits, the stone is taken away and wood substituted. The 
blocks of wood are not laid crosswise but lengthwise, which gives 
great elasticity to the rails, but, at the same time, is attended by 
some disadvantages. 

^ At almost every station, some interesting novelty presented itself. 
Either a bridge similar to those I have spoken of, or a coal-pit with 
some important improvements in the machinery, or a new " self- 
acting inclined plane" on a large scale, or some beautiful view into 
the rich and animated landscape. Gould we have looked into the 
earth, the view might have been of equal interest, for the soil here 
is undermined by countless subterranean passages, and humanity is 
moving, creeping, and running about, quite as busily below as 


Durham contains little to interest a stranger, but its Acropolis, 
with its old castle and its celebrated cathedral; but the latter is an 
object of such eminent, such extraordinary interest, that it is quite 
enough to occupy all the thoughts of a traveller, and to awaken all 
bis enthusiasm. The cathedral of Durham, whether contemplated 
from without, or examined within, is one of the most distinguished 
and remarkable pieces of architecture to be seen in the world, and 
is probably the most beautiful and perfect church, in its own par- 
ticular style, the Norman, as the English call it, not only in Eng- 
land, but in all Europe. It was built by the Normans, shortly 
after the conquest, towards the close of the eleventh century, at a 
time when people were poor in money, but rich in other materials 
of power. It would scarcely be possible, in these days, to raise the 
money which the erection of such a building would require; yet, 
upon the whole, people must have paid in proportion quite as much 
then as now for such work, and there are three times as many arms 
and hands to be had now as then. To say the truth, this church 
was the work of a dead man, namely of St. Cuthbert, whose mira- 
culous bones drew together great multitudes of people. 

"From the four corners of the earth they come, 
To kiss this shrine, this mortal, breaking saint." 

It was resolved, therefore, to erect to the saint a church worthy of 
bis glory, nor were the means for such an undertaking found wanting. 

St. Cuthbert may be looked on as the great, the prominent saint 
of northern England. He lived, as bishop, on a small island, since 
ihen called Holy Island, off the coast of Northumberland, whence 
lie afterwards withdrew to lead the life of a hermit on a still smaller, 
one of the Fern islands, whose picturesque rocks are tenanted by a 
multitude of wild seafowl, that, even to the present day, by the 
common people, are called St. Cuthbert's geese. 

It was only till the period of the reformation that Durham cathe- 


dral continued to stand in its full glory. That event stripped it of 
many of its altars, and, in the course of time many Protestant deans, 
one of whom was married to a sister of Calvin, removed from the 
interior of the church a multitude of things that savoured to them 
too strongly of popery. The Scots, in the time of Cromwell, chopped 
up the beautiful carved stalls, to boil their porridge and brose, and 
in modern times a great deal of mischief has been done in the way 
of repairs, for to renovate the floor it was thought necessary to re- 
move a number of monuments, and even to lay sacrilegious hands 
upon a part of the building itself. It is only within the last ten 
years, a period during which a salutary attention has been paid to 
many cathedrals, that repairs really tasteful and suitable have been 
undertaken, and that the glorious structure has been restored to a 
condition in which it has again become an object of just admiration 
to every traveller. 

On first entering the church, a stranger might imagine himself in 
an Egyptian temple, for he beholds a forest of massy and colossal co- 
lumns that support the nave and transepts. These huge columns 
consist of immense blocks of stone, and are sixty feet high. The 
roof is of a more modern date, and is built, not in the Norman, but 
in the Gothic style, for it presents the pointed arch. All the other 
arches about the building, however, are Norman or round; for what 
the English call the Norman style, because they received it from the 
Normans, is the same that we call the Byzantine. The huge columns 
I have been speaking of, which are about twenty ells in circum- 
ference; the numerous round arches, by which the different parts are 
united; the vast dimensions of the whole building — the church is 
420 feet long and 80 broad, with no incumbrance within to prevent 
the eye from taking in its whole extent at a glance ; — all these things 
together act powerfully upon the imagination, and carry it back, as 
by magic, to a time of which few traces now remain in this rail- 
roading and coal-breaking district. 

The proportions of height, breadth, and length, harmonise admi- 
rably, and the noble pile, looked at as a whole, makes a kindly im- 
pression upon the mind. It is strange that those who were able to 
arrange the whole so beautifully and correctly, should have mani- 
fested so barbarous a taste as is shown in the detailed ornaments of 
the columns. They are neither plain nor fluted, like Greek columns, 
nor do they present the rich and fanciful decoration of the Gothic 
split columns, but from top to bottom they are engrained with the 
most fantastic lines, and that in such a manner, that on no two of 
the columns do the patterns resemble each other. On one, the lines 
descend perpendicularly, round another they wind like the tendrils 
of a vine, on a third they are horizontal and zigzag, and on a fourth 
they are spiral lines that intersect each other, and cut up the whole 
surface into lozenges or diamonds. Nor is this engraining by any 
means well executed. The lines are very irregular, crooked, and 
badly drawn. It is as if artists had constructed the cathedral, and 


Vandals had undertaken to decorate it* Tet barbarous as it is, I 
must own this grotesque decoration of the columns did not fall dis- 
agreeably upon my eyes at the first glance; so there may be some- 
thing in it that harmonises with the style of the whole, and my eye 
may have felt the harmony which my judgment rejected. 

On measuring the columns I found that they varied in thickness. 
I found one that was twenty-two ells in circumference, while another 
was only eighteen. These variations are apt to occur in most of the 
buildings of the Norman and Gothic styles. Some arches were also 
more narrow and less elevated than others. A modern architect 
would scarcely be guilty of similar violations of correctness and pro- 
portion, and yet our modern architects, taken collectively, seem ut- 
terly incapable of inventing a style of architecture so great and sub- 
lime as was the Gothic. The ancient architects looked only to the 
effect of the whole, and were satisfied if the details harmonised so 
far that the eye of the observer could discover nothing discordant in 
them. Thus the thinnest of the columns I have been speaking of, 
are thick enough to do the work required of them, nor is the dif- 
ference in dimension such as could be detected otherwise than by 
careful measurement. 

The whole building bears the stamp of the stout old Normans, 
among whose faults littleness was certainly not one ; but many of 
the objects still existing in the church, as, for instance, the beautiful 
marble font — are magnificent, even taken singly, and it is only to 
be regretted that so many other treasures of art should have been 
destroyed or removed by the misguided zeal of the Protestants. 
Several deans are said to have unreservedly declared, that they 
would allow no trace of any monument to St. Cuthbert to remain in 
the cathedral, and have acted in the spirit of such a declaration. 
Poor Cuthbert ! His spiritual successors in the see of Durham have 
been worse enemies to him than the women, of whom he stood so 
greatly in awe, because the daughter of a Pictish king once falsely 
accused him of making love to her. It was enacted, after his death, 
that no woman should approach his coffin beyond a certain line, and 
that line is still pointed out. 

The cloisters, the several courts about the church, the church- 
yard, the deanery, and various other dependent buildings of great 
antiquity, are all so quaint and full of interest, that I can only re- 
gret my inability to make my book a sort of marie lantern, that 
would convey to my readers an exact picture of what I saw. It is 
quite unaccountable to me, however, that no splendidly illustrated 
work, on the subject of this interesting cathedral, should yet have 
been published, and the absence of such a work is sufficient to show, 
that, even in England, much still remains to be done. As we leave 
behind us no buildings of our own likely to outlive these noble 
structures of a bygone time, we ought, at least, to take care to leave 
to our posterity correct representations of what our ancestors be- 
queathed to us. 


We crossed to the other side of the river, whence the view of the 
hill on which stand the castle and cathedral, was truly beautiful. 
The bold lofty Norman pile turned its most richly decorated side 
towards us. The steep hill, whose foot is washed by the clear wa- 
ters of the Wear, is beautifully wooded on all sides. The river as 
it passes from the town, winds between banks bordered by lofty old 
oaks, and seems to be hurrying away to lose itself in a romantic wil- 
derness. The whole landscape is not alone so beautiful, but it looks 
as if it had been so purposely grouped for the pencil of an artist, 
that I am surprised that pictures of celebrity, multiplied by innu- 
merable engravings of this magnificent view, should not long ere this 
have been given to the world. The evening sun was sinking in the 
horizon behind me, as I contemplated the glorious s6ene; the bright 
rays were brilliantly reflected from the windows of the cathedral, 
and wantoned playfully on the yellow glittering leaves of the oaks; 
could I but have faithfully transferred at once to canvass, the magni- 
ficent picture that my eyes were so thirstily imbibing, I feel assured 
that that canvass would have carried off the first prize at any exhi- 
bition in the world. 

I must not forget to say, that the old episcopal castle contributed 
not a little to the richness of this picture. The Bishops of Durham 
exercised formerly many of the rights of sovereignty in the north of 
England, where, in addition to their spiritual mission, the duty de- 
volved upon them of protecting the country against the incursions of 
the Scots. They occupied, accordingly, a position something like 
that of the Bishops of Salzburg, whose duty it was to look to the 
safekeeping of the eastern borders of the empire. The castle testifies 
to the former greatness of the Bishops of Durham, and their succes- 
sors continue to enjoy some of the advantages of that greatness, in 
the shape of an enormous revenue. 

At present the greater part of the castle has been given up to the 
use of the university established here about ten years ago, and en- 
dowed with a portion of the revenues of the wealthy dean and chap- 
ter, in whose hands the government of the university has been placed, 
the bishop himself being one of the visitors. I thought it strange 
that the only regular professorships should be those of divinity, mathe- 
matics, Greek, and Latin. The teachers of jurisprudence, history, 
and of the several physical sciences, bear only the title of readers. 
A large flag was flying over the main building of the castle, as a 
signal that it was term time, that is to say, that the lectures were 
going on. During the vacation, this flag is taken down. 


It was with some difficulty I tore myself away, that same evening, 
from so delightful a place as Durham. I traversed the southern part 
of the county in a stage coach, to arrive at Darlington in time for 

YORK. 91 

the last train to York. The country continued everywhere of a 
" coaly" character, and as night soon set in, we saw heaps of small 
coals burning on all sides of us. The language and the manners of 
the people of Durham continued to show the influence of Scottish 
vicinity. The farmers still plough with the Scottish plough, the 
Scottish mountain race of sheep, the " Cheviots," are everywhere to 
be seen, the mountains in the interior are covered with moors and 
bogs like those of Scotland, and in every town a little Scotch colony 
is sure to have established itself. 

The principal landowner in the county of Durham is the bishop, 
whose beautiful country seat was pointed out to me as we passed it. 

Darlington is a manufacturing town that already contains nearly 
12,000 inhabitants. New houses, we were told, were daily springing 
up, and were filled with tenants as fast as they were finished. The 
Quakers have immense influence here, and are said to be the soul of 
every great undertaking. They also have a good deal that is 
" clannish" about them. They assist one another, and cling together 
like the members of a clan. It is they who are said to ha ve built the 
North of England railway, upon which we now rolled along from 
Darlington to York. 


This is neither a large tumultuous mercantile city, nor a busy 
restless manufacturing town, but a quiet old place, deliciously rich 
in ruins, antiquities, and fine antique churches and chapels. The 
equipages of the great roll not through its streets, heavily laden 
waggons encumber not its pavement, nor do mighty machines and 
huge towering chimneys oftend the eye and ear. Every thing has a 
quiet, pleasing, and becoming air. Yet with all its antiquity and 

Juietness, there is nothing about the place to indicate poverty or 
ecay. The streets are clear and handsome. Even the ruins are 
adorned with ivy, that looks as if a gardener's hand, had tended it. 
New houses too are seen here and there among the old ones, and if 
the city contain no cotton lords, no dukes and marquises, and no 
wealthy settlers from the East Indies or the Black Indies, I observed 
at least that there were fewer beggars, than in London, Manchester, 
Glasgow, or Newcastle. The people, like the city itself, seemed all 
to have a decent and orderly look. The streets, though not so wide 
and regular as those of the more modern parts of London and Edin- 
burg, are also not so narrow and close as in the more ancient parts of 
those two cities. They are moderately broad, and sometimes 
moderately crooked, and wind gracefully amid the houses and chapels. 
With the commercial and manufacturing towns of England, York 
has, in outward appearance, so little in common, that it scarcely seems 
as if it could belong to the same country. Yet York may be said 
to belong to a class of cities existing in England; antique, yet mani- 
festing no signs of decay, with a stationary population, not advanc- 

92 YORK. 

ing In a rapid career of commercial prosperity, but full of quietness 
and interest. Such cities are Durham, Oxford, Cambridge, Salis- 
bury, Winchester, Chester, and a few others. York, however, is 
the queen of them all. 

The cathedral of York does not occupy so advantageous a position 
as that of Durham. On three sides it is surrounded by small houses, 
which on one side advance almost up to the walls of the building. 
On the northern side alone has space enough been gained, to allow 
of a complete enjoyment of the venerable pile. 

In all the ancient Gothic churches of England, two characteristic 
circumstances have struck me. Firstly, that they have all been 
finished, whereas on the continent, most of the colossal old Gothic 
structures still continue incomplete ; secondly, considering their ex- 
traordinary length, they have all too small a relative height; many 
of them are quite as long as the Gothic cathedrals of Belgium and 
France, or those on the Rhine and the Danube, but almost all of 
these are of a superior altitude. Among the twenty-four distin- 
guished Gothic cathedrals that England possesses, there are no less 
than five that are more than 500 feet in length, and fifteen that ex- 
ceed 400; yet most of them are only sixty or eighty feet high, and 
only two rise to a height of 101 feet. The steeples, too, seldom ex- 
ceed 200 or 300 feet, only two, Ely and Salisbury, boasting of a 
greater height. 

Among all the Gothic churches that I know of, the cathedral of 
York bears most resemblance to that of Westminster ; the former ex- 
ceeds the latter in length both of nave and transept, but the latter 
has a greater elevation, though only by a few feet. These two 
cathedrals, moreover, in common with that of Strasburg, have had 
the term " minster," from monasterium, applied to them. 

Like the temple of Ephesus, so the noble cathedral of York has 
had its fanatical and lunatic destroyers, whose sacrilegious designs, 
however, were less successfully carried out, than those of the Asiatic 
incendiary. The Herostratus of York was a sailor of the name of 
Martin, a man filled with an insane hatred of the church and clergy, 
and who fancied he had seen two visions urging him to the destruc- 
tion of the splendid edifice. His motives, however, were probably 
not quite free from the love of notoriety that fired the Ephesian, for 
Martin, before he kindled the fire, cut off a piece of velvet from the 
archbishop's throne, audsome gold tassels from the pulpit, to serve, 
according to his own account, as proofs that the work of destruction 
was his own. This fire consumed a vast quantity of beautiful 
carvings in wood, and it cost 100,0007. to repair the damage. The 
second fire, in 1840, attributed to the imprudence of one of the 
workmen, was less destructive, the damage done requiring only 
30,000/. to repair it. The facility with which these 130,000/. were 
raised in England by subscription, naturally makes one think of our 
great national work, the restoration and completion of the cathedral 
of Cologne, for which, notwithstanding the mighty enthusiasm said 

YORK. 93 

to have been awakened among us, we have not yet been able to 
collect as much as has been already expended on the repairs of York 
Minster. Yet a much larger sum will be required at Cologne, and 
the work is one of far greater importance. Perhaps of all the Gothic 
buildings in Europe, York Minster is the one on which, within the 

J resent century, the most money has been expended. For Notre 
)ame in Paris the Chamber of Deputies voted lately a million of 
francs, or about one third of what the repairs at York have cost. 

In fine specimens of painting on glass, the English cathedrals are 
decidedly deficient. The art seems not to have nourished in Eng- 
land, in the same degree as architecture. York Minster has many 
painted windows, it is true, but in real value they are insignificant, 
compared to the magnificent, the marvellous representations on the 
windows of some of our German churches; for instance, on those of 
the cathedral of Cologne. The subjects on the windows of the 
minster consist chiefly of heraldic decorations; but independently of 
this triviality of matter, the colours are dull, and the figures without 
animation. They showed me here a piece of stained glass, which 
they told me had come from Rouen, and certainly it appeared to 
great advantage among the others. 

If the English, however, have attained to no great eminence in 
the art of painting on glass, they have been all the more successful 
in that of carving in wood. Their cathedrals are generally full of 
admirable specimens. From the account given of the quantity of 
woodwork burnt here in 1829, the carvings must have been ex- 
tremely numerous. The half-calcined remnants were bought by a 
turner, who has decorated his shop with them, and has been work- 
ing them up ever since into boxes, knobs for walking-sticks, and 
into other articles, to be preserved as relics. Wherever it is pos- 
sible, he endeavours, as a proof that the article is genuine, to leave 
some trace visible of the agency of the fire. 

One of the most wonderful things in the whole church is the 
organ screen, one of the richest, most luxurious specimens of chisel- 
ling in stone that the world has to show. It contains such an ex- 
traordinary number of towers, turrets, columns, and other devices 
winding and twisting about, that it looks a veritable forest of stone 
figures. There are crosses, and flowers, and creeping plants, and that 
in such vast numbers, that one shrinks from the idea that all this 
endless work has arisen under the slow and toilsome strokes of the 
chisel. Amid other figures, the screen contains the kings of Eng- 
land, from William the Conqueror to Henry VI. 

Among the monuments in the cathedral are some noble specimens 
of art; but it may be added, as a general remark, that the inscrip- 
tions on English tombs are of a tedious length, and seem intended 
for funeral orations rather than for epitaphs. This is a strange fault 
in a people generally so fond of brevity and conciseness. On one of 

the tombs at York, it was that of a Viscountess Lora -, I 

read the following, in letters of gold on white marble: " For her 

94 YORK. 

character and other particulars, see the * Gentleman's Magazine' for 
May, 1812, from wnich the following is an extract: * A firm desire 
to act rightly, and hereditary personal graces, both of form and face, 
completed her picture, &c.' " I believe that in no country less rich 
in periodical literature, would it have suggested itself to any one to 
quote a magazine on a tombstone. 

I descended into what may be called the subterranean works of 
the cathedral, where there are to be seem some crypts, vaults, and 
arches, supposed to have belonged to the church that stood upon the 
ground prior to the existence of the present structure. Some of 
these are of recent discovery, and their full extent has not probably 
been yet ascertained. The losses sustained by fire have made people 
so cautious here, that we were not allowed the use of candles on de- 
scending into the vaults, so that I was obliged to content myself 
with touching many things that I would fain have seen. I wad 
also shown a Roman altar, supposed to have belonged to a Roman 
temple that formerly occupied the same site. 

Another wonder in stone is the Chapter-house, in which the 
members of the chapter were wont to hold their meetings. It is a 
regular octagon, sixty feet high, and sixty feet in diameter. The 
fashion of the windows, the admirable proportions preserved through- 
out, the exquisite chiselling of the window-frames, the neatly turned 
arches, and the delicate columns, contribute all to make such an im- 
pression on the beholder, that when he examines them, he may 
almost fancy he is investigating the regular and harmonious struc- 
ture of a flower. A similar chapter-house, upon which, in general, 
a vast deal of ornament has been expended, will be found attached 
to almost every English cathedral; but, for the most part, it is a 
deformity, harmonising neither with the general plan of the build- 
ing, nor with the holy purpose to which it is dedicated. 

Till in the year 1799, the cathedral of Durham was thought to 
have the handsomest chapter-house in England. It had been built 
about the end of the twelfth century, at a time when the Norman 
style was at its zenith. The windows were profusely ornamented, 
and so was the roof, under which, splendidly decorated in the old 
Norman fashion, stood a number of stone chairs, in which the 
bishops and dignitaries of the diocese had been wont to place them- 
selves for 600 years. This beautiful building has ceased to exist. 
The reverend gentlemen, it seems, thought the room cold and un- 
comfortable, and very inconveniently arranged for the transaction 
of the affairs of the deanery. One of them was accordingly charged 
to do whatever was necesiry to make the houBe comfolble. $he 
clerical architect set to work accordingly, and began by sending 
some men upon the roof, to take away tne keystones, upon whicE 
the whole building had been balanced for six centuries. It cost 
some trouble to get these stones away, but perseverance overcomes 
many difficulties, and so it did on tins occasion. The stones were 
at last removed, and the whole roof fell, a heap of ruins, upon the 

YORK. 95 

floor beneath, converting the antique chairs and the tombs of the 
bishops likewise into ruins. It was an economical and expeditious 
way of taking off the roof; and having gone so far, the chanter 
thought they might go further still; the whole building was broken 
up, and with the materials a very comfortable chapter room was 

Many of the smaller churches of York possess monuments and 
architectural beauties of no small interest, but they are hardly worth 
naming after the cathedral. The old Abbey of St. Mary's, however, 
deserves a passing mention, as being already in ruins, it will soon be 
lost entirely to the admiration and wonder of the stranger. It lies 
upon the banks of the river Ouse, outside the gates of the city. The 
whole neighbourhood has now been turned into a beautiful garden, 
which is the habitual promenade of the gay world of York, and in 
the midst of which the York Museum has been erected. The broken 
columns, aisles, and arches of St. Mary's, overgrown with luxuriant 
ivy, form the most picturesque and interesting part of the garden. 
It is not the slow canker of time, nor the stormy havoc of war, 
which has caused the massive and gigantic buildings of St. Mary's 
to dwindle away into these few insignificant remains. The wanton 
destructiveness of a peaceable civic community has been as effectual 
a foe to them, as the fiercest invader or the longest succession of 
ages could have been. At various times, different corporations and 
companies have obtained permission to use the stones of St. Mary's 
Abbey, for the erection of new churches or prisons ; and thus, by 
degrees, the greater part of the buildings have been carried away. 
Only forty years ago, the stones of St. Mary's were actually burnt 
for ume at a limftlnln in the neighbourhood. 

The museum is an elegant building lying between the ruins of 
St. Mary's, and those of an ancient Roman edifice. Both these 
ruins have been presented by the English government and the cor- 
poration of York, to the society which has erected this museum. 
Its lower rooms are consequently now filled with the spoils of its 
two ancient neighbours. 

The Roman antiquities of such a city as York, which was the first 
town in Great Britain when the latter was a Roman province, — 
the birth-place of Constantine the Great, and the residence of the 
Emperors Hadrian, Severus, Caracalla, and Constantius — would 
naturally be expected to be very curious and interesting. Thejr do 
not, however, as yet at all answer these expectations; but, as it is 
only since 1822 that the work of collecting them has been going on, 
much may yet remain to be discovered and investigated. Among 
the Roman gravestones, I saw one in which a father lamented the 
loss of his little daughter, lost to him in this remote province. 
" SimpKcue FlorentiruB Arrimae iunocentisama. Fetichu Simplex 
pater fidt^ In the coffin, under this gravestone, was found a female 
skeleton about ten years of age. 

Hie most complete department of the museum at York is that of 

96 YOEK. 

geology, for whose classification and arrangement the city is in- 
debted to the well-known geologist, Professor Philipps. 

York is the only city in England, besides London, whose chief 
magistrate is dignified with the title of Lord Mayor. The county 
of York embraces so large an extent of territory and such numerous 
diversities of population, that its government is that of a kingdom 
in miniature. It is divided into three provinces, the North, East, 
and West Ridings, each governed by its own lord-lieutenant; and 
the city of York, with its lord-mayor and corporation, is as com- 
pletely cut off from all connection with the county government, as 
that of London itself. The lord-mayor of York has his Mansion- 
house, and the city its Guildhall. The latter is one of the most 
interesting old buildings in England. It is built on the banks of the 
Ouse, and its projecting windows and buttresses stretch out so far, 
that it almost seems to stand in the middle of the river. The arms 
of York, five golden lions with a red St. George's cross upon a 
silver shield, are represented on many parts of this building. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror gave the city these five golden lions for a crest, 
in commemoration of the five brave magistrates, who defended York 
against him, and were only compelled to capitulate by the pressure 
of famine. The energetic old mottos of different mayors of York, 
such as " Essayez !" " Credo P " Nil desperandum !" " Sans Dieu 
rien," &c, decorate the windows and walls of the principal hall. 

The old walls of York form an irregular quadrangle of very pecu- 
liar structure, to which I have never seen any thing at all similar, 
except at Chester. They have lately been repaired and restored 
in their original style. England is, I think, the only country, some 
of whose cities have, of late years, restored their antique fortifi- 
cations to their original state, out of mere antiquarian taste. In 
Germany, a modern city possessing old fortifications, like those of 
York, would no doubt have demohshed the outworks* rounded off 
the walls in an elegant manner, and laid them out with trees, 
flower-beds, benches, and little summer-houses. At York the only 
path along the walls, is a narrow stone trottoir, upon which two 
persons can scarcely walk abreast. This is very inconvenient, but 
it is picturesque and interesting. Sometimes this trottoir winds in 
between large masses of houses, sometimes it runs out into more 
open ground, and permits many a delightful glimpse of the open 
country beyond, and of the rich landscape round the city. Some- 
times the walls are interrupted by old gates and towers, sometimes 
they are broken by the course of a railway, so that the passenger 
has to descend a stone flight of steps, cross the railway and ascend 
another flight of steps before he can continue his walk. 

Upon the peninsula formed by the junction of the Ouse and the 
Foss, stands the old castle, which still contains the courts of justice 
and the prisons. The county gaol,— for the principal towns in all 
the English counties contain county goals distinct from the city 
goals, — is of* course one of the largest in England, on account of 

YOBK. 07 

the great size of the county in York. I took an opportunity of 
seeing the whole of this excellent prison. The average number of 
criminals it contains is 150, but on account of the late disturb- 
ances in the manufacturing districts, it contained 380, when I was 

I was told that during the winter months, from December to 
March, so many crimes were committed, that at the spring assizes 
there were usually twkfe as many criminals tried as at those of 
autumn. This may be partly owing to the facilities for crime afforded 
by the long nights of winter, and partly by the circumstance that 
there are always many more people out of employment in winter 
than in summer. The manufacturing districts of the county, con- 
tribute many more criminals to the county gaol than the agricul- 
tural and cattle-grazing disticts. 

Many of the English prisons contain very interesting studies for 
the phrenologist and physiognomist, in the shape of skulls and casts 
of different notorious criminals. I saw at York the skull of a cele- 
brated highwayman, called Dick Turpin, and of another criminal, 
named Darnel Clarke. I also saw for the first time the much dreaded 
cat-o '-nine-tails , used in the English navy and in the prisons; its ap- 
pearance is, however, perhaps less terrific than its name. It consists 
of a short, thick stick, to the end of which are attached nine knotted 
thongs of leather. It is no doubt a painful and terrible instru- 
ment, but it does not belong to the same barbarous class with the 
Russian knout, the Chinese bamboo, or the Turkish karbatsche. 

At York I became acquainted with many highly respectable 
Quakers resident there, some of whom introduced me to their cele- 
brated Quaker asylum for the insane, which is tenderly and appro- 
priately denominated " the Retreat." It is certainly one of the 
most perfect and admirable institutions in the world. As the 
Quakers have no poor among them, but belong invariably to the 
educated middle classes of society, an order, refinement, and com- 
fort, is possible among them, which would be perhaps unattainable 
in the institutions of other sects. Small as is the body of Quakers, 
society is in many ways deeply indebted to it. The Retreat at 
Dublin was the first asylum for the deranged in all Ireland, and the 
Retreat at York has led the way in the march of improvement, 
and has served as an invaluable model in the reform of other Eng- 
lish madhouses. It lies outside the town, surrounded by its beau- 
tiful gardens. Its internal arrangements are everywhere* character- 
ised by the most admirable order and refinement. The whole 
system of treatment pursued, is one of invariable mildness and bene- 
volence, founded on the principle of kindness, as the only rational 
mode of influencing the insane. Gardening and agricultural em- 
ployments have been chosen as the usual occupation of the male 
patients, on account of the beneficial and tranquillising influence 
universally found to be exercised upon the insane by these pursuits. 
This discovery has only been made in England during the last four 


98 YORK, 

years; but ite practical application has immediately and extensively 
followed the discovery. At present such employments form more 
or less the occupation of the patients, in all the madhouses of Eu- 

The diet observed in the Retreat is that common among all the 
middle classes of England ; and this more nourishing and agreeable 
regimen is found far more wholesome for the patients than the 
meagre find scanty allowance customary in most madhouses. 

The statistical tables of the Quaker Retreats have a peculiar value, 
on account of the well-known conscientious accuracy of statement 
observed by the Quakers, and also on account of the close connection 
maintained among them, which enables them to illustrate their sta- 
tistics by many interesting and valuable personal details. I shall, 
therefore, note down here a few of the results afforded by a compa- 
rison of the tables for forty-four years. 

Most Quakers are either merchants or manufacturers, and few, 
comparatively, devote themselves to agriculture; but among the pa- 
tients a far greater number in proportion are agriculturists. There 
were twenty per cent, more women in the Retreat than men. I 
believe, however, that there are many more female than male Quakers, 
and that the number of male lunatics willgenerally be found, all over 
the world, to exceed that of females. Tne female patients seem to 
be always more curable than the male ; for in these forty -four years, 
fifty-one out of every hundred female patients were cured, and only 
forty-two out of every hundred males. A similar result is afforded 
by the statistics of all other lunatic asylums with which I am ac- 
quainted. A greater number of the patients had gone mad in the 
third centenary of their lives, that is between the twentieth and thir- 
tieth years, than at any other period. Sixty-six of every hundred 
patients received were unmarried people ; and of the married patients, 
twenty out of every hundred had never had children. Out of 415 
patients, no less than 142 had had parents, or grand-parents, who were 
either actually mad, or had shown a strong tendency to insanity. 

The following are a few interesting particulars, well worthy of the 
attention of those interested in the subject. A woman inclined to 
insanity, had four children, three of whom she suckled herself. 
These all three died in the Retreat. A fourth child, which she did 
not herself suckle, was never insane. Three insane patients were the 
children of parents closely related to each other. All the other five 
children of this pair were weak in body and intellect, while the pa- 
rents themselves were healthy and intelligent. Two female patients 
were specified as having gone mad through the use of opium. I do 
not believe that in Germany there are any persons who are addicted 
to the habitual use of opium. But in England, I have been told, 
that there are villages, among whose inhabitants the use of opium 
threatens to become as common as that of tobacco. 

Among seven patients whose insanity was attributable to unhappy 
marriages, three were Quakeresses, who had married non-Quakers. 

TOW. 99 

The Quakers are very much attached to one another, and among the 
135 patients whose disease was of moral origin, eighteen had become 
insane through intense grief for the loss of near relations. This class 
of patients contained three times as many women as men. There 
were no less than twice as many female as male patients among those 
whose madness was produced by disappointed affection. Fifteen per 
cent, of the patients were inclined to suicide, or suffered as the Enghsh 
say, from " suicidal melancholy.' 9 Idiotcy seems an uncommon form 
of mental disease in England. 

A comparison of the statistical tables of thirty-four of the principal 
madhouses in Great Britain and Ireland, of which none are older 
than 1751, and of which by far the greater number were erected 
during the last thirty years, shows that, upon an average, forty per 
cent* of the patients received are cured. This fact is surely a just 
ground for exultation, on the noble contributions which our age has 
made, towards the progress of the human race. These thirty-four 
institutions have restored to the daylight of reason, and to the possi- 
bility of a clear and noble existence, no less than 24,000 poor be- 
nighted human souls ! How glorious and how encouraging to bene- 
volent exertion are these results ! 

I spent my evenings at York with my Quaker friends. Among 
these excellent people I always find myself at home. The liberal and 
cordial hospitality which they extend to everjr stranger does not in- 
jure the order, contentment, and privacy, of their happy family circles. 
Once admitted to intimacy with any of the Quakers, the thread of 
intercourse is never afterwards broken ; for the fraternity is distri- 
buted over the whole Anglo-Saxon world, and the traveller is sent 
from one " friend" to another, lengthening at every place the chain 
of his Quaker acquaintances. 

My Quaker friends had been recently travelling on the Rhine, and 
expressed themselves much pleased with the civility they everywhere 
experienced, and with the entire immunity they there enjoyed from 
the insults and mockeries which their peculiar costume often ex- 
cited in England and Scotland. The Quakers, as is well known, pay 
no tithes, and regularly allow their goods to be seized and sold in 
consequence. My Quaker friend at York, told me that it was com- 
puted that no less than 10,000f. worth of Quaker property was 
annually seized and sold on this account in England. 

The wife of my friend had not been born a Quakeress, but entered 
the community afterwards, out of love for her husband, whose parents 
would not hear of his marriage with any but a Quakeress. This 
motive was, of course, kept secret, for the Quakers do not profess to 
receive into their society, any but those whose conversion is matter 
of pure conviction. 




The next day I continued my journey towards Leeds. The city 
of York lies close to the point of junction of the three Ridings of 
Yorkshire. The East Riding, stretching to the sea and including 
the great seaports of Hull and Scarborough, is the chief commercial; 
the JNbrth Riding, lying between the great coal-plains of Dur- 
ham and Leeds, the chief agricultural; and the West Riding, 
including the great manufacturing towns, the principal manufactur- 
ing district. 

The manufacturing districts have increased immensely in popula- 
tion, of late years, while the agricultural population has not only 
remained sta&nary, -but has even somewh^dimirnshed. This I 
partly because the growth of the great manufacturing cities absorbs 
daily more and more of the rural population, and partly because the 
great landlords have of late years been making perpetual efforts 
towards diminishing the number of small farms, and putting all the 
land into the hands of great farmers. This tendency has certainly 
manifested itself much, of late, throughout the British Islands, al- 
though in some places, particularly in Ireland, many energetic efforts 
have been made against it; and its certain effect is to drive the 
population more and more into large and crowded cities. 

Opposite to me to-day sat a Quaker, who has made his name well- 
known in England, by the invention of a kind of fancy biscuit, 
very popular there, in which he carries on such an extensive busi- 
ness, that he sells five or six tons of them every week, and his agents 
and commercial travellers cost him nearly 3007. a year. His present 
journey, however, had nothing to do with fancy biscuits. It re- 
lated to some charity-schools which he had established in different 
parts of the kingdom, and with whose progress he wished to make 
himself personally acquainted. This is another example of the man- 
ner in which the Quakers often unite the most successful spirit of 
enterprise in worldly avocations, with the most enlarged and fervent 
zeal in works of benevolence and philanthropy. 

After a short journey, of I know not how many minutes, I found 
myself at Leeds. 


Leeds, like its brethren, Sheffield, Manchester, and the other 
great manufacturing cities of England, can boast of no interesting 
antiquities, no historical associations, no classical appellation like 
that of " Eboracum," the Roman name for York. But it has many 
peculiar and interesting features to boast of, perhaps quite as valu- 
able as any of these. 

Leeds is the central point of the English woollen manufacture. 

LEEDS. 101 

There are, indeed, woollen manufactories in Gloucester, Somerset, 
and Wiltshire, but they are unimportant in comparison with those 
of Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Halifax, and above all, Leeds. 
Three-fourths of the woollen-cloth produced in England is manu- 
factured in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

I visited the Cloth-hall of Leeds, which consists of a plain quadran- 
gular house, containing long spacious galleries, in winch the cloth- 
makers display their wares lor sale. The house is damp and foggy, 
but this pleases the cloth-makers, because it is softening and bene- 
ficial to their wares. The galleries are divided, on both sides into 
little cells, called " stands," about twenty-two inches wide, in which 
the sellers are stationed, with a path down the middle, through 
which the buyer walks. Each stand is the property of a manufac- 
turer, who has bought it and who may sell it when he pleases. 

The regulations of the Cloth-hall are rather curious; there are only 
two market-days, Saturday and Tuesday, and even on these days, 
the time for transacting business is rigorously limited to precisely 
eighty minutes. The meaning of this is to save time, by promoting 
the rapid and energetic despatch of business. It is found that in 
this short time, as much, nay, perhaps more business is done, than 
in the former longer periods; for no tune is now wasted in hesitation 
or delay, but both buyer and seller say at once what they mean, 
and lose neither words nor minutes over their bargains. I would 
fain put this whole paragraph in italics, for the benefit of my Ger- 
man countrymen, who might borrow a useful hint from the busy 
Cloth-hall of Leeds. The enormous mass of business transacted 
there during the year, requires, in consequence of these regulations, 
only about 135 hours. 

The sellers in these cloth-halls are principally the smaller manu- 
facturers, living in the neighbouring villages, who here sell their 
wares to the great " cloth-dressers," by whom it is finished-off, packed, 
and exported. There is some cloth which never comes into the 
cloth-halls at all, but is privately sold by the weavers to the great 

It is rather strange, that with all which the improvement of 
machinery has done to promote the " factory-system," there should 
still exist, as is the case, so many little weaving-establishments, 
entirely independant of the great manufacturers. 

During the last forty years, the number of the former has even in- 
creased, although not in the same proportion with that of the great 
factories. Perhaps the fact is, that many branches of the business 
can never be so well carried on in the factories as in the houses of the 
weavers. In bad times their number generally increases, probably 
because the great manufacturers are soonest and most powerfully 
affected by disastrous conjunctures, and their labourers thrown out of 
employment, often set up for themselves in a small way of business. 

During the late bad years, from 1838 to 1841, it is computed 
that the amount of wages paid was on an average, 27072. sterling less 

102 LEEDS. 

every week, than during the period from 1833 to 1835. The num- 
ber of oxen, pigs, and sheep, consumed every week in Leeds during 
1835, was 2450; in the year 1841, it was only 1800! Yet a 
Leeds manufacturer told me that wages had fallen much less at 
Leeds than at Manchester, and that the inhabitants of Leeds had also 
remained much more quiet. The swarms of insurgent workmen 
came all from Manchester. 

At Leeds I went over some of the great factories, in which the 
wool is carried through its various processes. One of these manu- 
factories is considered to be among the most perfect of its kind in Eng- 
land. The whole arrangements of the establishment, the elegance, 
solidity, and size of the machines, surpassed any thing I had seen 
before. I was shown two spinning-jennies, of which each spun 
with 520 bobbins. Two workmen were thus enabled to superintend 
1040 bobbins. I could scarcely believe this; but giving myself the 
trouble to count them, I found the number exact. The son of the 
manufacturer, who accompanied me, assured me that in one week 
a thread 40,000 miles long could be spun in their manufactory. 
At this rate they could " put a girdle round about the earth," if not 
in " forty minutes," yet in little more than three days. 

It is certainly a remarkable fact, that mankind should have gone 
on spinning, and weaving, in the same imperfect manner, for many 
hundreds of years, without any perceptible improvement, and that 
this lethargy should have been followed, during the last century, by 
so brilliant and unexampled a series of innovations. The thousands 
of years which elapsed between the days of old Homer's spinning 
princesses, and the latter part of the eighteenth century, did not do 
one-quarter as much for the improvement and acceleration of this 
manufacture, as the last sixty or seventy years have done. Nay, so 
great has been the difference, that, according to present appearance, 
m?er-improvement and (wer-production has now become the crying 
evil. Strange, that after a torpor of centuries, profound as that of 
the Seven famed Sleepers, the spirit of mechanical invention, start- 
ing from its long slumber, should suddenly put on its most for- 
midable seven-league-boots, and fairly out-run itself! 

When, after the senses and understanding have been for some 
time astonished, and bewildered, by the examination of these bustling 
noisy giants, with all their spinning, carding, twisting, weaving, 
brushing, cutting, dressing, and finishing apparatus, and the heart 
has swelled with pride, at tne thought of these brilliant conquests of 
human intellect over the subject world of matter, and of the in- 
creased impetus which all improvement naturally gives to the spirit 
of progress in the world— when after this, I say, the spectator turns 
for a moment to contemplate the fate of those helpless and unhappy 
thousands, whom every improvement in the world of machinery, 
seems only to grind down still lower into the abyss of wretchedness 
and degradation, how painful and tormenting is the doubt which 
then forces itself upon him, whether after all, this brilliant array of 

LEEDS. 103 

Jower and ingenuity, be not rather a curse than a blessing to the 
uman race, and whether the same change which seems almost to 
have elevated machines into intelligent beings, has not in reality 
degraded intelligent being into machines. 

Leeds, like all the great manufacturing cities in England, is a 
dirty, smoky, disagreeable town. Though its streets are laid out on 
a regular plan, there are very few neat rows of houses to be seen, 
because the factories take up a great deal of room, and do not sub- 
mit to any regular arrangement. The streets are not all paved, and 
no provision has yet been made for the regular carrying off of mud 
and rain-water. The River Aire, which runs through the town in 
different canals, is everywhere thick and dirty, in consequence of 
the various contributions made to its waters, from all the different 
manufactories. The attention of parliament has lately been drawn 
to this state of the city, and many provisions for its improvement 
have been made. Among other regulations it has been enacted that 
all the factories should provide themselves, before the 1st of January, 
1843, with chimneys for perfect combustion, by which Leeds will 
be spared the infliction of much of their noxious smoke. 

Tnough the woollen fabric is the principal employment of Leeds 
and its vicinity, many other sorts of factories are there to be found. 
Leeds contains chemical works of various kinds, leather, mustard, 
and brush manufactories, and glass works, and potteries of different 
kinds, many of which I visited, and in all of which I saw or heard 
something that was both new and interesting to me. 

The manufacturing cities of England are none of them very at- 
tractive or pleasing in appearance, but Leeds is, perhaps, the ugliest 
and least attractive town in all England. In Birmingham, Man- 
chester, and other such cities, among the mass of chimneys and fac- 
tories, are scattered, here and there, splendid newsrooms, or clubs, 
and interesting exchanges, banks, railway-stations, or Wellington and 
Nelson monuments. Leeds has none of these. I was, therefore, not 
sorry when, after seeing what interested me in the manufactories of 
Leeds, the time came for me to seat myself once more in one of those 
cheerful and comfortable flying-houses, in which T scarcely ever 
failed to enjoy, besides their own comforts, the society of some com- 
municative and interesting fellow-traveller; for stiff and reserved as 
the English are said to be to each other, I have always found them, 
in their own country, friendly, hospitable, and sociable towards the 
traveller and the stranger. 

Who can fail to admire the ease and simplicity with which the, 
elsewhere complex and troublesome, business of travelling is carried 
on in England ! The traveller appoints what time he will for setting 
off, for almost every hour furnishes an opportunity; he is secure of 
finding room, for the size of the equipage varies according to its cus- 
tomers. On the way he talks, reads, or writes, just as he pleases, for 
the conveyance is convenient, and brilliantly lighted, and the motion 
smooth and easy. And; above all, he knows the exact minute when 


he shall arrive, for the English trains are the most punctual in the 
world, and are seldom one minute longer in reaching their destina- 
tion than the time set down for them in Bradshaw's " Monthly Rail* 
way Guide." 


I booked myself only as far as Wakefield, because I had a visit to 
make at a country-house not far from that place. 

My only associations with the name of Wakefield being those of 
Goldsmith's far-famed and delightful " Vicar," I had expected to 
find a quiet, pretty little village, or, at least, an old-fashioned, pic- 
turesque, little country town, and I even pictured to myself the plea- 
sure of finding among the inhabitants some aged gossip who still 
retained recollections of the good old pastor, and his two beautiful 
daughters. I was, therefore, not a little surprised when, on leaving 
the station, a great lumbering omnibus, full of passengers, carried 
me through the busy, gaslit streets of a large thriving manufac- 
turing town, with a population of nearly 30,000. Wakefield is, 
however, a well-built, pleasant-looking place, and is not so exclu- 
sively devoted to manufactures as Leeds. It has a pretty old church, 
called the church of All Saints, whose chimes ring out a different 
melody every day in the week. There are also many interesting old 
houses here, decorated with quaint devices, in black wood, and built 
with projecting stories one above another. At the end of a bridge, 
on the eastern side of the town, still stands the old chapel, erected 
over the spot where the young Earl of Rutland fell by the hand of 
the revengeful Clifford, in that battle of Wakefield, well known to 
every reader of Shakespeare. This chapel is built of stone and de- 
corated with various quaint figures and devices; but it is at present 
used as a turnpike house. 

From the Yorkshire country-seat, in the neighbourhood of Wake- 
field, at which I had the pleasure of spending a few days, I made 
many little excursions to the different farm-houses in the neighbour- 
hood. I know not whether the Yorkshire farm-houses enjoy any 
particular reputation in England; Mac Culloch calls them "rather 
indifferent," but those which I saw astonished me by their extreme 
neatness, order, and cleanliness. Yet these were not the houses of 
the gentlemen farmers, but of the simple farming peasants. The 
excellence of the cattle and their accommodations, the luxuriant 
growth and admirable cultivation of the fruits and flowers in the 
gardens — the order and shining brightness of the kitchens — the re- 
splendent cleanliness of the dairies — all these things excited my ad- 
miration not a little. The rooms, passages, and staircases are often 
covered with carpets, which seem only just to have come from the 
manufactory; and in the rooms, I do not mean the sitting rooms and 
company rooms, but in the bed rooms, reigns an exquisite order and 
neatness, which, if it were not so praiseworthy in itself, I should call 


almost painful in its precision. We have nothing of the kind in 
Germany. We have, indeed, large, orderly, well-kept farm-houses, 
such as those in Southern Bavaria, Austria, Westphalia, the valleys 
of the Prussian rivers, and those of the Elbe and Weser; but they 
are not like those of England. In the first place, every thing is more 
rude and boorish with us, and there is, at the same time, something 
much more poetical and picturesque. An English farm-house would 
offer but few materials to the painter, there is too much precision 
and regularity, and every thing appears to be laid out on the model 
of the best books on agriculture. 

I admired the stone trottoirs for foot passengers, which line all 
the roads and lanes in this part of the country. They are called 
causeways, and consist of large stones, laid close beside each other. 
All the cottages and farm-houses in this part of the country are 
built of large stones, and not of tiles as in Staffordshire. 

As I was returning to the railway-station at Wakefield, a heavy 
shower of rain obliged me to seek shelter in a cottage by the way 
side. The old woman who inhabited it, told me that she had lived 
there for eighty years, and so quiet and stationary had been her 
life, that she had scarcely ever gone more than two miles away 
from her cottage. Poor old soul ! What events had passed unno- 
ticed around her, during those eighty years, among the most re- 
markable in British history! Her principal friend, she said, was 
the clergyman, who sometimes visited her when he made his rounds, 
" to look after the souls." " I was a hard labouring woman," 
said she, " and so I think that God in the sky-heaven, will reserve 
me a place in his kingdom." 

I am told that there are in Yorkshire as in Westmoreland, Saxon 
families among the gentry, who date their grandeur back far beyond 
the conquest, and are far prouder than the less anciently descended 
nobility of the country. 

The Yorkshire people boast that its population is not, like that 
of most counties in England, split into two hostile and conflicting 
parties, but that in this county, every one has his own individual 
opinions, and there are many who never trouble themselves about 
political parties at all. These neutral men are indeed quite nu- 
merous enough in England, to form a third party by themselves, 
and they are so vehement in their neutrality, so hotly opposed to 
all existing parties; there is, in short, so much party spirit in their 
impartiality, that they furnish only another illustration of the na- 
tural tendency of all Englishmen to party spirit. 

In the interior of the country, as well as in the neighbourhood of 
Leeds, Newcastle, &c, we were met by crowds of poor beggars from 
the manufacturing districts. There was, of course, a good deal of 
rabble among them, but many families were respectable-looking 
and decently dressed. They go from house to house, offering their 
little wares; cutlery or cotton, or other manufactures. They all 
repeat the same dismal story: " We are out of employment, sir, and 


have no bread for our children; and now we are wandering about, 
selling our little wares for the support of our families." There is 
often an earnestness, a fixed despair in their manly countenances, 
which leaves the spectator no room for doubt as to tne truth of their 
statements. Their respectable appearance, their polite manners, and 
their gratitude for the smallest purchase, are all witnesses in their 
favour. I never saw any beggars whose appearance was so omi- 
nous, and so well calculated to inspire terror, as well as pity, as 
these workpeople in the English manufacturing cities, whose re- 
spectability, industry, and order, are all so many proofs that it is 
from some deeply-rooted evil in the social system, and not from 
their own fault, that they suffer. They often express the reluctance 
with which they follow their mendicant calling; and the single 
word " out of employment," is often their only petition, I wish I 
could have lightened with gold the heavy weight which oppressed 
my heart, whenever I heard these words used. 

I drove to Manchester in company with a German resident in 
that city. The number of Germans living in Manchester amounts, 
I believe, to somewhere about 1000. There are in Manchester 
great numbers of foreign houses of business, which supply their own 
countrymen with the produce of this great manufacturing metro, 
polis. Manchester and London are the only cities in England, 
where oriental mercantile houses are to be found. Among the 
Germans in Manchester, there are many fur traders; and I was told 
that the greater part of the fur business, all those branches indeed 
which deal in Russian, Polish, German, or Asiatic furs, are in the 
hands of Germans. 

My German fellow-traveller told me, that we were driving 
through a beautiful district, full of rich landscapes and fertile 
valleys. I believed this readily, from the little which I saw of it by 
the light of the moon. The meadows, faintly lighted by her weak 
rays, looked often very rich and beautiful. Sometimes we beheld, 
in the picturesque valleys, spots glittering with a great cluster of 
lights; tnese were the wealthy and populous towns of Huddersfield, 
Halifax, Rochdale, Oldham, &c.; many of them containing 
60,000 inhabitants. What numbers of rejoicing and sorrowing 
souls were hidden within those obscure towns, whose names are 
hardly known out of their own county I Lancashire contains nearly 
a dozen of these obscure great towns, and is the most populous 
county in England with the exception of Middlesex, containing 
three-fifths as many inhabitants as the whole kingdom of Scotland. 


I know no town in Great Britain, except London, which makes 
so deep an impression upon the stranger as Manchester. London 
is alone of its kind, and so is Manchester. Never since the world 


began, was there a town like it, in its outward appearance, its 
wonderful activity, its mercantile and manufacturing prosperity, 
and in its remarkable moral and political phenomena. But be- 
fore attempting to give any idea of its more general features 
and character, which to a reader unacquainted with Manchester, 
would be very difficult, I shall endeavour to describe some of its 
particular parts, which I had an opportunity of investigating; re- 
gretting only that that which I saw, was so little in comparison 
with the mass of interesting novelties it contained. When enter- 
ing for the first time a town like that of Manchester, the stranger, 
overwhelmed by the new and interesting spectacle presented to him, 
scarcely dares to look this giant full in the face at once, and prefers 
becoming gradually accquainted with some of the details before 
venturing to make a general survey of the whole. 

Opposite to the splendid hotel where I lodged, — the Albion 
Hotel, — stood one of the most interesting buildings in the place: I 
mean the great Manchester Hospital, an institution offering a fund 
of most interesting, medical, statistical, and miscellaneous informa- 
tion. It is to be regretted that this building lies in the very heart 
of the town, as this circumstance deprives the patients of the very 
desirable advantages of spacious gardens and country air. Man- 
chester, however, is an open airy town; and the founders of this 
institution could never have guessed, in 1752, that the growth of 
Manchester would be so rapid, as so soon to place the hospital, then 
outside it, within the very heart of the town. 

Six physicians and six surgeons are appointed for this hospital, 
which affords relief annually to about 20,000 patients. Of these, 
however, only about one-tenth enter the house itself; the rest 
being out-door patients. The receipts of the house amount an- 
nually to about 9000Z. sterling. In the year 1841, owing to the bad 
times, from which all private and public institutions suffered more 
or less, the list of subscribers to the Manchester Hospital lost 153 
names, which diminished the funds of the institution by 508/. 

The physician of this hospital told me that nervous diseases were 
remarkably frequent in the manufacturing districts. I believe there 
is no hospital where there are so many cases of St. Vitus's dance 
as at Manchester. Scarcely a day passes without its receiving some 
persons afflicted with this disease. Acute diseases seem more com- 
mon in the agricultural, and chronic in the manufacturing districts. 
The most remarkable part of the statistics, however, is that relating 
to accidents, the number of which is here enormous. No less than 
4000 serious accidents are treated here every year. The quantity 
of complicated and dangerous machinery used in the manufactories 
of Manchester, is probably the chief cause of this. Since so great 
a proportion of serious accidents probably occurs in no hospital of 
Europe, and since this forms a characteristic feature in the con- 
dition of the inhabitants, a few details concerning it will probably 
be not uninteresting to some of my readers. 


Among the patients of the hospital during the last year, the 
cases of — 

Simple or complicated fractures (of arms, legs, ribs, &c) were 454 

Dislocation of the limbs 533 

Wounds from cuts 71 

Wounds from stabs 46 

Lacerations 714 

Contusions 959 

Burns 120 

Scalds 135 

Fractures of the Skull 9 

besides other less numerous or serious accidents. Of all these, only 
one-fourth are attributed to machinery; the rest are owing to other 

What can occasion this great number of other accidents I do not 
know. I was told that the carts which convey goods from one part 
of the city to another, drive very fast; this is true, but the streets are 
wide and open. The many railroads near Manchester no doubt con- 
tribute their shares. The boxing matches and drunken quarrels, so 
frequent among the lower classes, must also be remembered. Still 
all this is hardly sufficient to account for the statement. 

The statistical tables of the hospital show that one in every eighty- 
seven of the inhabitants is seriously injured or wounded every year. 
Or if an average duration of thirty-five years be allowed for the life 
of every inhabitant, two serious wounds are suffered during life by 
every nve inhabitants. 

The distribution of medicines to the out-patients of the Manchester 
Hospital is a very curious sight. They, or their children sent by them, 
receive the medicines in a particular part of the building appropriated 
to the purpose, and arranged something like the bureaus of the money 
takers at a French theatre. The passages are arranged so that only 
one person can stand before the bureau at the time. The store of 
medicines and physic bottles which were shown us in the cellars 
was really enormous. Homoeopathy can have made very little pro- 
gress among the English, to judge of the enormous quantities in 
which they dispense their medicines. The library of the hospital 
contained a great many devotional works, but very few books of 
voyages and travels, popular science, or fiction. The superfluity of 
religious works appeared to me as great as that of medicines. 

If the prisons of a country are always interesting subjects of in- 
vestigation to the traveller desirous of making himself acquainted 
with the character and condition of the people, this is peculiarly the 
case in England, where the superintendants of the prisons are always 
so liberal in affording him opportunities and assistance. The New 
Bailey of Manchester, which was built by the celebrated Howard, at 
the end of the last century, is one of the most extensive, important, 
and interesting prisons in the country. It contains on an average, at 
all times, about 718 prisoners. The prisoners, however, are conti- 
nually changing, and very few remain here long. After a short 


time some are set free, others transported, and others sent to the 
county gaol of Lancashire, to await the expiration of their sentence. 
There are other smaller prisons in Manchester, and in the year 
1841, the number of prisoners received in all the prisons of Man- 
chester put together, amounted to 13,345. A comparison of this 
sum with that of former years, and with the increase of population, 
will show a great increase of crime of late: 

In the year 1825 the population amounted to 200,000, and the prisoners were 1679 

„ 1831 „ „ „ „ 266,000 n n n 2423 

„ 1835 „ „ „ „ 300,000 „ „ „ 8203 

1841 „ 354,000 „ 13,345 

Thus while the population has scarcely doubled since 1825, the 
number of criminals has increased seven-fold. No doubt the increased 
severity of police discipline may have something to do with this 
surprising fact. Nor must it be forgotten that crime always increases 
with an increased population, in rather greater proportion than the 
population itself; because a large population not merely contains more 
criminals, but offers more temptations and opportunities for crime 
than a small one. But making all possible allowances of this kind, 
an enormous increase of crime still remains to be accounted for. I 
attribute this partly to the demoralising influence of the occupations 
of the workpeople in the great factories, and partly to the distress 
occasioned by the late bad times. 

The deplorable state of ignorance among the manufacturing po- 
pulation is sufficiently proved by the statistics of the prisons. Of the 
13,345 prisoners of the year 1841, there were 6971 who could 
neither read nor write at all; 5162 who could read and write a little; 
992 who could read and write well, and only 220 who had received 
any further instruction. Of these the women were the most ignorant. 
Only one in twenty-six of the female prisoners could read and write 
well ; while one in every nine of the male prisoners was so far 

Although the men, therefore, are three times as well educated as 
the women, the tables of population show that criminality is three 
times as frequent among the former. In the year 1841, there were 
185,000 women and 170,000 men in Manchester, that is 15,000 
more women than men. Yet the number of female criminals was 
only 3420, while that of the males was 9925. Of course this is no 
argument against the beneficial effects of reading and writing; the 
prevalence of drunkenness among the male population, as well as 
numerous other concurring circumstances, may well account for the 

The number of juvenile criminals in England is always a subject 
of surprise and horror to the stranger. In the New Bailey of Man- 
chester I found great numbers of boys and girls under seventeen. 
The number of juvenile criminals is probably greater in Manchester 
than in any other town of Great Britain, because the juvenile popu- 


lation itself is larger. More than half the entire population of Man* 
Chester is under twenty-three years of age. 

In die year 1841 were convicted and sentenced to transportation 
in Manchester alone, 177 children under seventeen years of age. 
Eighty-seven boys and fifteen girls were sentenced to seven years 
transportation, fifty-five boys ana five girls to ten years, and twenty- 
six boys to fifteen years. 

When I was in the New Bailey, almost all the solitary cells were 
filled with boys who had committed fresh offences since entering the 
prison, and were, consequently, condemned to solitary confinement ; 
a punishment, for many reasons, probably the most pernicious in the 
world for growing children. One of the boys was already a third 
time in prison. The guilt of these children rests of course ultimately 
upon the neglect and immorality of their parents. One of the boys, 
formerly an industrious and well-behaved lad, had become a thief out 
of sheer desperation and want, because his drunken father deprived 
him by force of his week's wages every Saturday night, and then left 
him to suffer the most bitter privation for want of it. An interesting 
investigation, lately made at Manchester, places the responsibility of 
the parents in the clearest light. Out of 100 poor children who bad 
committed crimes, there were, 

Children of dishonest and profligate parents 60 

„ profligate but not dishonest parents 30 

„ respectable and industrious parents., 10 


Nine-tenths of the children, therefore, had been early contaminated 
by vicious example and education ; and of the remaining tenth, the 
greater part probably owed their corruption to early contact with bad 
neighbours and children. " Confirmed bad habits" is the universal 
complaint of those connected with the English prisons, when they 
speak of the youthful criminals. Such was also the burden of the 
lament of the good old schoolmaster at the New Bailey. This excel- 
lent old man snowed me a journal, which he had for some time been 
in the habit of keeping, concerning his. depraved young scholars. 
He also showed me a letter which a mother had entrusted to him, to 
be sent to her son, who had been transported to one of the penal 
colonies. The following is a passage from this letter. "How it 
grieves me, my dear son, that you had such a stormy passage to Aus- 
tralia. I thought something must have happened to you, as you did 
not write to me. My little shop does not go on a bit better ; on the 
contrary, it is worse this year than the last, and every thing grows 
worse here every year. I feel very comfortable with James, for we 
have family prayers together twice a day, every morning and every 
evening. God be with you, my dear son. Your affectionate mother, 
&c ." The traveller should never omit to notice these little things, 
which often throw much light on the manner in which the obscurest 


comers of the country are affected by period* of public prosperity or 

Another frequent subject of surprise to the visitor of English 
prisons, is the number of times which the criminals have been con- 
victed and punished. Among the 6380 prisoners tried at Manches- 
ter in 1841, more than a third had been convicted before, and many 
had been in prison three or four times. One woman was convicted 
for the twenty-third time ; and in London, at the Old Bailey, I saw 
a woman who had been in prison more than a hundred times. It 
would seem that there is a regular prison population, who are all 
their lives employed in committing offences and being punished for 
them. This certainly argues some defectiveness in the system of 
punishment. Perhaps the superiority of the diet and lodging in the 
prisons, to that in the habitations of the poor, offers some tempta- 
tions to those who have experienced it. 

Perhaps the English laws do not increase the punishment of an of- 
fence in proportion to its repetition. It is certain that with us, a woman 
who had committed the same offence twenty-three or a hundred times, 
would have been long ago restrained by imprisonment for life. 

The following is the weekly provision of a full-grown prisoner, in 
the Manchester New Bailey. 

r. d. 

Seven loavea of twenty ounces each, costing... • 1 1 

Thirty-one ounces of flour , 4 

Five pounds of potatoes 1 

One pint of peaae 1 

Three ounces and a half of salt 

One pound of beef , 4 

One quart of beer 

1 11 

The lodgings of the prisoners are always clean, spacious, and 
airy; as for the prison discipline, I believe it is milder in England 
than with us. The chapel attached to the prison is of course Epis- 
copalian, and the prisoners are all obliged to attend service there. 
As a great many of them are Irish Catholics, I asked whether they 
did not sometimes make objections to do so; but I was told that 
such an instance had never occurred. The employments used here 
are the same as those used in most English prisons, namely, shoe- 
making, mat-making, the twisting of cocoa-nut thread, and finally 
the far-famed treadmill. 

The treadmills are the worst and most detested employments 
used in the English prisons, particularly those arranged upon the 
new, solitary system. In the old treadmills, six or eight persons 
worked close together, and even if they were not allowed to speak 
with one another, they had at all events the consolation of seeing 
each other's faces, and working in company. According to the 
solitary system, each labourer is separated from the rest by thick 
wooden walls, and must continue his dreary, TantalusJike occupation! 
in silence and solitude. 


I know of no kind of labour which seems. so miserable as this 
useless, monotonous, and lonely treading. In summer time, those 
who are kept at it, tread for twenty hours together, making 12,400 
steps; in winter they tread for seven hours and a half, making 10,500 
steps; all being steps upwards in both cases. Every step is about 
eight inches long; so that their day's treading takes them nearly as 
many steps as to mount half way up Mont Hanc. Yet they never 
get a step the forwarder, and always remain at exactly the same 
place where they were before. It is inconceivable to me, why -an 
industrious nation like the English, has not contrived to turn all this 
treading to account, and to connect the treadmills with useful ma- 
chinery of various kinds. 

While I was in the prison, the governor received a visit from the 
so-called " contractor for removing the convicts," and I now learned 
that, in England, it is not the government which undertakes the 
conveyance of criminals, but that this is in the hands of private 
speculators. The contractor gave the governor a receipt, in which 
he certified having received " the bodies of twenty-five convicts," 
in order to put them on board the hulks at Chatham. I now learnt 
that those sentenced to transportation for a short period, are only re- 
moved to some harbour, such as Chatham or Woolwich, where they 
are confined in old ships fiited out as prisons, and called " hulks." 
When criminals are to De removed to these hulks, from any prison in 
the interior of the country, the governor of that prison gives public 
notice that he has so many prisoners to transport to such a place, and 
that the conveyance will be entrusted to whoever will undertake it at 
the lowest price. The contractor must of course give security, that he 
will deliver the right number at the right time and the right place, 
undamaged and in good condition; but otherwise he may do what 
he pleases with them. The commander of the hulks gives the con- 
tractor a certificate of the safe and full delivery of the convicts, which 
he must again hand over to the governor of the prison whence he 
received them. Formerly the contractors used large vans for this 
purpose, but of late they generally hire the horse-boxes of the rail- 
way trains, which are fitted up with benches for the purpose. Two- 
hundred and fifty criminals are annually transported m this way from 
the New Bailey of Manchester. 

The criminal tables of Lancaster and Manchester show that crimes 
of all kinds are much more prevalent in the manufacturing, than in 
the agriculturing and cattle-grazing districts, and even than in the 
populous metropolitan district itself 

Lancashire contained, in 1841, 1,667,000 inhabitants, and 3137 
convicted criminals. Middlesex (containing the greater part of 
London) contained 1,577,000 inhabitants, and 2709 convicted cri- 
minals. Thus in Lancaster there was one criminal to every 530 in- 
habitants, and in Middlesex one to every 590. The heaviest crimes 
are still more frequent proportionably, in Lancashire, than the lighter 
ones. Of sixty-six persons accused of murder in England in 1841, 

MAKCHE8TE*. 113 

eleven were from Lancashire, eight from York, and six from Mid- 
dlesex. Of 218 tiied for manslaughter, one-fifth were from Man-* 
Chester, and only one-tenth from Middlesex. From Lancashire came 
108 burglars, and from Middlesex only 44. In considering these 
facts, however, it must not be forgotten that the police is far more 
vigilant and efficient in London than in Manchester. 

The number of houseless beggars, of destitute vagabonds, and of 
poor workmen without employment who fill the great towns of 
England, and whose number increases every year, has attracted the 
attention of the benevolent among the English of late years, and has 
led. to the establishment of night-asylums at various places, whose 
object it is, to afford some sort of nightly shelter, gratis, to those 
unable to pay for it at public houses of entertainment. The Night- 
Asylum of Manchester has been opened for about four years. I 
visited it late in the evening, for it is only at that time that it can 
be seen in operation. In the entrance-hall was a sort of tribune, at 
which sat a few citizens of Manchester, who were acting as secre- 
taries or directors of the society, by whom the asylum was estab- 
lished. The poor wanderers came before this tribune, one by one, 
and after answering a number of questions concerning their ages, 
names, employments, &c, they were dismissed, into the .great 
sleeping-room. No one is allowed to come to the asylum more 
than two nights running. Each, on being admitted, receives a 
piece of bread and a small allowance of coffee, which he heats at 
the fire burning in the middle of the sleeping-room. 

During the year 1840, 17,700 persons were sheltered here; during 
1841, 24,400 ; and by the middle of November, 23,490 during 1842. 
The present average number of applicants is ninety, every night. 
When I visited the asylum, the night's number of ninety was com- 
plete, and I saw the greater part of them seated on long benches 
round the fire, at which they were warming their coffee. Most of 
them were smoking, for this is allowed here, because tobacco-smoke 
is considered a good remedy against infectious disorders. Many of 
them were Irish, and these I readily recognised, by the potatoes 
which they had laid among the ashes before the fire, ana which 
they occasionally turned to see if they were done. I saw one black 
negro face among the white ones lit up by the friendly blaze, and I 
was told that a short time ago there were seven negroes here at 
once. Sometimes a poor brown Hindoo, or Malay, knocks at the 
asylum door, and in one of these great rooms, Africans, Asiatics, 
and Europeans often creep together for shelter, from the chilling 
blasts of an EngUsh winter's night. 

I was particularly struck by the perfect silence^ |>ervading the 
assembly, which was carefully guarded by a few vigilant overseers 
who walked about among them, everywhere maintaining order and 
stillness. No one was wowed to speak above a whisper. I was 
told that this strict silence was absolutely necessary to prevent quar- 
rels and disturbances. It seems that the English silent system is 



maintained in other places than the prisons. Such a system would 
be looked upon in some countries, in France for instance, as the 
very height of tyrannjr. 

This silence is sometimes broken by one of the town missionaries, 
who come to these places to preach sermons and distribute tracts 
to the poor destitute wanderers. These town-missionaries are the 
servants of a remarkable association at Manchester, called the 
Town-mission. There are, in all the great towns of England, a vast 
number of persons who do not belong to any religious denomination 
whatever, and do not practise any kind of religious worship. 
Among 50,409 persons, examined eight years ago on this subject 
in Manchester, there were found 4481 persons who held no kind of 
Christian or unchristian belief. The number of such uncared-for 
outcasts of the churches is far greater in London. Astounded by 
the discovery of this state of things in Manchester, a number of 
benevolent men founded this Town-mission in 1837. This asso- 
ciation has sixty agents or missionaries in its employ, belonging to 
all the different religious denominations, who visit the most secret 
haunts of misery in all parts of the town, instructing the poor, and 
endeavouring to awaken religious sentiments in their minds. Each 
has a particular district assigned him, as the sphere of his activity, 
in which he holds religious meetings, distributes tracts and bibles, 
and visits the prisons and the dwellings of the poor. We have no 
such associations among us; and, it must also be said, have no need 
of such. 

I was much interested by the appearance and answers of poor 
wanderers, who prayed for admittance into the Night Asylum. I re- 
cognised most of them as Irish by their dialect. The greater num- 
ber of the petitioners were artizans and mechanics. One among 
these particularly excited my interest. He was an Englishman, 
and, as his letters of recommendation stated, " an industrious, hard- 
working man." Driven by the necessities of the times, he had left 
England with his little savings the year before, and had gone over 
to Belgium, in the hope that English labour would be wanted and 
valued there. He could get no work, however, and had gone both 
to France and Germany, everywhere seeking work, but the opinion 
at present entertained of English labourers on the continent was, he 
said, so bad that he could nowhere obtain any. As he had gra- 
dually consumed his little savings, he was at last reduced to beg- 
gary, and was driven over the frontiers as a vagabond. He had 
wen returned to England, and had wandered on from town to town, 
seeking work and finding none. Having now arrived at Man* 
Chester, he had come to the Night Asylum, in hopes of being per- 
mitted to rest his weary head there for a few hours. This man's 
face alone was * sufficient proof that he was suffering, not from his 
own fault, but from the misfortunes of the times. The gentlemen 
present told me, that the pressure of the times was now felt in 
regions which it had never reached before, and that they could 


easily traoe, by means of the different applicants to this institution, 
the manner in which the waves of the national misfortune reach 
further and further at every rise of the tide, and make havoc in the 
obscurest corners of society. 

The course of adversity in Manchester has probably been some- 
what as follows: first, the merchants were affected by trie stagnation 
of trade, and they again influenced the manufacturers, by no longer 
requiring their wares. Thus, factory after factory was stopped, and 
its owners became bankrupts. This stopping of the factories turned 
numbers of labourers out of employment. All the smaller trades- 
people and shopkeepers now suffered from the failure of their cus- 
tom ; and the masons, carpenters, and bricklayers, could get no work, 
because no new houses were built, and those already building were 
stopped. Next, the butchers, bakers, and grocers, began to go down 
in the world, on account of the decrease in their custom, and they 
again affected the farmers and gardeners in the neighbourhood of 
the towns. The decrease in the price of provisions of late is not 
merely owing to the alteration in the corn laws, but in great part to 
the decrease of the demand for them. The remark I made in speak* 
ing of Leeds, that the inhabitants now eat only two-thirds as much 
meat as they did in 1836, would probably apply equally well to 

In the accounts kept at the asylum, concerning the applicants, 
it was noted down, which could read and write, and whicn could 
not. Out of thirty which I counted at random, there were twenty 
who could neither read nor write. The gentlemen also assured me, 
that among those who were recorded as possessed of the art of writ- 
ing, a great many could only write their own names, sometimes they 
were only equal to their initials. In a report concerning the mar- 
riages solemnised in Lancashire and Cheshire in the year 1840, it is 
stated that of the 17,565 pairs, 6798 men, and 11,505 women, that 
is more than half of the whole number, were unable to sign 
even their initials, and could only make their marks 1 Tet Lan- 
cashire is by no means the worst of the English counties in this 
respect. There are shires in which sixty in every hundred are un- 
able to write. I could not help wondering at this state of things in 
England, when I remembered that the wild Tartars of the Crimea 
are almost all able to read and write. 

Out of the 24,000 persons received at the asylum in 1841, 16,900 
were poor mechanics or labourers seeking work ; and only a small 
proportion were vagabonds and beggars. I learnt, that in connexion 
with this night asylum, there is, at Manchester, a place called a 
soup-kitchen, at which platefuls of soup are distributed at very tri- 
fling cost. I was not able to see this institution, as it was just under- 
going some alterations, but I looked over the accounts of the distri- 
bution, and found that Thursday was invariably the day of the week 
on which most soup was applied for. From Sunday to Thursday, 



the quantity required regularly increases, and after that day decreases 
again. What the reason of this may be, I do not know. 

The same night I visited one of the Manchester police-offices, to 
which the kindness of a friend procured me admission.. It was half 
underground, and was reached by a descending flight of steps. It 
consisted of rooms, in which the police commissioners sat as judges, 
although it was twelve o'clock at night, and behind were several 
lock-ups , as the temporary prisons of the police-offices are called. 
At Manchester, there are, in winter 300, and in summer 250 police- 
men in constant employment. All persons guilty of offences in the 
streets are seized by the policemen, and taken to the police-offices, 
when they are either dismissed with a warning, or put in the lock- 
up. On entering, the police-commissioners allowed us to walk 
round the rooms, and our eyes immediately alighted on a dirty, 
noisy fellow, seemingly both mad and drunk, whose face was stream- 
ing with blood, and who was held down by force on a wooden stool, 
by two policemen, while a third was shearing his hair in order to 
examine his wounds. Such scenes are sure to meet the eye of the 
visitor to any London police-office, from the Mansion House in 
London down to the subterranean lock-up in Manchester. Behind 
the bars of the lock-up sat several drunken fellows, who were 
swearing and quarrelling in a frightful manner, so that the noise 
rang all through the subterranean vaults. In the same cell with 
these wretches, were shut up a couple of little boys. As I approached 
the bars, a wild-looking girl started forward, thrust her arm through, 
and pinched me in the leg ; she then raised a savage laugh, which 
was echoed by all her companions. 

As we returned to the outer room, two little boys were brought 
into it, who had been taken up on suspicion of theft. The chief 
suspicion rested upon the handsomest and liveliest of the two, a 
short but powerful-looking, bright-eyed urchin of fourteen ; it turned 
out that, young as he was, he had already been in prison four times, 
and had been repeatedly taken up by the police. The other, a 
dull heavy lad, had been only taken up because he had been found 
in company with the other little vagabond; he was dismissed after 
a severe admonition from the magistrate, never again to let himself 
be found in such bad company. His father, who had come in with 
him, took him home. The little criminal of fourteen looked so 
fearless and good-humoured, that I could not help thinking he 
would have made an excellent sailor in the British navy. Perhaps, 
had his childhood been better attended to, the native boldness and 
dauntless spirit of enterprise, which in his case, led him only into 
crime and degradation, might have rendered him a useful and per- 
haps distinguished member of that body. The boy had no parents, 
and he had been dismissed by one master after another, until he 
had become a regular member of the idle and depraved street-popu- 
lation of Manchester. 


In a work concerning Manchester, by a certain Mr. Love, which 
contains much useful statistical information, I found that in the 
year 1841, no less than 2730 lost children had been found by the 
police, and restored to their parents. This number sounds incre- 
dible, but I have seen other works in which it Was exceeded. In 
the same year, 1841, there existed in Manchester 160 houses for 
the reception of stolen goods; 103 houses for the resort of thieves; 
109 lodging-houses, where the sexes sleep indiscriminately together; 
91 mendicant lodging-houses; 1267 beer-houses and public-nouses. 
Of these 1267 public-houses, 462 were charged before the magis- 
trates with being disorderly houses. Mr. Love, in his work on 
Manchester, mentions a new kind of attraction, recently adopted by 
some of the public-houses to draw costumers. A great organ 
is put up in some spacious room, which on Sunday evenings is 
played by some musician hired for the purpose, and often accom- 
panied by the voices of good singers. In order to lay at rest the 
pious scruples of those whom it is desired to' attract, little else but 
psalmody and church music is played. This generally attracts a 
full audience. " If you pass the door of one of these houses on 
Sunday evening, you hear only the sacred music of the solemn in- 
strument. But if you enter, you see a number of both sexes, well- 
dressed work-people, and gaily-attired girls, sitting about in various 
groups. Before each group stand jugs of porter and ale, at which 
men, women, and children, are drinking together. Some half 
drunk, and others quite drunk, are attempting to join the pious 
melody. In this way the host, while pretending to edify by reli- 
gious music, is really only encouraging drunkenness, and filling his 
pockets, while sowing the seeds of future crime. Dreadful are the 
scenes that often take place here. How many respectable and 
decent people, who visit such places for the first time, only to pass 
an innocent and cheerful evening, are gradually corrupted by a taste 
for, and a habit of, bad company, which eventually leads to crime 
and degradation, and ruins them both for time and eternity !" * 

There are English writers who maintain that Manchester is not 
more criminal or immoral than other large towns. They assert 
that, although, like all large cities, it possesses a large criminal 
population, this population is not proportionably greater than that 
of other places. Other writers, on the contrary, are intent on 
blackening the character of Manchester to the utmost. It is well 
known how plausibly party writers know how to support their 
statements, by all the weapons of logic, rhetoric, and statistics; so 
that each side, looked at by itself, would seem to possess indisputably 
the truth, although, when compared, the opposite statements are 
found flatly contradictory. I shall not meddle in the strife, but 
simply give a few of the statements of one who never wrote at all; 
namely, a notorious convicted criminal, who favoured the commis- 
sioners for the constabulary force, with a full account of his adven* 
tures and experience. 


" Take it all in all, Manchester is a very bad town for a thief. 
For if 70a say, in any other part of England, that you are come 
from Manchester, you are set down for a thief at once. It is some- 
thing the same wi& London, Birmingham, and Liverpool; but they 
say that Manchester and Birmingham contain more thieves than 
London and Liverpool put together. The thieves of Manchester 
and Liverpool are considered the most experienced. They are 
mostly of Irish parentage, and are the cunningest of all.'* 

The number of uneducated and neglected children, who grow up 
in vice and ignorance, in the streets of Manchester, made me very 
anxious to investigate the state of the schools of this town. 

Including day schools, evening schools, infant schools, dame 
schools, common boy and girl schools, grammar schools, charity 
schools, and superior private boarding schools, Manchester contains 
in all nearly 1000 schools, and about 60,000 scholars. I myself 
visited only three schools in Manchester; the Royal Lancastrian 
School, the Blue Coat Hospital, and the Grammar School. 

The Royal Lancastrian School of Manchester is probably the 
largest and most interesting yet established on the Lancastrian sys- 
tem. It was founded in the year 1809, and since then has afforded 
instruction to no less than 24,000 poor children. This school con- 
tains on an average, at every time of the year, about 1000 children, 
who are all assembled in one large, airy, and well-arranged hall. 
On the day of my visit it contained no less than 720 boys, and 320 
girls. Formerly the instruction was quite gratuitous ; but of late years 
the income of the school has been so scanty, that it has been round 
necessary to charge a penny a week for each child. The head 
master told me that this tax had rather increased than decreased the 
number of scholars. " There are many parents," said he, " who can 
well spare this small sum, and who do not like the notion of their 
children attending charity schools. These now send their children 
to us; and even the poor often prefer payjpg something for their 
children's schooling, and are more punctual in sending tnem when 
they do so. We are always full, and, generally speaking, there are 
100 or 150 applicants waiting for admission. Our working classes 
are by no means blind to the advantages of education, and are gene- 
rally anxious that their children should possess more learning than 
they do themselves. If our poor population has remained behind 
that of other places in cultivation, the fault is not their own, but of 
adverse circumstances, which of late years have hindered the estab- 
lishment and progress of schools." Perhaps the fault rests with 
the English government — which has hitherto troubled itself little 
about education — and with the wealthy inhabitants of Manchester. 
Does it not appear almost incredible, that in a town like Manchester, 
many of whose citizens are worth ten, twenty, or even thirty thou- 
sand a year, a great school like this has a regular income of only 
362. a year, and with difficulty augments this, by the weekly tax 
of a penny a head, to the paltry sum of 2502. a year, which is all it 


tag, wherewith to remunerate teachers and pay its other expenses? 
One cannoU help thinking, when considering such anomalies, of the 
learned old Fellows of the Universities, who receive amazing salaries, 
no mortal creature can tell for what ! If a few dozen of these fel- 
lowships were to be abolished, and their receipts applied to the edu- 
cation of the people, what an extensive benefit would be conferred 
upon the working class ! and what would the world suffer by the 
to*? m J 

The great hall of the Lancastrian school is decorated in a rather 
peculiar way. At one end is painted up the Bible, with the British 
arms resting upon it, and round the walls, figures in large letters the 
much lauded saying of George III. : " May every poor child in mjr do- 
minions be enabled to read the Bible !" This royal wish has remained 
as empty and fruitless as that other equally famous saying of Henri 
Quatre's, that he wished every poor man in his kingdom might have 
a fowl boiling in his pot. The outward arrangements of the school 
are thoroughly excellent, and the appearance of the children, although, 
as the director told me, they mostly came from the poorest and 
meanest districts of Manchester, was remarkably satisfactory. They 
all looked healthy, lively, clean, and decently dLressed. 

All the children are instructed at the same time in the same room, 
by the same teacher, who selects from among the children themselves, 
his under- teachers and inspectors. For such of my readers as are un- 
acquainted with the Lancastrian system, a short account of it, as 
pursued at this school, may not be without interest. The benches 
stand in two long rows, one for the girls and one for the boys ; be- 
tween the benches a considerable space is left. Each bench is oc- 
cupied by a certain number of scholars, and is placed under the 
superintendence of a monitor. There are 108 of lihese monitors in 
the school. Several benches are placed under the direction of an 
" inspecting monitor," who sits at a little raised desk, with his face 
to the benches. Of these there are sixty. Several such classes are 
governed by one upper monitor, called a " captain." These captains 
walk up and down before their classes, keeping a vigilant eye on all 
that goes on, and noting down on their little tablets, remarks on the 
conduct of monitors and scholars. There are twenty-eight captains 
in the school. Finally come the four captain-generals, of whom there 
is one always walking round the school, to keep order, and watch 
the conduct of captains and monitors. 

Of course the captains and monitors are never all on duty at once, 
but relieve guard; for it is requisite that they should at the same 
time be receiving their own education. The teacher himself instructs 
only the captains and captain-generals; each in turn, as he is re- 
lieved from his inspecting post. Some of the captains are always 
busy, instructing those of tne inspecting monitors who are off duty; 
and these again instruct the lower monitors in the same way. These 
last, mostly little fellows of eight or ten years of age, have each their 
ten or twelve scholars under them, 


The lowest classes, who are still learning their letters, axe called 
alphabet classes; those who are learning to spell, a-b-ab-classes; and 
those who can read words, reading classes. Every month a general 
examination of teachers is held, and a general promotion of advanced 
scholars from one class into another. The benches and classes are 
all numbered, so that the inspecting captain- can easily note down 
his remarks on any offender without inquiring after his name. I 
met a little captain only twelve years of age, who had just noted 
down on his tablet: " Monitor N. 3 a-playing." The entrance of 
the scholars, their seating themselves, their standing up for morning 
prayers, their marching out for recreation, and their final breaking 
.up, all are conducted with more than military, with machine-like 

The teacher himself gives Ms orders from a high tribune, towards 
which the faces of all scholars are turned. There are also little 
telegraphs put up between the benches, by means of which tele- 
graphic signals are conveyed to the monitors and captains. General 
orders to tne whole school are preceded by the shaip ringing of a 
loud bell. The regularity and order with which every thing is car- 
ried on affords the same sort of pleasure to the spectator, that is 
afforded by the spectacle of a great machine at work. 

The instruction is confined to reading, writing, and arithmetic. 
Few of the children remain longer than fifteen months at the school, 
being generally taken away by their parents as soon as an employment 
can be found for them. I was sorry to observe, when I looked at 
the stranger's book of the school, that this institution had not at- 
tracted so much public attention of late as it used to do. During 
the whole of last year it received only thirty visitors, while in former 
years it could boast of hundreds, and of highly distinguished and 
illustrious names. 

The Blue Coat Hospital is a well-endowed old school, which edu- 
cates eighty poor boys at once. In Manchester it is generally called 
"the College." The scholars, in their long dark robes, their lofty 
old church, their great halls, their ancient and wealthy library, all 
have a certain monastic appearance and character. The costume of 
the scholars, their long blue tunic, yellow under clothes and blue 
stockings, has remained precisely the same as when the school was 
first established, by the " worthy Humphrey Chetham," in the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century. 

The scholars are the children of poor but respectable parents, and 
must all be brought up to some particular handicraft. When we 
consider what a noble renown the old worthy has earned for himself 
by this foundation, what benefits he has conferred, and still will^con- 
fer, upon future generations, and what blessings have glorified his 
memory for two hundred years, we cannot help wondering how the 
wealthy can ever resist the temptation of thus building up for them- 
selves an immortal monument in the gratitude and reverence of pos- 
terity. Many might do so at little or no eswrifiQe* If among every 


hundred or every thousand inhabitants of Manchester, .who attained 
great wealth, only one were to think and act like old Humphrey 
phetham, the whole land would be crowded with similar beneficent 
institutions. But these people seem all to carry in their hearts the 
precept which old Chetham only bore on his coat of arms: " Quod 
tuum, tene !" 

The Grammar School is another old establishment, which dates as 
far back as 1520. It formerly confined its instruction to the classics, 
but an English school has recently been added to it. In going oyer 
this school I was astonished at the quantity of inscriptions and en- 
gravings which covered the walls, benches, tables, and desks. Ca- 
nals, railroads, and rivers, with barges, ships, and locomotives upon 
them, seemed the favourite subjects. The same hieroglyphics often 
ran along several places, each continuing the work of ms neighbour. 

The cotton manufacture of Manchester must, of course, be the first 
subject to attract the stranger's interest. Cotton — this gigantic Her- 
cules, of whose power the world did not dream a hundred years ago, 
but which now unites and severs empires, and forms the support, the 
occupation, and the chief interest of millions of human bemgs; cot- 
ton is the grand central force which holds together this youthful 
giant — Manchester. 

I remember once upon a time, in my younger days, a friend made 
me blush to confess my ignorance of the situation of the town of 
Burg, near Berlin, by exclaiming, " What? Not know where Burg 
is, a town of 12,000 inhabitants? Oh ! for shame !" But in England, 
one gets hardened in ignorance, more especially in Lancashire, where 
a man would never have done blushing, if he were to do so every 
time he discovered a town of 10,000 inhabitants, of which he had 
previously known nothing. Within a circle drawn round Man- 
chester at little more than a dozen English miles from its Exchange, 
there would be found, among others, the following great towns, all 
of which have more than 12,000 inhabitants. Ashton-on-the-Lyne, 
35,000; Great Bolton, 28,000; Little Bolton, 12,800; Dean, 
22,900; Bury, 15,000; Dunkinfield, 15,600; Ecles, 28,000; Leigh, 
20,000; Macclesfield, 23,000; Middleton, 14,000; Oldham, 32,000; 
Oldham, with Prestwich, 67,000; Preston, 36,000; Pilkington, 
11,000; Rochdale, 58,000; Saddleworth, 16,000; Stockport, 66,000; 
Warrington, 19,000; Wigan, 44,000. Most of these towns axe so 
many Manchesters in miniature, and they are all exclusively occupied 
and maintained by the cotton manufacture. 

The factory which I visited, that of Messrs. Orell, commonly 
called OrelTs Mill, was recommended to me as one of the finest hi 
Manchester, and as one in which all the newest improvements in 
machinery had been adopted. Down to the present-day the ma- 
chinery used in the cotton making has continued to improve with 
astonishing rapidity and regularity. At present the sorting and 
putting in of the raw cotton, and the catching up of broken threads, 
are the only operations, in the whole manufacture, which axe carried 


on by human hands. The cleaning, combing, twisting, rolling, and 
all the other innumerable operations required, are all performed by 
machinery. Even the feeding with fuel of the steam-engines em- 
ployed is taken out of the hands of human labourers, and is accom- 
?lished by machines called self-feeders. One of these, which I saw at 
hell's Mill, supplied an enormous steam-engine of 240 horse-power 
Willi all the coals it required. 

OrelTs Mill is a very complete factory; the cotton is brought to it 
raw from America or Egypt, and it is here cleaned, spun, and woven. 
It employs no less than 1300 looms. These are all placed in one 

freat weaving room, in which 650 girls are constantly at work. The 
umming, beating, and whirring of all these looms filled the room 
with a noise like the roaring of the sea. The power-loom is said, 
not only to work ten times as fast as the hand-loom, but a great deal 
better; the woof is more smooth and even, because the stroke of the 
machine is more regular than that of the human hand. OrelTs Mill 
has its own particular steam-worked water-engine, which commands 
the whole nine stories of the building, and is capable of drenching it 
with an enormous quantity of water in a few minutes. The work- 
people determined to let the engine play, in order to show us its 
power. Scarcely, however, had the water entered the pump than 
numbers of heads were thrust from the windows, shouting and ges- 
ticulating. We had the steam-engine stopped, and on going in 
found to our consternation that in a few seconds half a floor had 
been deluged with water. The plugs of the pipes running through 
the buildings had been left open, and had thus occasioned this flood 
among the cotton. 

This factory is one of the best built of any; yet I found the air 
intolerably close and suffocating in some parts. I was also sorry to 
observe the terrible narrowness of the passes between the dangerous 
machines and their restless and gigantic arms and wheels; in these 
passes the floor was also extremely smooth and slippery. 

According to the regulations of the Factory Act all manufacturers 
must allow their labourers two holidays, Christmas Day and Good 
Friday, every year, and eight half-holidays besides. Children under 
nine years of age are now not allowed to work in the factories at all; 
children under thirteen are not to work more than nine hours a day ; 
but all over thirteen work twelve hours a day. The distribution of 
these twelve hours is of course left to the employer. In Orell's Mill 
that distribution was as follows: At six o'clock in the morning work 
begins, and continues till eight, when half-an-hour's interval is Slowed 
for breakfast. At half-past eight work begins again, and goes on 
till twelve, when an hour's interval is allowed for dinner. From one 
till four forms the third working period, followed by another interval 
of half-an-hour. At half-past four they begin and continue till eight, 
when at last machines and labourers leave off for the night. 

Every manufacturing district has its own factory-inspector, to 
whom, in cases of abuse of power, or other grievances, all parties 


may apply for arbitration. The name and address of this factory- 
inspector is pasted up in large letters in the hall of the factory. 

if England were not so rich in wonders of the same kind, the 
Stranger might fancy the appearance of Stockport unique in the 
world. The houses of Stockport rise up the deep sides of a valley, 
watered by the river on which the town stands. Over the whole 
gulf, right over town and river, from height to height, stretches a 
gigantic viaduct, across which passes the railway to London. The 
twenty-two arches of this viaduct are a hundred feet high. Even in 
England this is a striking and magnificent work. 

I was curious to see the calico-printing process which completes 
the preparation of the printed cottons. Tor that purpose I visited 
one of the principal printing-works. The printing process is now 
almost entirely carried on with copper-plates, upon which the pat- 
tern is engraved. Nevertheless I found in one part of the building 
a few of the old " block printers," who were cutting wooden blocks, 
and printing with them after the old fashion. Their old occupation 
is going more and more out of demand, and all the block-printers 
will very soon have perished of hunger and neglect. Of late years 
these printing-works, like so many other houses in Manchester, work 
only half-time, employing only half their labourers. In some parts of 
the building, I found groups of poor, unoccupied labourers sitting 
warming themselves by the fire-places, sunk in a sort of melancholy 
stupor. " It is heartbreaking, sir, to see these men," said the over- 
seer who accompanied me. " Men who would so gladly work, but 
whom, if we would keep ourselves out of the Gazette, we are 
obliged to deprive of employment. As we allow them to warm 
themselves at our fires in this cold weather, they come here and sit 
idle and sad in the places where formerly they worked so busily, 
looking enviously at those work-people whom we are still able to 
employ. They have a better roof over their heads here than in 
their own miserable dwellings." 

I was pleased with the humanity of the manufacturers in still 
allowing these poor people shelter and warmth, although compelled 
to deprive diem of work and wages. When in London, looking 
over caricatures of the distress of the manufacturing districts, or when 
on the continent, listening to descriptions of the ignorance, brutality, 
and lawlessness of the English manufacturing population, the feel- 
ing of compassion is blunted, and the most terrible facts are often 
heard with comparative indifference. I have even met with people 
in France and Gtermany, who seemed to feel assort of malicious 
exultation in hearing and recounting the humiliations of proud 
England. But to see the poor sufferers themselves bowed down by 
want and misery, condemned to idleness and starvation, while willing 
and able to work, and to hear them tell their melancholy stories, is 
one of the most heartrending things imaginable. 

" Who are you then?" said I to an old man, sitting by the fire. 

u Oh, sir ! men out of employment" 


" What is your business?" 

" I am a block-printer, sir, but in this stand-still of every thing, I 
have had no employment for some months. 

" Cannot you find other employment? Can you do nothing 

" No, sir, I have been brought up for block-printing, and I have 
been a block-printer all mj lifetime. I understand nothing else. 
Besides, the whole country is at a stand-still now. In my time I 
had a cow, and a little garden, which my wife attended to. My 
wife died last summer, and all the other things are gone away, by 
the badness of the times." 

" Do not despair, the times may mend." 

" Oh, no hope, sir! Starving is our lot! No hope, sir! no 
hope !" muttered the old man in a trembling voice, sighing deeply, 
ana turning his eyes back to the blazing coals. 

While I was still standing by these people, one of the overseers 
came in, and called to one of the poor fellows, with the welcome 
words: " Tom, I have got a job for you !" The rest looked in 
silent envy at the happy Tom. — Had it not been for the melancholy 
impression of this scene, the many interesting operations and pro- 
cesses which we saw at the printing-works would have afforded us 
much pleasure. One of the most interesting divisions, was th^ 
pattern-room, in which were 3000 copper cylinders, covered with 
engraved patterns. Each of these cylinders had cost, for metal 
and engraving, from 10Z. to 20Z. I was told that a pattern seldom 
stands longer than a twelvemonth, and that even those which are 
most successful, never last more than two years. The designers and 
engravers of these patterns are of course well paid, since a great deal 
both of chemical knowledge, skill, and imagination is required to 
make a good pattern-designer. There are many Frenchmen always 
employed in this branch of the manufacture, who are said to have, 
more taste than the English designers. 

There are in Manchester, four " India-rubber-web, or water- 
proof-clothing-establishments," which are exclusively occupied in 
preparing this Indian gum for all its various useful purposes. One 
of these establishments, that of Messrs. Birley and Company, uses no 
less than 250,000 pounds of the gum a year, and 100,000 gallons of 
spirits for melting it. As the clothes manufactured of this material 
require to be sewn with India-rubber thread, in order to be water- 
proof in the seams, and as this is not understood by ordinary tailors, 
a great sewing establishment is connected with the manufactory. 
One of the newest applications of India-rubber, is that of supersed- 
ing bottle-corks, by a preparation of wool and India-rubber, which 
forms a tight elastic substance, very much like the wood of the cork- 
tree. This invention at first excited much alarm among the cork- 
cutters, but certain practical difficulties have hitherto prevented its 
general application. 

In the cotton factory belonging to Messrs. Birley and Company, 

Manchester: 125 

6000 gallons of oil, and fifty hundred- weight of tallow, are annually 
used for the greasing of the steam-engines. On such a gigantic scale 
are even the most trifling operations carried on in Manchester. 

The simple instruments with which our forefathers prepared their 
looms and spinning-wheels, were a chisel, a hammer, a saw, a file, 
a plane, and pincers. And even now, it is with chisels, hammers, 
saws, files, planes, and pincers, that the wonderful machinery em- 
ployed in the cotton factories is made. But these primitive in- 
struments have been so altered, varied, and magnified, of late years, 
so wonderfully changed in proportions, numbers, and dimensions, 
that it is now scarcely possible to recognise them. There is no town 
in the world where tne spectator may have an opportunity of seeing 
so many splendid machines, and machine-making processes, as at 
Manchester. I had here the pleasure of visiting one of the greatest 
machine-making establishments in the world; namely, the so-called 
Atlas-works of Messrs. Sharp and Roberts. These gentlemen have 
two manufactories, one for general machine-making, the other for 
the manufacture of locomotive engines, and of those enormous tools 
used in the making of machines. I visited first the latter establish- 
ment, at which, as I was informed, forty-nine locomotives had been 
built during the last year. This number at first struck me as rather 
inconsiderable, butl was told it was the largest number ever yet manu- 
factured there in one year. It was expected, however, that the num- 
ber for the current year would amount to eighty. 

Mr. Sharp died a short time ago, and his funeral was attended by 
all his mechanics and work-people, 800 in number. As not one of 
these workmen had weekly wages less than twenty-five shillings, and 
many earned four or five pounds, a week, the amount of capital 
necessary to carry on such a business must be enormous. 

From the locomotive department we were conducted to the " mule 
and loom department," in which the spinning and weaving machines 
are manufactured, with all their latest improvements; and thence to 
the tool department, which is the most interesting to the uninitiated 
spectator. Here may be seen saws, planes, hammers, and chisels, of 
astonishing variety and gigantic proportions; machines whose deli- 
cacy and precision of working is, in spite of their power and dimen- 
sions, equal to that of the watchmaker's minutest tools. Here are 
" barcutting machines," which are incessantly employed in chop- 
ping and splitting huge beams of iron, as if they were wax; and 
" plkning machines," which pass swiftly and easily over huge iron 
surfaces, smoothing them down as if they were but velvet, although 
the resistance to the plane is often equal to that of twenty hun- 

All the machines, engines, and tools, which are to be cut or cast in 
iron in these great establishments, have to be previously exactly 
modelled in wood, in order that any practical defects may be dis- 
covered and remedied. These wooden models are called patterns, 
and are made of hard firm woods, such as mahogany ; when accepted, 


these models are painted, and placed in a great room called ihe pat* 
tern room, which is, of course, a very interesting department of the 

There are some people who find nothing but subjects of vexation 
and grumbling in visits to these great manufactories, on account of 
the dust, dirt, stunning noises, unpleasant smells, and close air, with, 
which they are annoyed at such places. But whoever can turn his 
attention away &om these petty grievances, and fix it on the many 
interesting, astonishing, and, I might almost say, sublime results of 
human skill, invention, and industry, which are here presented to his 
senses and thoughts, will acknowledge, that there is an enjoyment in 
such scenes, seldom surpassed in any place, an enjoyment belonging 
exclusively to this most wonderful country, of a truly wonderful 

The English workmen in the Manchester manufactories generally 
answered, when I requested them to show me any thing : u Yes, 
certainly, sir, we will show you all, and tell you which is which." 
I had already seen " which was which," in all the principal manufac- 
tories of Manchester, and was now only anxious to enter those great 
warehouses, wherein the productions of all these wonderful machines 
are collected in tempting profusion and order, to charm the money 
out of the pockets of all nations in both hemispheres. 

There are, in Manchester, upwards of 1000 immense manufactories. 
The great mercantile firms which mediate between the manufacturers 
and the public, are in number 360, among which are many German, 
Spanish, Greek, French, and other foreign houses. These merchants 
have all great warehouses or magazines, where their goods are stored 
up. Of late years, these warehouses have increased so much in num- 
ber, that they form long streets, containing no dwelling-houses at all. 
Of these the chief is Mosley Street. 

I visited the warehouse of Messrs. Potter, in this street ; it is a great 
building six stories high, the upper floors of which are occupied by 
the lighter, and the lower by the heavier goods. As the great quan* 
titles of cotton and woollen goods perpetually traversing Manchester, 
between the different spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, printing, 
and exporting establishments, could not be conveyed by the ordinary 
means, without great loss of time and trouble, a land of conveyance 
called vans have been lately introduced, consisting of enormous, 
square, watertight boxes, placed on springs and wheels, which are 
capable of conveying immense masses of goods, in a comparatively 
small compass and short space of time. At the great warehouses, 
such as that of Messrs. Potter, machines called " steam hoists," are 
used, for raising the goods into the vans ; these little steam-engines 
stand on the ground-floor, and raise great bales of goods with ex- 
traordinary ease and celerity. Besides this steam-engine, no less 
than fifty workmen were constantly employed in the warehouse, in 
packing and unpacking the bales. 

Every country has its particular partialities in the goods it pur- 

chases; or, as the Belfast merchants say, " every market has its 
whim." The speculating merchant must always be well acquainted 
with these, no less than with the real wants and customs of each 
nation. From the Manchester, warehouses great quantities of black 
cloth are annually sent to Italy, in order to clothe the innumerable 
priests of that country; but this black cloth must always be of a 
particular coal-black, without the slightest tinge of brown or blue. 
Goods must also be packed differently for different nations; thus, at 
Messrs* Potters', I saw bales of cotton intended for China, packed 
in the Chinese manner and decorated with bright, tasteful, little 
pictures, representing Chinese customs, ceremonies, costumes, &c. 
Nor must the manner of transport used in the interior of the coun- 
tries for which they are intended be forgotten in the packing of 
the goods. Wares to be carried on the backs of elephants, camels, 
or lamas, must be differently packed from those to be conveyed by 
waggons, canals, or railways. 

As the wares contained in the great bales, some of which weigh 
mote than fifteen hundred-weight are often of a very miscellaneous 
kind, little pattern-books are sent off with each bale, containing not 
only the quantity, quality, price, &c, of the different goods, but a neat 
litue specimen of each. Thus the foreign merchant on receiving his 
bale of goods, need not take the trouble of unpacking it, but need only 
turn over the instructive and entertaining pages of the elegant little 
pattern-book, to settle and direct the further destination of what it 
contains. Duplicate copies of all these little pattern-books are kept 
at the warehouse, with names and dates in full, and these are, after 
a time, bound up in great folio volumes, with all their specimens 
complete. These volumes, all ranged in order on their shelves, 
form a considerable library in many warehouses. 

The following instances will show the importance of which these 
pattern-books may sometimes be to the merchant A South Ame- 
rican merchant had ordered a quantity of cotton goods of a particu- 
lar pattern, from a house in Manchester, and they were sent him as 
directed. After some years this merchant wrote back, that the wares 
he had received had been of a bad quality. All his customers had 
complained of the cotton, for after a short time innumerable little 
holes had appeared all over it, and it had thus become useless. This 
the merchant attributed to some fault in its preparation at Manches- 
ter, and he now demanded recompense from his Manchester cones* 
pondent, for the great damage he had thus sustained in his business. 
The Manchester merchant turned back to his pattern-book for 
that date and found the patterns therein quite whole and uninjured. 
He now presented these before the proper tribunal, and also pro* 
cured testimonies from several persons in England who had used the 
cotton in question, showing that no traces of similar decay had been 
observed. A number of experiments were now made upon the 
cotton, and it was at last discovered, that the pattern, although 
durable enough in the cold, damp climate of England, could not 
stand the intense heat of Brazil, because a certain little green blossom 


occurring very frequently in the pattern, had been dyed with a pre- 
paration capable of being chemically affected and injured by intense 
heat, and nad thus occasioned the little holes complained of. As, 
however, this discovery had never been made before, and the cot- 
ton had been sent as it was ordered, the Manchester house was ex- 
onerated from all blame. In the following case the result was 
different. An Asiatic merchant wrote that the woollen cloth he 
had received, was covered with little brown specks, which materially 
injured its appearance and, value. The patterns were examined, 
and no similar spots were found. Experiment, however, soon proved 
that the cloth when sent off, must have still contained a considerable 
quantity of animal fat, from which the manufacturers had not suffi- 
ciently purified it. The tremendous pressure to which the cloth 
was subjected in its bales, had squeezed out this fat in the shape of 
brown spots on the surface. The manufacturer bore the blame, and 
had to pay the loss of both merchants. 

The pattern-books form an astonishing series of witnesses to the 
vanity, refinement, and caprice of the world, in the nature of its 
whims, as to this one article of cotton. Perpetually is the fashion of 
every market changing, as to colour, pattern, quality, and packing. 

The enormous quantity of goods piled up in the warehouses of 
Manchester — the close vicinity in which the number of its railways 
places it, to the woollen factories of Leeds, the shawl and handker- 
chief makers of Macclesfield, the silk weavers of Coventry, the 
merino dealers of Bradford, the light cotton wares of Preston, and 
the heavy cotton goods of Halifax, &c, &c., — the energy and rapi- 
dity of its steam-giant, the universal servant of all work, which, like 
Lord Chatham, " tramples on impossibilities," — all the extraordinary 
means and appliances which stand at the command of its manufac- 
turers and merchants, combined with the industry, talent, and energy 
of these merchants and manufacturers themselves — all these things con- 
tribute to render Manchester beyond dispute the manufacturing capi- 
tal of the world. Among the most interesting places in such a town, 
must of course be the Exchange, the parliament of the cotton lords, 
as it is sometimes called. The Manchester Exchange is one of the 
handsomest and most spacious in England. Tuesday is the principal 
business day at this place, and one o'clock the chief business hour, 
or the time of " high change," as it is called at Manchester. On 
the evening before the morning on which I visited this Exchange, 
the important news from Asia had arrived, bringing simultaneous 
tidings of the peace with China and the termination of the Indian 
war. The effect of this intelligence, I was told, had been immense, 
and the rejoicings of the merchants and manufacturers unbounded. 
Agreements, contracts, and purchases of extraordinary number and 
importance, had been transacted only a few hours after the receipt 
of this news, upon the strength of it. I expected to find nothing 
but jubilee, exultation, and merry faces, on the Exchange. What 
was my surprise, however, to see nothing of the kind ! The mer- 


I W \ 


chants looked as grave, busy, and sober as ever ; the whispering 
might, perhaps, have been a little more earnest — although he must 
have had a very fine ear who could discover this — the movements 
of the merchants, from one group to the other, might have been a 
little more animated than usual ; but that was alL English exulta- 
tion is very quiet and sober, yet it is, perhaps, more heartfelt and in- 
tense than it would be if it found vent in garlands, songs, dances, 
and trumpet-shouts, as in an old Greek triumph. 

A " Newsroom" is connected with the Exchange of Manchester, 
as with all English exchanges. At this room are received on an 
average, 140 periodicals, English and foreign, every day. On Sa- 
turday, when the weekly papers are published, 186 is the usual 

Periodical literature is that which flourishes most at Manchester. 
In this city are published five or six of those colossal English morn- 
ing papers, of which the simple German reader, wonderingly asks 
himself, how any body can read them from beginning to end over 
his after-dinner pipe ! Every number of the Manchester Guardian 
alone, contains thirty-six thick close-printed columns, each of which 
contains the matter of ten good-sized octavo pages ; so that each 
number contains as much as a thick octavo volume ! Newspapers, 
however, are the only branch of literature which is much encouraged 
at Manchester. 

When I was in Manchester, most of the scientific, artistic, and 
literary institutions of the town, (in which it was never wealthy,) 
were in a very decaying state. The Zoological Society was selling 
its wild beasts by auction ; the owners of the Royal Theatre had 
just been declared bankrupt; the Athenaeum was fast falling into 
ruins; the Lancastrian School was losing support. In a place 
where the utilitarian spirit of trade is so dominant, as in Manches- 
ter, such institutions are sure to be the first victims of any general 
depression in the commercial and manufacturing world. 

Manchester, like most of the other great English towns, contains a 
Royal Institution for the encouragement of artists, at which is held 
every year an exhibition of old and new paintings. When I visited it, 
the exhibition contained 500 pictures, mostly by English artists. Few 
of these represented great historical scenes, and there were scarcely 
any Biblical pictures. Remembering the prominent part which 
Biblical scenes play in all similar exhibitions on the continent, and 
being well aware of how much the Bible is read and studied in Eng- 
land, this fact rather surprised me. The greater number of the pic- 
tures represented landscapes, and most of these were scenes on the 
Rhine and Italy, or other parts of the fashionable continental tour. 
There were also plenty of " portraits of dogs," " farmers' boys," 
41 dead game," " horses in a stable," and other such favourite sub- 
jects with English painters. 

Manchester contains two of the so-called " Mechanics' Institu- 
tions," which have of late years become common all over England. 



These institutions, designed for the benefit and improvement of the 
working-classes, generally contain a library, a museum of some kind, 
a lecture-room, at which popular lectures of different sorts are de- 
livered, and a school for the children of the shareholders. The 
largest of the two Mechanics* Institutions, at Manchester, contained, 
in 1841, 1092 shareholders. 

As the other institution is smaller than this one, the number of 
shareholders cannot in all amount to 3000; a rather scanty support 
for such institutions, in a town like Manchester. Perhaps the most 
interesting and peculiar part of these institutions are the classes for 
mutual instruction, which meet to discuss various subjects together, 
and to read aloud, and criticise, lectures and essays composed by the 
different members. 

The Museum of Natural History, established at Manchester a few 
years ago, already occupies one of the first places among the mu- 
seums of Great Britain, and I was not a little surprised at finding 
such a splendid and interesting collection, among die chimneys ana 
machines of the great manufacturing metropolis. Its most wealthy 
department is that of ornithology, in which it may fairly chal- 
lenge comparison with the finest museums in the world. The famous 
English ornithologist, Waterton, with whom I had the pleasure of 
becoming acquainted in England, maintains that the stuffed birds, in 
most European ornithological collections, are mere caricatures of na- 
ture, owing to the villanous style in which the stuffing has been per- 
formed. He himself has a real passion for this art of stuffing, which 
he has carried to an extraordinary perfection; he often occupies half 
a year in contriving and performing the stuffing of a single bird. 
Eus own collection, at Waterton Hall, is a real masterpiece in its 
way, and this of Manchester approaches nearer to it in perfection 
than any thing I have elsewhere seen. 

I was displeased to find in this, so-called, Museum of Natural His- 
tory, so many antiquarian relics, and ethnographical and historical 
remains, which, however interesting in themselves, had no business 
whatever here. This fault, however, is not peculiar to the Museum 
of Manchester; it is more or less the defect of all the collections of 
Europe. This barbarous custom of spoiling different kinds of col- 
lections, by mixing them up together, without order or classification, 
has survived from those bygone times, in which scientific collections 
for definite purposes, were unknown, and when all kinds of " cu- 
riosities" were esteemed equal and similar in value and importance. 
It is a piece of barbarism in science, thoroughly unworthy of this 
enlightened nineteenth century. 

Tne celebrated Arabian charger, Vizier, presented by the Sultan 
Mohammed to the Emperor Napoleon, is preserved, stuffed, at this 
museum. One of the most remarkable objects in the museum, is 
an English mummy, that of a Mrs. Beswick, who gave orders in 
her testament that her body should not be buried, but should be 
embalmed, stuffed, and preserved by a certain Dr. White, to whom, 


in reward, she bequeathed an annual income of 500/. On his death 
the doctor bequeathed the body of the eccentric testatrix to this Mu- 
seum of Manchester, where it now takes its place beside a Peruvian 
and Egyptian mummy. 


It cannot be said that Manchester is either an ugly or a beautiful 
town, for it is both at once. Some quarters are dirty, mean, ugly, 
and miserable-looking to an extreme; others are interesting, peculiar, 
and beautiful in the highest degree. Come with me, then, dear 
reader, and let us take a short walk together through these various 
scenes. We set out from the broad, stately, and imposing Market- 
street, which runs from the river Irwell, right through the heart of 
the town, and continuing under the name of Piccadilly, loses itself 
in the opposite suburbs, under the third alias of the London-road. 
This street is always busy, noisy, and interesting, and contains num. 
bers of splendid shops. In the evening, its thousands of gaslights 
glittering from the shops and street-lamps, make it almost painfully 
dazzling to eyes not yet accustomed to these nightly illuminations of 
the great English cities. In this street the beggars of Manchester 
love to congregate, importuning the wealthy and idle as they pass. 
There in the side gutters stand the poor broken-down manufacturing 
labourers, moaning out their usual lamentation — u Out of employ- 
ment." Between the idle rich and the idle poor the industrious 
middle classes push their eager way — busy manufacturers, inspectors, 
overseers, clerks, and merchants. Here at the corner of the street 
stands perhaps some poor Hindoo beggar, dressed in dirty white mus- 
lin, his dark face surmounted by a white turban, holding the story 
of his misfortunes, written on a slip of paper, in his hand. One of 
these Hindoo beggars, whom I saw in the streets of Manchester, 
seemed to me the very picture of utter desolation. To all that I said 
to him he could only answer the single word : " Livapoo ! Livapoo 1" 
meaning probably that he had come from Liverpool. I bought one 
of the papers he held in his hand, hoping to find that it contained 
some account of himself or his birth-place, but I found that it was 
only a religious tract. 

Among these busy and idle crowds, numbers of hackney-coaches 
and cabs pursue their way, and in still greater numbers, the carts, 
waggons, and vans, of the merchants and manufacturers, of all sorts 
and sizes, hurry along. On the side pavement poor girls, laden like 
these vans, with as much cotton and calico as they can carry, drag 
themselves from one place to another. These are probably the work- 
people of the smaller manufacturers, who, unable to purchase vans, 
load their work-people in this unmerciful manner. 

Let us now turn into one of the by-streets which, diverge from 
Market-street into MosLey-street, or Cooper-street, for instance. 
Here stand the great warehouses, five or sue stories high, all larg* 



and imposing, some of them stately and elegant. At night these 
warehouses are all brilliantly lighted from top to bottom. On the 
ground floor are the counting-houses, where the merchants and clerks 
are busy all day long. This class is, I believe, in no town so indus- 
trious as in Manchester; nowhere, at least, do I remember to have 
seen so many wealthy people exclusively and passionately devoted to 
business. There are people here, possessing annual incomes of many 
thousands, who work like horses all the jear round, stinting them- 
selves in sleep and mealtimes, and grudging every moment given to 
amusement or society. Those who wonder at this fact should re- 
collect that what passes for pleasure with the idle and dissipated 
would be intolerably wearying to these " men of business," who are 
as much in their element in the life they lead, as fish in water, and 
would be like fish out of water if they were removed to the lighter 
atmosphere of pleasure. Business is their habit, their delight, their 
very existence; and a place without business would be to them empty 
and joyless in the extreme. The hopes and fears, the gains and losses, 
the failures and successes, attending their occupations, afford them 
an excitement as absorbing, and, after a time, as necessary, as the 
warrior feels in his battles, or the gamester over his faro-table. 

It is at six o'clock in the morning that these streets are busiest 
and fullest. This is the hour when the great factories begin their work, 
and, on every side, the pavement is covered with labourers, old and 
young, men, women, and children, hastening to their daily em- 
ployments, and clattering over the pavements with their wooden 

From the streets of the warehouses, whose monotonous lines are 
here and there broken by some splendid museum, music-hall or 
town-hall, with its columns, arches, and colonnades, or by the Co- 
rinthian portico of some blind-asylum, hospital, or deaf and dumb- 
institute, or else by the simple facade ot some plain Methodist, 
Baptist, or Unitarian chapel, we pass on to the banks of the rivers 
which run through the city. These are three, the Wedlock, the Irk, 
and the Irwell. Here the scene varies. The rivers are intersected by 
an immense number of large and small bridges, in every form and 
direction. Standing upon one of these bridges, let us look around 
us a little. What an extraordinary spectacle! There stand rows and 
groups of huge manufactories, each consisting of numerous build- 
ings which are sometimes bound together by one surrounding walL 
Sometimes these walls are fortified and guarded like fortresses, by 
vigilant sentinels, who allow none to pass but such as have a right 
to enter. See how eagerly these manufactories suck up, through 
pumps and buckets, the river water, which dirty as it is, is inva- 
luable to them, and which they pour back into the river, in black, 
brown, and yellow currents, after it has served their purposes. The 
river pours on its thick muddy current through the streets of the 
city to satisfy other thirsty manufactories further on. The blue 
heavens above are hidden from us by the thick smoke of the huge 


factory chimneys which weave a close impenetrable veil of brown 
fog between the city and the sky. For half a century these bridges 
have not basked in the warm glory of sunshine; only the cold faces 
of the moon and stars are permitted to look upon them, for at night 
the factories rest, and the clouds disperse. 

Leaving the bridges of the Wedlock, let us proceed to those of 
the Irk and the Irwell, and admire the magnitude and splendour 
which characterises every thing we see. Between the great fac- 
tories which each employ 500 or 1000 work-people, are scattered 
those of the smaller mill-owners, which often consist merely of the 
owner's dwelling-house, somewhat enlarged and extended. The 
great establishments are built in various ways; some piled up story 
on story; others on the straight line system, in long successive rows; 
others like huge greenhouses, all on one floor, lighted from the top. 
From these huge and oddly shaped buildings rise immense chim- 
neys of all heights and diameters, many as tall as the steeples of 
St. Paul's and St. Stephen's, and sometimes architecturally orna- 
mented with stone garlands, bas-reliefs, and pedestals. As in for- 
mer times, the huts of the vassals surrounded the castles of their 
lords; so now, in the neighbourhood of the great manufactories, are 
,seen the dwelling-places of the work-people, mean-looking little 
buildings, huddled together in rows and clusters. Sometimes the 
work-people of each manufactory form a little community by them- 
selves, living together in its neighbourhood in a little town of their 
own; but in general they occupy particular quarters of the town, 
which contain nothing but long unbroken rows of small low 
dirty houses, each exactly like the other. These quarters are the 
most melancholy and disagreeable parts of the town, squalid, filthy, 
and miserable, to a deplorable degree. Here stand the abominable 
ibeer-houses, dram-shops, and gin palaces, which are never without 
customers. Here the streets are filled with ragged women and 
oaked children. Whole rows of houses stand empty, while the 
^remainder are overcrowded; for in some places the inmates have 
been expelled by the owners for non-payment of rent, while in 
others they have voluntarily given up their dwellings in order to 
live cheaper, by sharing that of another family. 

The late disturbances in the manufactories have increased that 
very misery and poverty which they were designed to remedy. 
.During one week, at that disturbed time, no less than 30,000/. were 
taken out of the different savings-banks of the town, in small sums, 
by the rash and deluded workmen, who hoped that they could live 
upon their savings, until their masters should be forced to yield. 
Thus they wasted the little sums put by, for sickness and old age, until 
all was consumed, and they were starved out by their masters, who 
of course could maintain this dreadful struggle longer than the poor 
needy insurgents, and they were soon forced by hunger and want to 
take what terms they could get. 

In these miserable dwellings, often in close.damp cellars beneath 


them, are found the poorest of all the inhabitants of Manchester — the 
hand-loom weavers. It is astonishing how any of these can continue 
to earn a penny, in the unequal competition with the immense ma- 
chinery and capital employed in the great factories. Yet it is an 
indisputable fact, that there still exist, in Manchester alone, no less 
than 3192 hand-weavers. These work from morning till night, in 
■close places, with scanty nourishment and clothing, and suffering 

Eievously from privation and want The earnings of the poor 
nd-weavers are probably, by this time, reduced to their minimum, 
and they will soon be forced to quit the field. I went through a 
number of their cellars, and I found many in which the loom was 
already at rest. Before one such, sat in unwilling idleness, the very 
image of silent despair, a poor half-starved weaver, who had not a 
penny to buy cotton, and who told me that he had been in vain seek- 
ing employment for eight days. On his table was a small plate of 
cold watery potatoes, saved from the scanty sustenance of the pre- 
ceding da/ £ m&fy &e hunger of the nei. 

In these poor quarters of Manchester are found the so-called Fent- 
shops, where are bought up all the odd ends of calico and cotton, 
which are thrown aside at the great factories, and sold again to the 
small weavers. Through these poorer quarters pass many broad, 

?>lendid streets, which lead out through the suburbs to Victoria 
ark, and other more fashionable vicinities, where splendid villas 
and gardens congregate as closely as chimneys on the river banks, 
and shops in the Market-street. Thither drive, ride, and walk, at the 
close of the day, the wealthy merchants and manufacturers of Man- 
chester, to rest from their mental and bodily fatigues, and enjoy in 
the bosoms of their families a few hours of ease and refreshment, 
amidst the splendid acquisitions of their laborious hours. The villas 
and country-houses lie sometimes in long terraces and roads, and 
sometimes in beautiful detached situations. 

It is a strange thing that all over the world, in America and in 
Europe, there should exist such a very unfavourable opinion of 
English labourers, and that their undeniable skill and industry, in 
their particular vocations, should be unable to remove the universal 
impression of their immorality, lawlessness, ignorance, and brutality. 
Even where it is found necessary to employ them, this is always done 
reluctantly and fearfully. I was in Austria shortly after the English 
labourers had been dismissed from the railroads making there, be- 
cause their turbulence, brutality, and drunkenness occasioned all 
kinds of riots and accidents. I went to Saxony, and found, that 
there too, all the English labourers had been turned away, because 
their conduct was found quite insufferable. I went to Frankfort, 
and met a papier mache manufacturer, who told me, with rueful 
shakings of the head, that he was indeed compelled to employ Eng- 
lish labourers in some parts of his business, because they understood 
their business so well, and were so remarkably skilful in it, but thai 
he longed to get rid of them, because they were the most trouble- 


some, ignorant, and unmanageable of his work-people. I went to Bel- 
gium, and read an interesting report of an English Poor Law Com- 
mission, in which the evidence of a great manufacturer of Philadel- 
phia, concerning English labourers, was given at full length. This 
gentleman testified that one-fifth of the work-people, in the American 
factories, were foreigners, most of them Englishmen, whom, how- 
ever, the manufacturers employed very unwillingly, on account of 
their being so " dissipated and discontented." xhey were, besides, 
universally disliked, because they were so given to drunkenness. 
The American labourers are always found better educated, more in- 
telligent, and less given to sensual indulgences. No strikes or com- 
binations of workmen axe ever known among the American la- 
bourers, as among the English, who are always combining to force 
higher wages from their masters* The superiority of the American 
labourers is chiefly attributed to their superiority of education. The 
American masters are always very particular in having the children 
of their labourers sent regularly to school 

I came to England, and read further reports on the subject, all 
equally confirmatory of these statements. A Swiss manufacturer of 
Zurich, testified that he employed, in his factory, from six to eight 
hundred work-people, of all nations, Swiss, Saxons, Bavarians, French, 
Danes, Norwegians, Poles, Hungarians, Prussians, Dutch, Scotch, and 
English, and that these last were " the most disorderly, debauched, un- 
ruly, and least respectable and trustworthy of any nation whatsoever 
whom we have employed." This gentleman further stated that, in 
saying this, he spoke tne feelings of all the continental manufacturers 
with whom he was acquainted, more particularly that of the English 
manufacturers, settled in different parts of Europe. It seemed, he 
continued, that the ill-educated English workmen, when released 
from the iron discipline and cold severity with which their masters 
treated them in England, and when received with that urbanity and 
cordiality of kindness, which all well-behaved labourers on the con- 
tinent expect and receive from their masters, lost all balance and 
self-possession, and became quite unmanageable. He found also that 
English labourers of the highest class, as to skill and pecuniary re- 
muneration, generally lived worse and indulged themselves in lower 
ways than those of a far inferior rank of other nations. The towns- 
people of Zurich dread the English workmen as inmates, on account 
of tneir unruly and disorderly behaviour. The English workman 
of the first class will of ten spend half his nights in the wine-shop, will 
let his children grow up in all kinds of ignorance and brutality, and 
will live in the midst of dirt and disorder; while a German or Swiss 
labourer, of the very same class, reads, studies nature, cultivates 
music, has a clean and tidy household, and gives his children an ex- 
cellent education. This report, while it affords a startling testimony 
to the ignorance and brutality of the uneducated English, is also a 
proo£ let it never be forgotten,' of the admirable candour and gene- 
rosity of the nation. In no other European country would such a 



statement have been patiently heard, much less printed and pub- 
lished. This gentleman returned shortly afterwards to Zurich, with 
an English lady whom he had married in England. The work-people 
of his establishment hastened to welcome them, to present their 
master with a little congratulatory address, and his wife with various 
interesting little specimens of national industry, as nuptial presents; 
all, except the English labourers, who remained sullen spectators of 
the general rejoicing, and gave no signs whatever of cordiality and 
satisfaction ! 

Thus unanimous is the voice of the world concerning the English 
manufacturing labourers. A great part of the blame should rest no 
doubt with the English master-manufacturers, who, with a few rare 
and admirable exceptions, take no pains whatever to improve the 
character and open the minds of their work-people. The severity of 
discipline in the English factories, the cold, harsh manner in which 
the work-people are addressed by their superiors, the rigid silence 
enforced among them, and the unfeeling manner with which they 
are dismissed to steal or starve, at every fluctuation in the fortunes of 
their masters, all these things cannot but have a hardening and dead- 
ening effect on their characters. No less evil in its effects must be the 
total absence of all intercourse between these despised classes, and 
their employers, and the mutual indifference of both ranks to the 
prosperity or adversity of the other. It is commonly said in England 
that there is less personal intercourse between the master cotton- 
spinner and his workmen, than between the Duke of Wellington and 
the meanest cottager on his estate. 

No doubt much strictness and regularity of discipline, much stern 
subordination of classes, is necessary to the maintenance of order in 
these gigantic establishments, and to the due security of the manu- 
facturer's interests. But surely, surely, all that is necessary or de- 
sirable in this way, is not incompatible with a little more benevolence 
and cordiality of social intercourse, a little more humane and Chris- 
tian regard for the temporal happiness and eternal welfare of those 
employed, than is commonly found in England ! Might not this iron 
severity during; hours of labour, be sweetened by a little more friend- 
liness and affability at other times ? 

English manufacturers are generally astonished to hear, that even 
in Austria, the education of the children of manufacturing labourers 
is carefully attended to, each master manufacturer being compelled to 
erect a school near his factory, and allow the children of his work* 
people some hours every day for education. The English think that 
the business of a factory is to produce good cotton and bring in 
plenty of money, not to teach naughty boys their ABC. 

The question of education, as regards the manufacturing popula- 
tion, is becoming every dav more urgent and more difficult, owing 
to the increasing amount of juvenile labour employed in the factories. 
In the factory there is no father to teach and to punish, no mother 
to love and to reward, no grown-up brother and sister to instruct by 


example, bo companion to animate by emulation and friendship. 
The most that can be hoped for is a just overseer, orderly fellow- 
labourers, and punctual wages on Saturday night. All else is want- 
ing; I say all , and that includes very much. The dull, ceaseless 
mechanical occupation, continued all day long, affords no scope for 
invention or thought, no lessons of experience, no awakening and 
animating influences. How endless in amount and variety is the 
incidental information and instruction, conveyed to the son or daugh- 
ter in the miscellaneous occupations of homes or even those of the 
shop and the warehouse, compared to that utter void of such things 
in tne long monotonous rooms of the factory, with their noisy ma- 
chines and silent busy crowds. For the women also, how evil in its 
influence must be the factory-system ! What can those girls who pass 
their youthful years in this ceaseless mechanical labour, learn of the 
household and maternal duties, on which the happiness of the present 
generation, and the character of the future one, so largely depends? 

There are many English writers who are ready to defend the 
factory system from all that can be charged upon it, and to represent 
all that is said against it, as the result of mere prejudice. They main- 
tain that the children of the manufacturing population would be still 
worse brought up in the little households of the labourers than in 
the great factories, which are conducted by men of education and 
experience, and which are generally cleaner and better ventilated 
than the dwellings of the poor. The very nature of the factory 
system, say they, necessitates a certain order, regularity, and indus- 
try, which must have a good physical and moral influence on the 
children. And it cannot be denied that the moral education of the 
children is likely to be better cared-for in the worst factories than in 
the worst families. The parents may be profligate, drunken, and 
criminal, and the factory-system may do much to remove the children 
from their depraving example and influence. In the factories they 
can hardly learn many bad habits, the severity of discipline and 
ceaselessness of labour prevents that; and on the other hand, they 
acquire habits of punctuality and industry which cannot but be use- 
ful and beneficial. The factory-system, while it develops no moral 
germs within the soul, does at least, in some measure, preserve it 
from contamination from without. Even the severity and harshness 
to which the children are subjected in the factories, is, no doubt, 
often far exceeded by the tyranny and despotism of rude and^ brutal 
parents, in those recesses of private households which no legislative 
restrictions can reach, and where the searching eye of public opinion 
never penetrates. 

Yet all that can be said in favour of the factory-system onlv 
amounts to this, that in the factories children are not exposed to all 
the evils which attend their condition in the very worst private fa- 
milies. Never, however, can they obtain in the very best factories 
any thing of the moral and mental discipline, of the awakening and 
ennobling influences, which even a very ordinary family education 


will afford them. The philanthropist cannot but regret the progress 
of any system, whatever be its other advantages, which tends to 
undermine that noblest of all institutions — the iamily. Since, how- 
ever, the material advantages of the factory-system are so great, and 
its consequent growth and development so certain, every prospect of 
an improvement and mitigation of its evils cannot but be hailed by 
all benevolent minds with eagerness and satisfaction. 

The English government has as yet done lamentably little for the 
education of the manufacturing population. What has been effected 
has been so chiefly through the agency of private persons, and some- 
times of master manufacturers themselves. There still exist, how- 
ever, among these latter, many absurd prejudices against the thorough 
education of their work-people. They fancy that to make these more 
generally intelligent and refined will be to counteract what they call 
the " snecial training," by which they are fitted for their particular 
mechanical avocations. They are also averse to the encouragement 
of temperance among their work-people, on the ground that drinking 
is necessary, to enable these to sustain the fatigue of their occupation, 
and that the best workmen are generally great drinkers. Some of the 
more enlightened manufacturers, however, have of late years begun 
to see the absurdity of these prejudices. The statements of a certain 
Mr. Fairbairn, one of the principal manufacturers of Manchester, 
show them to be totally unfounded. This experienced and en- 
lightened man, affirmed that in his establishment, he always selected, 
for every kind of employment requiring any skill or forethought, 
those men whose general education had been liberal and thorough, 
in preference to those whose acquirements were limited to what was 
conferred upon them by the " special training." He found that it 
was only the very lowest and most mechanical of the factory employ- 
ments which were not far better performed by well educated men, 
than by those more ignorant; and that even in these lowest depart- 
ments, there would every now and then occur cases, in which su- 
periority of education gave a workman a very great advantage and 
value. He also maintained that the educated workmen were far more 
moderate in their demands, and quiet and manageable in their be- 
haviour, than the ignorant ones, who were perpetually actuated by 
a blind, envious animosity to their masters, which it was very dim- 
cult for any kindness or hberality on the part of these to overcome. 
" In case of any discontents or disturbances among our work-people, 
when strikes and combinations are apprehended, tne best plan is al- 
ways to collect the more intelligent and well-informed among them, 
and converse with them for a while in a friendly and sensible way, 
until they are gained over to see the folly of their proceedings, and 
to act as checks upon the turbulence and stupidity of the rest. ' Mr. 
Fairbairn also stated, that it was a very mistaken notion, to imagine 
that drinking really enabled the workmen to sustain fatigue 
better, and to perform their work with more activity. It might in- 
deed confer a certain temporary stimulus, in cases of great fatigue, 


but this was more than compensated by the dullness, heaviness, and 
feebleness which it afterwards brings on. In his own establishment, 
he was always careful to have a plentiful supply of good drinking- 
water at all hours for his men, and he found that this refreshed and 
strengthened them as much as fermented liquor, without the bad 
consequences of the latter. He referred at the same time to the in- 
stance of the boatmen of Constantinople, who are all what would 
here be called teetotallers, and who are the most powerful, athletic, 
and handsome set of men imaginable. He also strenuously denied the 
truth of the belief, that the best and most active workmen were 
generally given to drinking, affirming that such cases were very ex- 

It is much to be regretted that the manufacturing population have 
not a better class of amusements at their command for the recreation 
of their leisure hours. Gardens and promenades, accessible to the 
working classes, are very deficient all over England, and particularly 
in the neighbourhood of Manchester. The taste for the beauties and 
wonders of nature, which attracts our German labouring classes into 
the fields and woods on Sundays and holidays, is also, I fear, deficient 
among the working population of England. The ignorance and 
want of cultivation, among the wives of the labourers, is probably in a 
great measure the occasion of the absence of refined and social plea- 
sures among them. Many of the master-manufacture™ are now 
taking great pains to encourage such pleasures and tastes among their 
work-people. One of them lately gave a great tea party, to which 
were invited all the labourers with their wives and children, and at 
which various amusements were provided for them. There was a 
piano and a large harmonica, and readings and recitations from 
favourite authors were also introduced. Four hundred persons, men, 
women, and children, were thus entertained in a very satisfactory 
manner, at a very trifling cost. 

There have been lately set on foot among the manufacturing la- 
bourers themselves, various institutions and associations of excellent 
tendency and effect. There are sick-societies, whose members, by 
combination, are enabled to procure the benefit of good medical at- 
tendance when sick; there are burial-societies, which defray the ex- 
penses of funerals for deceased members; and there are the above- 

named societies for mutual improvement. Then there are the ly- 
ceums and mechanics' institutions, by which labouring men may ob- 
tain, by the payment of a few shillings every quarter, various ad- 
vantages for themselves, their wives, and their children; for these 
include schools, lecture-rooms, libraries, and tea-parties, of various 

There are, besides, other associations of labourers, whose object, 
sometimes avowed, sometimes secret, is to protect the interests of 
the members against the real or pretended encroachments of their 
masters. Upon these the master manufacturers look, of course, with 
a far less mendly eye. They maintain that such " unions" only 


promote hostile feelings in the work-people towards their masters, 
and are far more likely to retard than to promote the objects they 
have in view. The usual practice of these unions, when they wish 
to force higher wages from the masters, is to agree among them- 
selves for a general strike, to refuse working on the old rate of 
wages, and to live upon their own savings as long as they can. On 
some occasions these unions have exercised a most formidable and 
tyrannical authority. That of Norwich, about ten or twelve years 
ago, had not only its regular general assemblies, but its committees 
perpetually sitting, to watch over the interests of the labourers, 
under the superintendance of a well-remunerated secretary named 
Fish. Every proceeding of the manufacturers was watched by these 
committees, and opposed in various ways if not approved of. Thus 
if it was resolved by the committee that twenty shillings a week, 
instead of fifteen, ought to be paid by a certain master to his work- 
people, the workmen were persuaded and commanded to refuse to 
work, and spies were appointed to mark those labourers who dis- 
regarded the mandate. These lost caste among their companions, 
by whom they were shunned and despised as traitors and cowards ; 
they were tormented and teazed in a hundred ways; nay, frequently 
their houses were secretly entered at night, and their work damaged 
and destroyed. The manufacturers who refused to comply with the 
demands of the committee were threatened, watched, and annoyed 
in many ways; and the tradespeople, unfriendly to the union, were 
deprived of custom and support. The consequences of this tyranny, 
by injuring the prosperity of the whole city, were eventually as 
ruinous to the poor as to the rich. 

Indeed the consequences of strikes and combinations are com- 
monly far more fatal to the labourers than to their masters. The 
scanty funds of the work-people are soon exhausted, while the mas- 
ter manufacturers, who have often immense capital at their disposal, 
can hold out for a very long time. The poor ignorant labourers 
also, commonly disagree among themselves, while oligarchies are 
notoriously well united. Generally, after selling their last articles of 
clothing and furniture, the unfortunate "strikers" are compelled to 
ewallow the bitter humiliation, of returning to their old situations, 
with unredressed grievances still rankling in their hearts, nay they 
must be very thankful if they are still permitted to do this. And of 
course it cannot be expected that the masters should receive back 
with any very friendly and compassionate feelings those troublesome 
rebels, who if they could, would gladly have ruined them. Very 
often too it happens, that in the absence of their usual number of 
work-people, the manufacturers have been forced to expedients, 
which have led to inventions and improvements in machinery, by 
which they are enabled to dispense with a large number of their for- 
mer labourers. Thus when the latter return to work, numbers find 
themselves left destitute. 

The true interests of both masters and labourers must point to a 


moderate but sufficient rate of wages. It must be the master's in- 
terest that his work-people should be well clothed and well fed, and 
should enjoy sufficient leisure and rest to keep them in good health; 
it must be his true interest that they should possess a certain amount 
of education and refinement, by which alone they can be rendered 
really valuable and efficient labourers, and a certain amount of in- 
nocent and beneficial recreation, by which alone they can be kept 
cheerful, contented, and satisfied with their situation. On the other 
hand, it must be the true interest of the labourer that his master 
should obtain sufficient remuneration and profit for his time and 
capital, to cause him to prefer the investment of such time and ca- 
pital in cotton factories, to that of other modes of investment. But 
while the true interests of both masters and labourers point the 
same way, passion, prejudice, and avarice commonly contribute to 
warp the minds of Doth parties, and to make them prefer their tem- 
porary and apparent, to their real and lasting interests. 

The master manufacturers, however, are generally enlightened 
men, who know their own interests, and are experienced and well- 
informed enough to keep them in sight. The work-people, de- 
ficient in all foresight, knowledge, and prudence, are less capable of 
distinguishing between temporary and lasting interests. Voluntary 
moderation on the part of tne labourers is therefore, perhaps, more 
uncommon, than voluntary generosity on the part of the masters. 
The best chance of ameliorating the factory system, will probably 
be found, rather in acting on the intelligent master manufacturers, 
than on their ignorant and short-sighted labourers, whose strikes 
and riots are not only permanently injurious to themselves and their 
masters, but frequently communicate fatal shocks to the whole 
system of British industry. 

There has been collected in England a good deal of statistical in- 
formation, of one sort and another, concerning the condition of the 
labouring classes; yet what has been hitherto brought together 
is but very inadequate, after all, to the nature of the question, and 
the degree of information required, to judge of it properly. The 
science of statistics is yet in its infancy. Tables of averages, which 
ought to be founded on a thousand, or a hundred thousand different 
testimonies, are now made out on a few isolated cases; and the col- 
lector exults if he can triumph over the suspicion and reserve 
common to the ignorant and oppressed, when questioned by their 
superiors, so far as to give the details of the manner of living of a 
few individuals and families here and there. Yet there are certain 
facts, which seem to be very well authenticated and confirmed in 
the various reports and statistical tables published on this subject. 
Among these I was much struck by the number of instances in 
which very high wages did not exempt the labourers and their fa- 
milies from misery and discontent. I have myself visited the houses 
of many families, which I found well furnished, and whose inhabi- 
tants were excellently fed, but who yet manifested a 8tern, gloomy, 


and deep-rooted discontent. A Dr. Howard, of Manchester, who 
has written a pamphlet on the evil effects of want of nourishment, 
declares that there are numbers of families in Manchester, whose 
members earn very high wages, and who, nevertheless, are living in 
a state of wretched destitution, bordering on starvation. The fol- 
lowing are the wages earned by a few workmen of different classes, 

every week: 

£. «. d. 

A machine-printer, with a family of 9 persons earns 4 7 

A millwright 10 „ „ 4 10 

A watchman 2 „ „ 15 2 

A common labourer 4 „ „ 12 

Acolourer 10 „ „ 2 6 

Mr. Love mentions the case of a woman, named Hannah S ■, 
who earned, together with her husband, four shillings a week, and 
received another shilling a week from the workhouse, but who was 
found one morning dead in her lodging, and had seemingly died 
merely from want of nourishment. There is probably no other 
country in the world where five shillings a week could not keep off 
starvation. Mr. Love also adds, from his own experience, that, in 
Manchester, numbers are yearly brought to a premature death from 
want of sufficient food. Dr. Howard gives, in his above-cited work, 
a detailed account of the expenditure of seven poor families, in the 
West Biding of Yorkshire, of which each contained, on an average, 
six members. They earned from twenty to five-and-twenty shillings 
per week, and had each a cottage, with a little piece of kitchen gar- 
aen, rent-free, from the masters with whom they worked. With 
this sum was purchased flour, oatmeal, meat (about four shilling 
worth weekly), potatoes, tea, coffee, sugar (a pound a week), mi] 
soap, coals, tobacco, salt, pepper, and other spices (often six-penny- 
worth of these every week), rice, and schooling for the children (sel- 
dom more than six or sevenpence a week). Four shillings a week 
for meat ! How much meat do our wealthiest peasants and labourers 
consume in the week? Six-pennyworth of pepper and spice I As 
much as the schooling for the children. 

The extraordinary, and, at first sight, inconceivable fact of great 
distress prevailing in spite of high and sufficient wages, is to be at- 
tributed partly, of course, to the very high rate of prices in Eng- 
land, but partly also to certain peculiarities in the English national 
character. The English are less capable of finding enough in a little, 
than any other nation in Europe. If the English could be merry 
over potatoes and water, and luxuriate in bread only of a Sunday, like 
the Saxons of the Harz Mountains; or if, like the tee-totallers of 
Turkey, they could enjoy a carousal over a handful of figs or dates, 
they would not die of starvation by hundreds, as is now the case. 
But the English set no value on small pleasures, small gains, and 
small frugalities; they are always extravagant and wasteful in trifles, 
and it is only in large matters that they learn to be provident and 
saving. This feature in the national character, no doubt mainly 


contributes to maintain that immense disproportion between the rich 
and the poor which prevails in England. Those who have any 
chance of obtaining a rank on a footing with the aristocracy, never 
cease to struggle towards that end; those who have no such chance, 
scarcely think it worth while to be well off, and squander away 
their small gains in sheer contempt of their inadequacy. Were the 
English more disposed to be content with a little, the nation could 
scarcely, indeed, have attained its present extraordinary degree of 
wealth and power, but large masses of the people would never have 
sunk to that deplorable degree of misery and degradation in which 
they now exist. 

The very placards on the walls of the suburbs of Manchester, 
announce the extraordinary- variety and importance of the pursuits 
in which the population is engaged. Here are the puffing an- 
nouncements of quack-doctors, who recommend all kinds of life- 
pills, health-pills, and life-elixirs to the public, and who append 
divers " cautions to families," in which purchasers are warned to 
beware of various deleterious compounds, and requested to observe 
the superscription of the true medicine; here are the dangerous and 
too often infamous placards of the Socialists and others; here the 
earnest and resolutely revolutionary announcements of the Chartists, 
addressed to the "Men of Manchester," or the "Lovers of Jus- 
tice !" or the " Friends of Freedom;" here invitations to public tea- 
parties and balls, held in honour of Duncombe or OConnell, or 
some other favourite of the people; and here, most important of all, 
axe the bills, addresses, and announcements, of the " Anti-Corn- 
Law men." 

Manchester is the centre of the Anti-Corn-Law, as Birmingham 
is of the Univereal-Sufl&age, agitation. At Manchester are held the 
general meetings of the Anti-Corn-Law League, and here it is that 
the committee of the League constantly sits. The kindness of a friend 
procured me admission to the great establishment of the League at 
Manchester, where I had the satisfaction of seeing and hearing much 
that surprised and interested me. George Wilson and other well- 
known leaders of the League, who were assembled in the committee- 
room, received me as a stranger, with much kindness and hospi- 
tality, readily answering all my questions, and making me acquainted 
with the details of their operations. I could not help asking myself 
whether in Germany, men, who attacked, with such talent and energy, 
the fundamental laws of the state, would not have been long ago 
shut up in some gloomy prison as conspirators and traitors, instead 
of being permitted to carry on their operations thus freely and 
boldly in the broad light of day; and, secondly, whether in Ger- 
many, such men would ever have ventured to admit a stranger into 
all their secrets with such frank and open cordiality. 

I was astonished to observe how the Leaguers, all private persons, 
mostly merchants, manufacturers, and men of letters, conducted po- 
litical business, like statesmen and ministers. A talent for public 


business seems an innate faculty in the English. Whilst I was in 
the committee-room immense numbers of letters were brought in, 
opened, read, and answered, without a moment's delay. These letters, 
pouring in from all parts of the United Kingdom, were of the most 
various contents, some trivial, some important, but all connected with 
the objects of the party. Some brought news of the movements of 
eminent Leaguers or of their opponents, for the eye of the League is 
ever fixed upon the doings both of friend and enemy. Others con- 
tained pecuniary contributions, from well-wishers of the cause; for 
each of whom the president immediately dictated an appropriate 
letter of thanks. Other letters related anecdotes, showing the pro- 
gress of the cause, and the gradual defection of the farmers, the most 
resolute supporters of Peel. 

The League has now, by means of local associations in all parts of 
the kingdom, extended its operation and influence over the whole 
country, and attained an astonishing national importance. Its fes- 
tivals, Anti-Corn-Law bazaars, Anti-Corn-Law banquets, and others 
of like nature, appear like great national anniversaries. Besides the 
acknowledged members of the League, there are numbers of im- 
portant men who work with them and for them in secret. Every 
person who contributes 50/. to the League Fund has a seat and 
a voice in their council. They have committees of working men 
for the more thorough dissemination of their doctrines among the 
lower classes, and committees of ladies to procure the co-operation of 
women. They have lecturers, who are perpetually traversing the 
country to fan the flames of agitation in the minds of the people. 
These lecturers, who sometimes earn as much as 600/. a year, often 
hold conferences and disputations with lecturers of the opposite party, 
and not unfrequently drive them in disgrace from the field. It is 
also the business of the travelling lecturers, to keep a vigilant watch 
on every movement of the enemy, and acquaint the League with 
every circumstance likely to affect its interests. The Leaguers write 
direct letters to the Queen, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Robert Peel, 
and other distinguished people, to whom, as well as to the foreign 
ambassadors, they send copies of those journals containing the most 
faithful accounts of their proceedings. Sometimes they send per- 
sonal deputations to distinguished opponents, in order to tell them 
disagreeable truths to their faces. Nor do the Leaguers neglect the 

g>tent instrumentality of that hundred-armed Briareus, the press, 
ot only do they spread their opinions through the medium of those 
journals favourable to them; they issue many periodicals of their own, 
which are exclusively devoted to the interests of the League. These 
contain, of course, full reports of all meetings, proceedings, and lec- 
tures against the corn-laws; extracts from Anti-Corn-Law publica- 
tions, repeating for the thousandth time that monopoly is contrary 
to the order of nature, and that the League seeks only to restore the 
just order of Providence; original articles headed " Signs of the 
Times," " Anti-Corn-Law Agitation in London,'! " Progress of the 


good work," &c, &c. ; and last not least, poems entitled " Lays of the 
League," advocating in various ways tne cause of free trade, and 
satirising their opponents generally with more lengthiness than wit. 
Nor does the Anti-Corn-Law party omit to avail itself of the agency 
of those cheap little pamphlets called " Tracts," which are such 
favourite party-weapons in England. With these tiny dissertations, 
seldom costing more than twopence or threepence, and generally 
written by some well-known Anti-Corn-Law leader, such as Cobden 
or Sturge, the League are perpetually attacking the public as with 
a bombardment of small shot. I saw three or four dozen of such pub- 
lications announced at the same time by one bookseller, Mr. Gadsby. 
Still tinier weapons, however, are the Anti-Corn-Law wafers, consist- 
ing of short mottos, couplets, and aphorisms of every class, grave and. 
gay, serious and satirical, witty and unmeaning; but all bearing on 
tne one point of monopoly and free trade. These are sometimes 
taken from the Bible, sometimes from the works of celebrated writers 
and orators, sometimes from the speeches and publications of the 
Leaguers themselves, and sometimes are produced by the inventive 
ingenuity of the editor. Eighteen sheets of these wafers are sold in 
a pretty cover for one shilling, and each sheet contains forty mottos. 
Astonishing indeed is the profuse expenditure of labour, ingenuity, 
wit, and talent, and likewise of stupidity, folly, and dullness, with 
which, in this wonderful England, the smallest party operations are 
carried on! Even in children's books, do both the Leaguers and Anti- 
Leaguers carry on their warfare, thus early sowing the seeds of party 
spirit in the minds of future generations. 

All the publications of the League are not only written, but printed, 
bound, and published, at the League-rooms in Market-street, Man- 
chester. I went through the various rooms where these operations 
were carried on, until I came at last to the great League Depot, 
where books, pamphlets, letters, newspapers, speeches, reports, tracts, 
and wafers, were all piled in neat packets of every possible size and 
appearance, like the packets of muslin and calico, in the great ware- 
houses of Manchester. Beyond this was a refreshment room, in 
which tea was offered us by several hospitable ladies, with whom we 
engaged in conversation for a little while. 

I cannot join the sanguine expectations of the Leaguers, that Sir 
Robert Peel will be the last English minister who will venture to up- 
hold monopoly. It is well-known how long such struggles gene- 
rally last, and now very frequently, when the longed-for prize appears 
on the point of being attained, it is suddenly snatched away from 
that oft deluded Tantalus— the people. The immediate aim of the 
Leaguers is the abolition of the corn-laws, but they do not propose 
to stop at the attainment of this object. They will then turn the 
same weapons which brought down the corn-laws, against all other 
trade monopolies and custom-house restrictions, first in England and 
then in other countries, until at length all commercial restrictions 
between different nations, shall be totally done away with, and trade 



rejoice in the golden sunshine of freedom all over the world. A 
tempting object, but alas ! a long and doubtful road. 

It was on a cold, damp, foggy morning in December, that I took 
my leave of Manchester. I rose earlier than usual; it was just at 
the hour when, from all quarters of the busy town, the manufactur- 
ing labourers crowded the streets as they hurried to their work. I 
opened the window and looked out. The numberless lamps burning 
in the streets, sent a dull, sickly, melancholy light through the 
thick yellow mist. Ata distance! saw huge factories, which, at first 
wrapt in total darkness, were brilliantly illuminated from top to 
bottom in a few minutes, when the hour of work began. As neither 
cart nor van yet traversed the streets, and there was little other noise 
abroad, the clapping of wooden shoes upon the crowded pavement, 
resounded strangely in the empty streets. In long rows on every 
side, and in every direction, hurried forward thousands of men, 
women, and children. They spoke not a word, but huddling up 
their frozen hands in their cotton clothes, they hastened on, clap, 
clap, along the pavement, to their dreary and monotonous occupa- 
tion. Gradually the crowd grew thinner and thinner, and the 
clapping died away. When hundreds of clocks struck out the hour 
of six, the streets were again silent and deserted, and the giant fac- 
tories had swallowed the busy population. All at once, almost in a 
moment, arose on every side a low, rushing, and surging sound, 
like the sighing of wind among trees. It was the chorus raised by 
hundreds of thousands of wheels and shuttles, large and small, and 
by the panting and rushing from hundreds of thousands of steam* 

I went out, and traversed the humming and resounding streets, 
until I arrived at the terminus of the railwaj, which was to bear me 
far away from mighty Manchester, with its wonders and horrors, 
its splendour and its misery, into new scenes, new wonders, and new 


The time had arrived for quitting the smoke and steam of busy, 
wealthy, populous young Manchester, for the learned elegance and 
leisure of monastic, aristocratic old Oxford. I fled swiftly away 
on the mighty wings of steam, and very soon the smoke canopy of 
Manchester, and soon after the whole county of Lancashire vanished 
on the edge of the horizon. It was not long before the dim blue 
distance swallowed up the fresh green smiling landscapes of Cheshire. 
On twenty-two magnificent arches, we glided over the valley of 
Stockport; and the buildings, manufactories, low steeples and tower- 
ing chimneys of various populous towns, Crew, Stafford, Wolver- 
hampton, &c, appeared and vanished one after another. In an 
incredibly short time, we had traversed all Staffordshire from its 
northernmost to its southernmost point, and we continued our fly* 

OXFORD. 147 

Sag march in Warwickshire, until at last we paused at 

from whence I continued my journey in a stage-coach to Oxford. 

The only remarkable object I saw on the road, was alow, antique, 
picturesque-looking cottage near the Tillage of Stratford-on-Avon, 
over whose door were inscribed these words: "The immortal Shakes* 
peare was bora in this house." But alas 1 die modern traveller, who 
flies through the world in railway trains and stage-coaches, has to 
pass by much which deserves, and would well repay his attention, 
and I too, was compelled to pass this venerable, this eternally con- 
secrated house, without offering up within the hallowed precincts 
which echoed the first feeble cries of such an immortal infant, the 
homage of my fervent enthusiasm. But I shall never forget the 
glimpse I caught from the stage-coach of this most illustrious cot* 
tage. It is a small, one-storied little house, wedged in between two 
others, and is built in an antique style, of which there are few ge- 
nuine specimens remaining. Until very lately, it was a butcher's 
shop, and it is now inhabited by a poor widow, who earns her bread 
by keeping it in repair and showing it to strangers. 

We arrived at Oxford late in the evening, and were met as we 
entered the city of learning, by a troop of grotesquely attired boys in 
masks. It seems that there are certain days in the jear, when this 
perambulation of juvenile masques is customary in the streets of 
Oxford; for what reason I do not know. 


Alfred the Great endowed at Oxford three colleges, which have now 
gradually swelled to twenty-four. Each of these colleges has its own 
buildings, its own gardens, its own antiquities, its own magnificent 
Gothic chapel, its own splendid library, its own peculiar constitution, 
laws, privileges, and festivals. Yet in spite of this isolation of the 
several colleges, they are by no means separate schools. The chan- 
cellor, masters, and scholars of the University of Oxford, form one 
united corporate body, who decide all their proceedings in two houses 
of assembly, called the Houses of Congregation and of Convocation. 
To detail the respective offices, duties, and privileges of these two 
houses — their relation to each other, to the university, and to the 
state, would be here impossible. The constitution of the English 
universities compared to those of Germany, is that of a complicated 
Gothic cathedral, to a ample Grecian temple. The supreme power 
of the university rests, however, with the chancellor, and after him 
with his representative, the vice-chancellor. These offices are al- 
ways filled by persons of high rank, generally by distinguished lay- 
men. The two most remarkable chancellors of Oxford I ever heard 
of, were Oliver Cromwell, who held that office in 1650, and the 
Duke of Wellington, who holds it at present. The vice-chancellor, 
however, who is a resident member of the university, is the sovereign 


148 OXFOBD. 

de facto, and to his authority is subject, not only the university it- 
self, but the whole city of Oxford. The mayor of the city does 
homage to the vice-chancellor every year; and the authority of the 
latter great man is said to be by no means a nominal one. Next in 
dignity to the chancellors and provosts of the university, are the 
heads of the different colleges, who bear different titles in every 

The head professors of the university, are called regius professors, 
their chairs having been founded by royal grant. All the other pro- 
fessorships were endowed by private persons and are named after their 
founders. These are all remunerated and chosen, according to the 
wishes of these founders; so that the manner of their appointment is 
often very eccentric and complicated. Thus for instance, when the 
Savilian Professor of Geometry is to be appointed, the Vice- 
chancellor of Oxford has to apprise thereof by letter, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, the Bishop of 
London, the Chancellor of Oxford, the first Secretary of State, all 
the lord chief justices, the first Lord of the Treasury, and the Dean 
of the Arches. With this rather miscellaneous assortment of gran- 
dees rests the important choice; they are accordingly " conjured 1 ' 
to search out the most skilful mathematicians of their own or any 
other country, and choose among them without favour or partiality, 
the individual best qualified for the office in question. 

Besides the professorships, there are lectureships, fellowships, and 
scholarships, differing from one another in various particulars, which 
cannot here be circumstantially detailed. The course of study at the 
university is divided into terms, of which there are four in the year. 
Every student must have studied for a certain number of terms, be- 
fore he can take any degree at the university. This taking of de- 
grees is the immediate object of endeavour with all. Those who 
have taken their degrees, are called graduates, those who have not, 
undergraduates. The students are divided into two great classes: 
the members on the foundation, who are supported partially or en- 
tirely from the funds of the colleges, and the members not on the 
foundation, who pay, and often very enormously, for their instruc- 
tion and accommodation. This last class has many subdivisions. 
There are the " Noblemen," the sons of nobles, who pay the highest 
price, and who are accommodated and instructed accordingly; the 
gentlemen-commoners, who are the sons of the gentry and poorer 
nobility; and lastly, the commoners, the plebeians of the university, 
who pay least, and are accommodated in an inferior manner, ' In 
some colleges there are also poor students called servitors, who, al- 
though not on the foundation, pay little or nothing for their education, 
but perform various services for their colleges. 

The richest, most distinguished, and most celebrated of the Oxford 
colleges, is that of Christ Church. Here are educated the sons of 
the highest English aristocracy. This college boasts of many cele- 
brated names, among those of its former students; among others that 

OXFORD. 140 

of the present premier, Sir Robert Peel. The students of Oxford are 
iar less liberal in their opinions than those of Cambridge. Cam- 
bridge has had the honour of educating many famous Protestant 
bishops, which it is said " Oxford has had the honour of burning." 
Oxford is always far more backward than Cambridge, in yielding to 
the spirit of reform and innovation. 

The internal arrangement of the collegiate buildings closely cor- 
responds to that of our old German monasteries. Each college has 
its own church, its own library, and its own " hall," or refectory, where 
the members of the college dine, and which is often very splendid. 
Though the members all dine in the same hall, however, the distinc- 
tion of ranks is, even here, very strongly kept up. There is the 
high-table, where the masters, fellows, and gentlemen-commoners 
sit, and which is a sort of raised platform at one end of the hall; the 
commoners' table is in the middle of the hall; and there are lower 
tables at the other end, for the servitors. All the arrangements of 
the university, are made in the same sternly exclusive spirit. The 
guest of a student takes rank with his entertainer ; so that the parents 
and uncles of the commoners sit at a lower table, and look up from 
a respectful distance at the high-tables of the aristocratic youths. 
Many of the colleges have beautiful gardens, which are open to the 
public on certain days. I must, however, request my reader, before 
proceeding further, to accompany me on a short walk through the 
various colleges of Oxford. 

It is Sunday morning. The numberless bells of Oxford are ring- 
ing a cheerful yet solemn peal. The streets are filled with elegantly 
dressed students, masters, bachelors, and doctors. The commoners 
may be distinguished by their simple but stately black togas, 
and their square-topped, long-tasselled, blackcaps; the gentlemen- 
commoners by the lace, embroidery, and red silk linings of their 
robes; and the noblemen by the addition of a quantity of gold lace 
and gold threads, both on togas and caps. The rules and regula- 
tions for costume, varied with every degree of rank and every day 
of festival, are, at the English universities, carried to a most compli- 
cated and absurd degree of solemn foppery. How different from 
the simple rules of the German universities, the chief of which is, 
" Let each dress as he likes best." 

Over the gates of Christ Church towers the belfry, contain- 
ing; the great bell, the pride of the university, commonly called 
" weat Tom of Oxford," which every evening summons toge- 
ther, by 101 strokes, the 101 students of the college. The col- 
leges are closed at a certain hour, and every student who does not 
come in at the right time, is subject to a certain penalty. The door- 
keepers mark the names of all who are not within at the closing, as 
well as of those who are absent from church, at morning and even- 
ing service. The students are generally desirous, if theycan, of 
avoiding this attendance, or, as they call it, of " cutting the 

150 OXFORD. 

Another remarkable pait of the college is its kitchen. It is said 
to be the largest kitchen in England, much larger than that of 
Windsor Castle, or even than that of the Reform Club. It is, of 
course, very splendid and complete in all its arrangements. I re- 
marked that it seemed the oldest part of the building. " Yes, sir," 
said one of the cooks, quite unconscious! probably, of the bitter 
satire his words conveyed; " they built the kitchen before any other 
part of the college/' Indeed, throughout the university, I could 
not but remark, that the animal gratifications of the aristocratic stu- 
dents, seemed treated with quite as much attention and respect as 
their spiritual wants, and that the kitchens and dining-rooms vied 
with, and often surpassed in splendour, the churches and libraries. 

The New College is one of the handsomest in Oxford. Its gar* 
dens are splendid, commanding wide and beautiful prospects of the 
surrounding country. How luxurious must be study and medi- 
tation, among the ivy-clad ruins and rich verdant groves of these 
antique gardens ! The church of the New College is very beautiful, 
and rich in magnificent sculptures, and stained windows. In the 
church of Magdalen College, hangs a very fine old picture repre- 
senting " Christ bearing the cross." The origin of this picture is 
disputed; by some it is attributed to Morales, but whoever the 
painter may have been, his inspiration can have been of no common 
order. This church is splendidly decorated with antique stone and 
wood carvings of the most curious and interesting forms. The read- 
ing-desk is in the shape of a great bronze eagle, with outspread 
wings, upon which the prayer-books are placed; this form, beauti- 
fully typifying the upward flight of prayer, is very common in the 
English churcnes. In the great quadrangle of Magdalen College, 
round which run the cloister-walks, the stone arches and pilars are 
carved with all sorts of grotesque and monstrous shapes, such as 
those with which the fancy of an old monk might have peopled 
hell. These were no doubt symbolical figures representing the evil 
passions and lusts of mankind. 

Every thing about the luxurious retreats of Alma Mater, its 
delicious gardens, its antique libraries, its stately old Gothic 
churches, its a sumptuous kitchens and refectories, the monastic 
habits of its inmates, all reminded me strongly of the wealthy old 
abbeys and monasteries on the banks of the Danube; with this 
difference, however, that the latter are rich in picture galleries, 
museums, collections of natural history, Ac., which are mostly 
wanting at Oxford. Indeed the monks of the Danube appear to 
me to take a far more enlarged and liberal interest in art, science, 
and learning than the students of the English universities. 

The lower classes of English society are totally unrepresented at 
these institutions. How many sons of wealthy peasants and me- 
chanics aie to be found at all our German universities; but at 
Oxford, those whom I questioned had great difficulty in naming to 
me a single farmer's .son. The average annual expense of a tola* 

OXTOR3X 151 

xably economical student at Oxford, is estimated at 2007. We have 
among our students, many living in a garret, feeding on bread and 
water, and contriving, by giving lessons in Latin, Greek, drawing, 
music, or whatever else is required, to work their way arduously to 
learning and distinction; these are not to be found at Oxford. 
Here the roads are smoother, and the objects to be aimed at are 
fixed for every one beforehand. Science is clipped and polished to 
the semblance of a smooth artificial, well-fenced cloister-garden, 
into which nothing free, natural, or not according to rule is ad- 
mitted. Every one knows his road; no one loses nis way; but no 
one cuts new roads, or discovers new points of view for himself. At 
our. universities, science is still a free, graceful, fertile wilderness. 
Thousands of students plunge into this wilderness. Many follow 
their own way, and some lose themselves in consequence. But many 
arrive at new and beautiful scenes and discoveries, and all owe to 
their own efforts whatever they attain. At Oxford, where every 
thing is learnt by rote, the students must owe every thing to the 
ancient mould in which their minds are here cast 

The Oxford students have various associations among themselves 
for other purposes than those of study, such as archery clubs, hunt- 
ing clubs, fishing clubs, &c. Their favourite amusement, however, 
seems to be rowing. They have numbers of beautiful little boats 
.on the Cherwell, and frequently have rowing-matches, or regattas, 
among themselves. The most important rowing-matches, however, 
are those which take place on the river Thames, between the stu- 
dents of Oxford and those of Cambridge. During the last five of 
these, the University of Cambridge was four times victorious, and 
that of Oxford only once. I was assured however, at Oxford, ^ that 
this was not so much owing to the real superiority of Cambridge, 
as to the circumstance, that the rowing-matches took place at the 
close of the Oxford vacation, and in the middle of the Cambridge 
term. Whilst the Oxford students therefore came to the match, 
enervated by a lazy holiday life, those of Cambridge were practising 
down to the last day. One of these regattas on the Thames must, 
I should think, be a very agreeable and animated spectacle. The 

Sing people prepare themselves as iockeys do for horse-races, 
ey eat sparingly, avoid fermented liquors, and live chiefly on 
water and roast beef. 

I was much surprised by the number of pleasing songs current 
among the students of Oxford. At an evening party where I met 
a large number of them, I heard many of these; they were not 
indeed, genuine student songs, like those of Germany, out treated 
of miscellaneous topics. Both the music and the words were gene- 
rally pleasing, and sometimes beautiful. Many of them were mar* 
tial and naval ditties. I noticed that each student always knew his 
sonff through, without stumbling or hesitation, however long it 
might be. Some of them were songs of satire against the French* 

162 oxtokd. 

When these were called for, several of the company begged my 
pardon, as if the singing them was a sort of affront to me. We 
continentalists are all taken for Frenchmen in England; and though 
I can hardly suppose that the students of Oxford do not know the 
difference between a German and a Frenchman, they were, evi- 
dently, involuntarily actuated by the common English system of 
classing us together. 

After the colleges themselves I visited the libraries and antiqui- 
ties. The great Bodleyan library contains, besides great numbers of 
older works, a copy of every book published in the British empire, 
during the last hundred years. Access to this library is granted very 
sparingly, and even the students have to pay an annual sum for the 
use of it. The division which most interested me was that of Bri- 
tish geography and history. Every shire has here its own depart- 
ment, and I was astonished at the minute accuracy, with which the 
petty history and geography, of every village, hamlet, and parish in 
England was here detailed. In some cases the history of every fa- 
mily of any importance was given. I found in this library a small 
collection of German dissertations, but our philological and classical 
works, such as those of Doring, Miiller, and Battman, are best un- 
derstood and most valued at Oxford. It is, indeed, a curious fact, 
that although " The Humanities" are so very much prized at Oxford 
and Cambridge, and although at these universities there is no end to 
studies and examinations in the Greek and Latin Grammars, yet all 
the most learned and valuable works of classical philology known 
here, are translations from the German. It is also strange that, al- 
though there have been Hebrew and Arabic professorships at Ox- 
ford ever since 1636, and although a knowledge of the Scriptures is 
the first desideratum for an Oxford theologian, Hebrew is far less 
generally understood here than at the German universities. With 
us it is very unusual to meet with a theologian who cannot read his 
" Old Testament" in the original; here the contrary is the exception. 

The RadclifFe library is not so extensive as the Bodleyan, although 
it is placed in a far more splendid building. It is particularly rich 
in books of medicine and natural history. The printing-house of the 
University of Oxford is one of the greatest in the kingdom, and is 
one of the three printing houses in England which are alone autho- 
rised to print the Bible as a church book, without comment; the 
king's printer at London, and the printer of the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Deing the other two. At this Oxford printing house, they 
have Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic characters, but no German 
or Gothic ones. The theatre of the University is a large and splen- 
did saloon, of which, portraits of the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance 
form the principal decoration. The victories of the Holy Alliance 
were nowhere in England received with more exultation than at 
Oxford. The late victories in China were also hailed here with more 
enthusiastic rejoicing than elsewhere; but Manchester and Oxford 

OXFORD. 153 

igoiced in Ae same event on very different grounds; Manchester on 
account of its commercial interests, and Oxford on account of the 
stability thus given to the Tory ministry. 

Alma Mater has lately been roughly attacked in a little pamphlet, 
entitled, " Oxford Unmasked," dedicated, " without permission," to Sir 
Robert PeeL It is not written with much talent, and does not institute 
a thorough search into all the abuses existing in Oxford; but it con- 
tains some truth, and has gone through a great number of editions. 
In this pamphlet the monastic customs of the University, the com- 
pulsory churchgoings, the long enforced prayers, attended by the 
young students often only from fear of punishment, and not unfre* 
quently in a state of intoxication, meet with just and vehement cen- 
sure. Much blame also falls upon the system of overloading the 
students with dry, fruitless, unmeaning theological studies, and of 
requiring from them, more urgently, a minute knowledge of the 
genealogy of Hebrew kings, and the names and dates of Old Testa- 
ment narratives, than a comprehension of the real spirit and meaning 
of the Scriptures. The endless examinations in the structure of 
Greek and Latin phrases, and in the use of prepositions and irregular 
verbs, is treated with due derision; and the neglect of more profit- 
able studies, such as those of modern languages, modern science, and 
the fine arts, are animadverted upon. Above all, however, is cen- 
sured the shameful manner in which, it is said, the heads of the col- 
leges, the governors of the University, the tutors and guides of the 
youthful British aristocracy, overlook in the young heirs of wealth 
and influence, not only indolence and neglect, but positive excesses 
and vices; allowing them to slip easily through all examinations and 
laws, and encouraging them in the contraction of debts. It must not 
be forgotten, however, that while much is undoubtedly just in these 
accusations, party purposes may have led the writer, as they do al- 
most all English writers, into many exaggerations and mis-statements ; 
and that Alma Mater, although guilty of many abuses and evils, 
may not, really, be quite such a nest of abominations, as some of her 
opponents describe her. A foreigner will do well, on such ques- 
tions, to hear both sides, and to be very cautious in accepting, uncon- 
ditionally, the estimate of either parly. 

The church of St. Mary's, in the middle of the town of Oxford, 
belongs to no college in particular, but only to the University in 
general. Here all religious solemnities are celebrated, and here 
service is also held twice every Sunday. I went there one Sunday 
to hear a sermon from Mr. Newman, the most distinguished act 
herent of Dr. Fusey. This Mr. Newman is, indeed, at present the 
real head of the religious sect called Puseyites, being a far more 
eloquent, learned, and sagacious theologian than the founder him- 
self! The doctrines which Dr. Pusey first promulgated in 183a, 
and which have gained ground chiefly througn the exertions of Mr. 
Newman, are, in fact, nothing but the unqualified assertion of the 
genuine, orthodox, Oxford divinity. The high churchmen of Oxford 

154 oxford. 

were seized with a panic as to the condition and prospects of the 
Church of England, into which, according to their assertions, false 
doctrines and irreligious principles had gradually intruded; and 
they resolved, through the medium of the press, to make an ener- 
getic stand, against the prevailing spirit of the times. They pub- 
lished, with wis view, a series of pamphlets called " Tracts for the 
Times/' on the government, constitution, rights, and doctrines of the 
Church, on the authority of the old fathers, and the " standard 
English divines," and on the errors and truths of Romanism. These 
tracts were written partly by Mr. Pusey, but chiefly by Mr. New- 
man. The most famous of all was the important " tract Ninety," 
wherein Mr. Newman developed the whole system of Puseyism, by 
giving the Puseyite interpretation of each of the thirty-nine articles 
of the Church of England. 

The Puseyites make a great distinction between Catholicism and 
Romanism. They maintain that the English reformers sought, not 
to establish the system of modern Protestantism, but rather the an- 
cient, and truly Catholic church, devoid of those errors and abuses 
which have deformed the Church of Rome, and which they desig- 
nate under the name of Romanism. They aim at reconciliation of 
the Churches of Rome and of England, through a purification of 
the former, and a Catholicising of the latter; and they call them- 
selves by a name significant of this mixed object — Anglo-Catholics. 
The obnoxious sectarian name of Puseyites, clings to them, how- 
ever, in spite of their protestations. 

The immediate object of the tract Ninety, which excited an im- 
mense sensation at the time, was the explaining away of every thing 
Protestant in the Thirty-nine Articles; or, as Mr. Newman himself 
expresses it, the interpreting them " in the most Catholic sense they 
will admit." The condemnation of the doctrines of Purgatory, of 
Saint-worship, of Absolution, of Transubstantiation, &c., &c, are all 
explained away, and slipped over in a subtle, sophistical, truly 
Jesuitical manner. Yet Mr. Newman wrote this tract, as he de- 
clares, " in any thing but an anti-Protestant spirit, and with no par- 
tiality whatever, towards the Church of Rome." He desired to 
prove that English Protestantism is one and the same thing with 
the ancient ortnodox Catholicism, and thus to show that she alone, 
is fitted to include within herself all Christianity. For this he was 
greatly applauded by many, andparticulaily by the Anglican clergy, 
who love to maintain that the English church is no new establish- 
ment, but derives its authority directly from the apostles and early 
fathers of the Church. On the other hand, a large party in the 
Established Church, were of course alarmed and offended by finding 
that Mr. Newman tampered with their thirty-nine articles, and 
thus, in their opinion, undermined the very foundations of Pro* 
testantism. At last his superiors, the bishops, took the alarm, and 
forbade the continuation of the tracts, which command Mr. New- 
man, as a faithful son of the church, promptly obeyed. 

OXFOBD. 155 

. Whatever may be the truth or error of his doctrines, Mr. Newman 
is certainly inconsistent in one thing; namely, that while he ac- 
knowledges the absolute authority of the framers of the thirty-nine 
articles, he certainly interprets these in a sense totally different from 
that in which, these framers intended them. He evidently thus 
" palters with them in a double sense," because, by denying their 
authority, upon which the Established Church is founded, and by 
setting up other articles in their place, he would be drawing down 
upon himself the wrath, and excommunication of his whole church. 
It is very singular that, in spite of the clear and sharp logical head 
which he possesses, Mr. Newman's expressions are always vague and 
uncertain in the highest degree, and seem intended to leave the 
door open, for slipping out on either side, as circumstances may 
render most convenient. The tracts seem to have been intended 
by him as feelers, by which to try public opinion, and learn how 
far it would be safe for the author to express his own, in an un- 
ouaMed manner. I say *em, for, aWxough such ma the impression 
they conveyed to me, I would by no means deny that it is quite 
possible, and even probable, that no unworthy Jesuitical caution has 
been intentionally maintained. Mr. Newman is declared, by all 
those who know him well, to be not only a man of unexceptionable 
character and integrity, but to be of a devout, single-minded, and 
earnest disposition. 

In its two immediate professed objects, the lessening of sectarian 
distinctions, and the retaining in the Established Church of those 
whose tendencies incline than towards Catholicism— Puseyism has, 
I think, entirely failed. It has split its church into two hostile fac- 
tions, and established in fact a new sect of its own; and it has led 
many over^Eealous Protestants into zealous Romanism, by gradual 
and almost imperceptible gradations. But it is aa an effect, not as a 
cause, that Puseyism takes its place among the meat interesting and 
startling phenomena of the times; as a manifestation namely ot that 
tendency towards the faith and spirit of the Middle Ages, which is 
at present stirring throughout the whole Christian world-—* tendency, 
winch, however erroneous and unsuccessful in its immediate, aims, 
may not be without its important uses in the revivification and ele- 
vation of the prevalent tone of religious feeling. 

In one direction the efforts of the Fuseyites are certainly of a most 
laudable and salutary kind; namely, in reforming the arrangements 
and architecture of the English Protestant churches. Everywhere 
they axe endeavouring to restore churches in the old style, ana to en- 
rich them with their lormer decorations. The costume of their priests 
they wish also to restore, to something of Catholic pomjj and spLen* 
dour; but the most laudable of their innovations is then: energetio 
attack upon the English system of pews. They maintain that as in 
the house of God we are all equal, and kneel as brethren in the pre- 
sence of one common father, the exclusive spirit and distinction of 

156 OXFORD. 

Tanks kept up by the pews is highly unbecoming and unchristian. 
A row of benches without doors or partitions, and all exactly alike, 
ought to be the only seats in churches; no hiring of seats should be 
allowed, but rich and poor should seat themselves as they best can 
when they enter. This desire of reform in church-seats results, how* 
ever, from a more universal impulse, than that of Puseyism, and 
is manifested throughout the whole Christian world, puritanical, 
Popery-hating Scotland not excepted. 

As Mr. Newman's sermon added nothing to what I already knew 
of his doctrines, I was chiefly interested in nearing it, by his manner 
and appearance. Here, as m reading his tracts, I was quite invo- 
luntarily, unexpectedly, and almost unaccountably, reminded of the 
Jesuits. Mr. Newman, as he appears in the pulpit, is a thin, feeble- 
looking little man, with a grave, motionless, somewhat inexpressive 
countenance, in which there is very little either to attract or repel. 
His eyes are small and rather dull, at least, as far as I could per- 
ceive them through his elegant spectacles. The sharp lines of his 
features seemed to me to mark a clever, and the shape and wrinkles 
of his forehead, a learned and a studious man. His hair was combed 
smoothly down, and its straight lines ran parallel with the straight 
lines of his face, which looked as if it too had been just passed 
through a comb; yet in spite of all this there was about him a 
certain repose and dignity, a certain something which might al- 
most be called sanctity, which inspired respect and admiration. 
He spoke very calmly and soberly, without motion or gesticu- 
lation. His arms remained concealed under his desk, and his 
eyes fixed on his paper. He read without apparent fire or 
emotion, and avoided all display of enthusiasm or eloquence. 
I can hardly express the strange effect produced, by hearing him 
pronounce the most startling and extravagant sentences with the 
most perfect calmness and indifference. " Newman carefully avoids," 
said one of his friends to me, " all appearance of zeal, all outbreaks 
of enthusiasm; he desires that the clear justice of his cause, and the 
subtle force of his reasonings, shall work on the minds of his hearers 
without any interference of emotion." I cannot, however, but be- 
lieve, that this calmness and coldness in Mr. Newman's manner is 
natural and necessary to him, and is by no means the result of in- 
tentional forbearance; and I cannot but think that it is unnatural 
and unfavourable to the leader of a great religious revolution. In- 
ternal conviction, entire and earnest assurance of a truth, produces of 
itself an enthusiasm like that fire of the Holy Spirit, which descended 
on the first Apostles of Christianity, and glowed in their lives and 
doctrines. In default of this holy fire of enthusiasm, the Puseyites 
are led to xely far too much on church authorities, sophistical reason- 
ings, and Jesuitical subtleties. 



Leaving Oxford, I proceeded through the pleasant county of 
Berkshire, towards the Great Western Railway, in order to be trans- 
ported by means of the machines vi vaporis impulses, — we had de- 
cided at Oxford that such was the best Latin translation for a rail- 
way locomotive, into the presence of two interesting monuments of 
human art — the Cathedral of Salisbury, and the far famed ruins of 
Stonehenge. Immediately behind Oxford, the landscape began to 
grow extremely rich and beautiful, and from the first hilltop, there 
was a magnificent view of the beautiful old city I had quitted. 

I travelled towards the Great Western Railway, in company with 
one of the most wealthy and influential aldermen of the city of 
London, by whom it was expected that the lord mayor's chair would 
be filled in a few years. Indeed upon his figure, face, forehead, and 
bearing, as it appeared to me, had destiny visibly written the title 
of Lord Mayor of London. I had made his acquaintance at Oxford, 
and on the journey there, he was very cordial and talkative to me. 
He informed me that he had been one of the commissioners who sat 
to regulate the Income-tax in London, and I was delighted to meet 
With some one who could give me authentic and accurate information, 
concerning the working of this new and unpopular tax. My alder- 
man assured me that no such difficulties were found in collecting it. 
as the opponents of Sir Robert Peel had prophesied. Each citizen 
lays before the assessor of his district, his own estimate of his income, 
which if reasonable, is at once accepted; but should the return ap- 
pear absurdly below the citizen's manner of living, the assessor makes 
Ids own estimate, and it is now the citizen's turn to appeal, if he 
pleases, to the commissioners. No one whose income does not 
amount to 150/. per year pays any income tax. There are many 
clerks and others, in Manchester, Liverpool, and London, whose 
income amounts exactly to 150/. pounds a year, these now agree with 
their employers to deduct a few pence each year from their salaries, 
so as just to escape the tax. My alderman, who was a friend to Sir 
Robert Peel's government, insisted upon it that there were no diffi- 
culties or objections of any sort connected with the Income-tax; while 
other Englishmen to whom I have spoken on the subject, being op- 
ponents of the premier, were just as earnest and skilful, in proving it 
to be both oppressive and impracticable. In one respect, I heartily 
agreed with my present companion, in admiring the just propor- 
tion in which this tax falls on poor and rich. On reaching the 
railwaystation we parted, he proceeding towards London, and I to- 
wards Wiltshire. 

The Great Western Railway is now the most perfect and spjendid 
in Great Britain; it is 118 miles long, and its building was accom- 
plished at the astounding cost of 53,000/. sterling per mile ! The 

158 8ALI8BUBT. 

load and the carriages are both as might be expected, of astonishing 
dimensions. The road is a full third wider than the widest of the 
other English railways; and the average speed of the gigantic loco- 
motives employed upon it is twenty-eight miles an hour. 

I arrived at the station at Chippenham, at the precise minute fore- 
told in Bradshaw's Railway Guide, from which town I proposed to 
continue my journey, in a little gig, through Devizes to Salisbury. It 
was close to Christmas, vet the whole landscape was covered with 
the richest, freshest, brightest green. As far as Devizes the country 
was very beautiful, and was broken up by clumps of green hills and 
pleasant woodlands, into a series of sweet, verdant little landscapes. 
Between Devizes and Salisbury, however, lies the tract of country 
known by the name of Salisbury Plain. This is a cold, bare, tree- 
less table-land of chalk, without hedges or cornfields, covered only 
with broad, dreary-looting pasture lands for sheep; it is, however, 
no plain in reality, but contains many elevations, all of the same 
barren kind. Here and there it is, however, agreeably diversified by 
small, fertile, picturesque valleys. There is a tract of country very 
like this in Wiltshire, called the Marlborough Downs. These 
" Downs," as they are generally called, are as characteristic of the 
south of England, as the great heaths and moors of the north; and 
both are generally used as sheep-pastures. It is rather singular that 
the word * ' downs," as applied to treeless, barren tracts of this nature, 
is likewise used on the northern coast of Belgium; perhaps the 
word originated with the ancient Belgse, who once inhabited parts of 
both countries. 

While driving through this steppe-like country, recollections of 
South-Russian scenery naturally recurred to my thoughts, and I 
began to reflect what a delightful country this would be for gipsies. 
Scarcely had this thought occurred to me, than I came across a 
couple of gipsies, at a wayside public-house, where my horse stopped 
to drink. 1 spoke to them, and they answered me in English, al- 
though they assured me that they were well acquainted with the 
f'psy language. These, with the exception of two whom I saw in 
orkshire, were the only gipsies I had yet met with in England; 
and even these, had evidently a great deal of English blood in their 


The town of Salisbury is one of the oldest boroughs, though not 
one of the oldest dwelling-places, in England. The old borough of 
Salisbury, or as it is commonly called for abbreviation " Old Sarum," 
was situated on a bare chalk hill, of very remarkable shape, not far from 
the present city. It was formerly fortified ; but the citizens found 
themselves disagreeably exposed to all the cold winds that raged over 
the barren downs, and they were also much troubled by want of water, 

SATilfiBUKI. 159 

as the barren chalk hill possessed not a angle spring. Thus Camden 
describes it in the following -verse. 

M Eft ibi defectat lymphs^ §ed copia crete % 
Stovit ibi ventos, sed philamela filet" 

" There is deficiency of water, but superfluity of chalk ; the wind 
rages there, bat the nightingale is silent. 

The citizens thus found themselves at length compelled to desert 
their dreary hill for the fertile and well-watered plain. Many privi- 
leges, however, still adhered to the deserted hill ; and among others 
that of sending two members to parliament. Even after all remnants 
of the fortifications were done away with, the owner of this hill might 
send two members of his own choice to parliament. I inquired at 
Salisbury what kind of election took place for this " rotten borough. 3 * 
I was told that the nobleman to whom the place belonged, summoned 
together, on the appointed day, the four or five householders who still 
inhabited " Old Sarum" and named to them the two members whom 
lie wished to send; who were accordingly in due form elected. Some- 
times indeed he did not take this trouble. He would send for his 
steward, and give his orders in the following manner, perhaps: 
" Take care to nave my stable whitewashed again ; and then look to 
it that my two members are properly elected." I also heard that the 
noble owner of Old Sarum, hearing upon one occasion that his selec- 
tion of members had not given satisfaction in the House of Commons, 
replied : " If parliament are not satisfied with my people, I'll send 
them two chimney-sweepers next time, and see what they'll say to 


Salisbury itself has changed very little in modern times. It is one 
of the few English towns in which one may still luxuriate in anti- 
quities and antiquarian recollections. It belongs to the same class of 
towns with Chester and York, and has long furnished a shelter to 
9000 peaceable citizens, without ever exceeding that number. The 
houses are built in a very antique style ; some of them are said to 
be 400 years old. Salisbury is the only town in England where I 
saw a large number of houses with thatched roofs ; and the thatch 
was most plentifully covered with moss. 

Salisbury furnishes a very agreeable variety to the traveller, al- 
though the inhabitants themselves, modestly call it " a very dull 
place." " There is nothing stirring among us. We have no mu- 
seums, no trade, no manufactures, and nave nothing to show a 
stranger but our church." 

This church, however, is quite a little Gothic bijou. It is not 
large and imposing, like the mighty Gothic erections of Paris, Ant- 
werp, Cologne, and Strasburg, or like the cathedrals of York and 
Westminster in England; but it is so complete and perfect in itself, 
so beautifully built and preserved, and so admirably situated, that 
few works of art can furnish the spectator more pure and unmixed 
enjoyment. We have here neither to regret occasional bar- 
barisms of taste, nor slovenliness of execution, nor later neglect or 


injury, nor a disadvantageous situation. It is the neatest, prettiest, 
completest, and best situated little cathedral in the world. I say 
little in a comparative sense, thinking of giants like that of Cologne; 
for Salisbury Cathedral is still a large building, and has one of the 
highest steeples in England. It is surrounded on all sides by a 
wide beautiful meadow-ground, which is dotted with large old 
trees. The cathedral thus stands amid grass and trees, as if in the 
middle of the lawn of an English, park. Even at Christmas, the 
bright green of the meadow still formed a beautiful contrast to the 
gray ofthe old stones. Round this meadow stand the houses of the 
bishop and prebendaries, hidden among pretty gardens. 

The cathedral is said to have as many doors as there are months 
in the year, that is twelve; as many windows as there are days in 
the year, that is 365 ; and as many beams and columns as there are 
hours in the year, that is 8766. What most struck me in the in- 
ternal construction of the church, was the extreme slenderness and 
fineness ofthe so called " flying buttresses" supporting the steeple. 
The builders seem here to have spun their stone through the air 
in some inconceivable manner like the silky thread of a spider. I 
wondered how these long, thin lines of stone could support them- 
selves in the air; yet they have supported, not only themselves, but 
the entire steeple, for 600 years. The clusters of round columns 
which support the roof are also far more light, and less massive, than 
is usual in Gothic churches. This contributed much to the general 
effect of lightness and airy beauty, which the whole structure ofthe 
cathedral conveyed. After leaving the cathedral, the kind friend, 
who had undertaken to do the honours of Salisbury for me, intro- 
duced me to an aged poet, well known in English literature, but 
who was now, in mind and body, an entire ruin. It is impossible 
not to lament, while witnessing such a spectacle, that great poets at 
least, are not permitted to leave the world at once, when they have 
lived enough; and that a beautiful mind, like a beautiful body, is 
permitted to fall, piece by piece, under the murdering strokes of 


The next day I left Salisbury in order to visit one of the most 
wonderful monuments on the surface of the British islands. I had 
to return to the Downs; for it is in the midst of these dreary grassy 
levels, that the hands of unknown architects have erected the won- 
derful monument called Stonehenge. It lies six miles from Salis- 
bury, and on the whole of the monotonous road we met no human 
being, not even one of those shepherds who commonly frequent the 
neighbourhood of Stonehenge with their flocks. 

The first sight of Stonehenge is no doubt disappointing to the 
stranger. We discover what m the distance appears a small group 
of closely clustered stones, whose dark colour looks very gloomy 


against the fresh green of the meadow grass. We must be among 
the stones themselves to estimate whatever is gigantic and won- 
derful in these ancient remains. 

My first desire was to find out the number of the stones, and I 
accordingly began to count them. Upon this, an old shepherd, 
who was watching his flocks close beside the ruins, laughed and 
aaid 9 " That would never do; nobody had ever counted tne stones 
of Stonehenge; it was a peculiarity about the place, that every one 
miscounted the stones, and if he counted them again, to try his first 
result, found a different number." I learnt afterwards that this 
notion was shared by all the inhabitants of the surrounding country. 

I found, however, that the counting was indeed no easy matter. 
I found stones hidden in the grass, of which I could not determine 
whether they were whole stones or only fragments. I found others 
lying at a distance, of which I could not decide whether they be- 
longed to the building or not. To the best of my judgment, how- 
ever, I estimated all the stones, large and small, horizontal and per- 
pendicular, at 140. It seems that this mass of stones was originally 
arranged in the following manner: There was a circle of about forty 
very large, long stones, placed upright on end; this outer circle was 
about forty paces in diameter, according to my measurement, and 
somewhere between 120 and 130 paces in circumference. Within 
this circle was another smaller one, of smaller erect stones. About 
forty paces distant from the outer circle, a low wall and a flat ditch 
were still distinctly to be traced, which had evidently once encircled 
the whole. 

The stones of the great circle are several feet deep in the earth, 
and rise twenty-two feet above the surface. They are four-sided, 
but their shape is rough, and irregular. They are mostly about three 
feet and a half thick, six or seven feet broad, and from eighteen to 
twenty-one feet in circumference. These large stones are smooth at 
the top, and over every interstice between them was originally laid 
a large cross-stone. Tne weight of each of the great upright stones 
is estimated by Camden at 240 cwt., or 24,000 pounds; and of the 
cross-stones at about half that weight, or 120 cwt. This estimate is 
far more likely to fall short of the mark than to exceed it, for each of 
the great blocks must contain 500 cubic feet of stone, and two of 
these cubic feet probably weigh more than a hundred-weight. In, 
the lower side of each of the cross-stones a hole is bored at both ends, 
and at the top of each perpendicular stone are two thick projections, 
fitting exactly into these holes. This is the only fastening between 
the upright and cross stones. Wonderful must have been the labour 
expended in knocking away the solid stone at the top of the great 
blocks, in order to leave these lumps, or pegs of stone, projecting from 
the top. Still more surprising, however, must appear the feat of 
raising stones 12,000 pounds in weight, to the top of other stones 
twenty-two feet high, with the very rude and primitive implements 
alone possessed by the ancient Britons. 



The stones of the inner circle, though likewise forty in number, 
are only about six feet above the ground, and four or fire feet in 
circumference. No cross-stones now lie over them, though it is con- 
jectured by some that they originally did so. 

Let us imagine the building in its original and perfect condition — 
the centre filled with white-robed priests — the stately stones all decked 
with fresh boughs and garktncta— the smoke of sacrifice, and the 
streams of incense, passing out among the columns, and the space 
within the wall, as well as the plain beyond, crowded with gaily- 
dressed and tattoed Britons— ana we may imagine what a wild and 
impressive scene these ruins once presented. 

But now, of the great blocks only about twenty-three are still stand- 
ing upright, and of the cross-stones only eight still lie in their places. 
The rest lie prostrate in confused hews, within and around. Of 
the stones of the inner circle, twelve only still stand upright I asked 
the old shepherd if he remembered when the last great block of stone 
had fallen. He said he remembered very well that it was several 
years ago. It had been a very wet year; the ground all around had 
been very much softened, and one of the great blocks had sunk in 
consequence a little out of its perpendicular. It was in this positron 
when a violent storm occurred, which brought it to the ground. 

But what force can have lifted from their pegs and thrown to the 
ground those cross-stones whose supporting columns yet remain 
erect? That human hands should ever have undertaken the enor- 
mous labour of disturbing these huge masses is out of the question. 
Lightning could not have destroyed them, without injuring also 
the columns. As for storms, if any had occurred since the time of 
the Druids, capable of actually lifting up masses of stone 12,000 
pounds in weight, we should have heard of cities being destroyed, 
or hills torn up by the same winds. As these are the only destruc- 
tive agencies to which these cross-blocks of Stonehenge have ever 
been exposed, we are driven to conjecture that the work of erection 
was never fully completed; that the Druid architects were either 
tired of their Herculean labour, or stopped by want of materials, or 
disturbed by hostile tribes; and that in all those places where two 
upright columns have no cross-stone over them, they have in reality 
never had such at any time. 

The stone of which Stonehenge is built appears to be granite, 
but there is not a fragment of granite far and wide around Stone- 
henge; the whole country is a chalk formation, mixed here and 
there with quartz, while in the construction of Stonehenge not a 
fragment of either chalk or quartz is to be discovered. Here is a 
new wonder of no common magnitude. 

Many of the stones are marked with rude carvings, indentations, 
and marks of lines, rings, &c, which are evidently the work of 
human hands. The upper parts of most of the stones are covered 
with moss; and many of the mosses were vexj large, fresh, and 
beautiful. I cut several pieces to take away with me as relics. 


To what purpose this wonderful monument was erected, appears 
to be a disputed point among antiquarians. While some believe k 
to have been a Druidical temple, others maintain that it was a mau- 
soleum erected by Ambrosius Aurelianus to the memory of those 
Britons who fell here in a battle with the Saxons. According to 
others again, it was a monument erected by the Britons themselves 
in gratitude to this AmbrosiuB. 

Neither in the vicinity nor within sight of Stonehenge, grows a 
single tree or bush. All around is one wide treeless plain. This cir- 
cumstance, and the dreary leaden colour of the sty which usually 
hangs over it, render it one of the most melancholy looting places 
in the world. It is the general rendezvous for all the shepherds of 
the South Downs, and the tinkling of the sheep bells, almost ooa- 
etantly heard around it, is the only sound that breaks the mono- 
tonous silence. 

In the August of 1842, the ruins of Stonehenge were the scene 
of a " dahlia-show." The dreary but solemn old building, must 
have been very much heightened by the presence of gay company 
and beautiful flowers. 

In the neighbourhood of Stonehenge are several of those small 
" tumuli," or " barrows," so frequently met with in the Southern 

Stonehenge probably derives its name from the circumstance of 
the cross-stones hanging upon the columns, which would naturally 
have appeared to the common people the most characteristic feature 
in the building. 


By the time I had seen Stonehenge, the Christmas festival had 
not only approached, but old Father Christmas was already knock- 
ing at the gate; for it was Christmas Eve. At this time all those 
people in England who are what is called " well off," seek out some 
place in the country " to keep their Christmas." On Christmas Day, 
all public institutions have a holiday, and dine more sumptuously 
than usuaL Even the poor vagabonds in the Night Asylums, re- 
ceive a good dinner on Christmas Day. In many prisons even the 
criminals obtain some indulgences; and the poorest cottagers receive 
slices of roast beef and plum-pudding from their wealthier neigh- 
bours, that they may enjoy at least one day of plenty in the 

To the homeless traveller also, the question could not but occur: 
" Where shall I keep my Christmas?" Luckily the answer was in 
my case ready before the question, for I had received a kind invi- 
tation to spend the Christmas festival, at one of the most beautiful of 
the neighbouring country-seats, namely at Bowood. I accordingly 
soon took my seat in the coach for Devizes. The coach was 
crammed full with Christmas presents of various kinds, among 



which numbers of fat capons were the most conspicuous. Our com- 

Sny consisted chiefly of holiday-makers, who were visiting their 
ends and relations in town or country. Among them was a 
governess, who, as she told me, instructed the children of a " farm- 
ing gentleman " in the rudiments of the French language; and who 
was no doubt glad enough to turn her back upon these " rudi- 
ments" for awhile. She had with her, quantities of trunks, band- 
boxes, and hat-boxes. She told me that French was now learnt by 
almost all the farmer's children. Next to French a knowledge of 
Italian was most desired, in a governess among the middle classes. 
w And of German?" I asked. " Oh no !" she answered, " not 
of German. That is only the fashion among the nobility and 

I spoke to her of politics, and soon remarked that she was a very 
zealous Tory. She expressed the utmost abhorrence of every great 
Whig name which I introduced, and she told me that she had spent 
her whole life in the families of farming gentlemen, who are all 
" out-and-out Tories." She was very lively, and quite as ready for 
conversation as any Frenchwoman would have been. 

At Devizes I found all the shops decorated with boughs of ever- 
greens, in honour of the Christmas festival. In the butcher's shops, 
every fat victim from the South Downs was bestuck with boughs 
of holly and laurel. Every sirloin of beef was crowned with a sprig 
of holly ; and the ships which passed along the canals, had tneir 
masts and rudders decorated with evergreens. 

As I had a few hours to stay at Devizes, before proceeding to 
Bowood, I took up the London papers. These journals contained 
an immense deal of information, concerning habits and customs 
connected with the Christmas festival in England. But, unluckily, 
these treasures were so scattered in little scraps and fragments 
through the ponderous masses of London news, that it was impos- 
sible to make any use of them. 

After swallowing a few more of those " curious facts," " dreadful 
occurrences,* " singular incidents," " horrible accidents," &c., of 
which the English newspapers are always as full, as the English 
soups are of black pepper— I set out on my way to Bowood. 

Bowood is, in every respect, so charming and delightful an abode, 
its buildings are so tasteful, extensive, and magnificent; its libraries 
and picture-galleries so excellent and interesting; and its owner a 
man so distinguished, both by his personal character and his great 
political influence, that I think it best to leave a description of this 

5 lace to abler and more impartial pens ; as I have always shunned 
escribing to the world that which I most intimately loved and 
honoured. After I had shared in the glories of an English " Christ- 
mas dinner;" after I had witnessed one of those pretty rural feasts, 
which ladies, even of the highest rank, in England, prepare at their 
own houses for the children of the poor ; after I had duly admired 
the splendid pictures of Kuisdael, El Mudo, Rembrandt, and others, 


collected in the breakiast-room; and, after I had amply enjoyed the 
summer-like Christmas of a great English park, I began to mid that 
my purse was running short, and would soon leave me very uncom- 
fortable, in the midst of every imaginable comfort. I recollected 
that it was not till I got to Eton, that I should reach any friend to 
whom I could apply, without shame, for a remedy to this deficiency; 
and I calculated tnat I had but just funds enough left, to pay my 
way to Eton. I accordingly took my farewell of Bowood and its 
hospitable inmates, and drove over to the Chippenham railway* 


I arrived at Eton at the proper time to make the acquaintance of 
all the scholars and masters at once. For they were all assembled,. 
650 in number, in the college chapel, to close their day's work by 
evening worship. This chapel is the most remarkable building at 
Eton, and is in some measure the landmark of the place, for its lofty 
roof is seen on every side, towering out of the lovely plain, through 
which the Thames here pours its waters. I went up into the organ- 
choir, which overlooks trie whole interior of the chapel. It is 175 
feet long, and very lofty. Six hundred healthy and handsome boys, 
—the flower of English aristocratic youth — were here assembled in 

Oer. Most of them wore the boyish costume common in Eng- 
; some, however, dressed in an antique style, which harmonised 
well with the old Gothic building. Their seats were arranged ac- 
cording to rank. The masters and heads of the college sat upon the 
uppermost benches ; next to them the " noblemen ;" below these 
the "commoners;" and far below these, the poor scholars, supported 
by the school. To us such an arrangement appears strange and 
unbecoming. The English see in it only a proper compliance with 
venerable customs, and the just subordination of ranks. 

It is a heart-stirring spectacle to see so many blooming and hope- 
ful youths assembled together; particularly when it is recollected 
that the past annals of Eton, prove that whoever at any time sees 
its 600 scholars assembled, sees among them, a great number, whose 
names and lives will hereafter become interesting to the whole 
world. How many famous lawyers and authors, how many dis- 
tinguished statesmen, ecclesiastics, generals, and admirals, have re- 
ceived their education at Eton, and lain on their knees in this 
chapel, morning and evening? how many future famed and influ- 
ential heroes, statesmen, orators, and legislators, knelt there at that 
moment among the rest? 

When church was oyer, the obliging head-master of the school 
had the kindness to show me round the different parts of the build- 


it; but by far the greater number of the members were not upon the 
foundation. The original plan of the college indeed, as at the lame 
of the foundation, in the reign of Henry I v., provided only that a 
building should be erected, for the reception of " twenty-five poor 
grammar scholars/' and of " twenty-five poor and infirm old men," 
to pray for the king. This is certainly a curious combination of 
charities; and at present these twenty-five old men are nowhere to 
be found at Eton. 

At the head of the whole college, stands at present a provost, a 
vice-provost, and six fellows, resident at the college. These gene- 
rally hold livings, in different parts of England, at the same time 
with their college offices. Next to these in dignity is the head- 
master. He is dependent upon the congregation of provosts and 
fellows, who decide all matters of general importance to the college. 
In the management of its internal affairs, however, he is tolerably 
free and independent. He derives the greater part of his great 
income, not from the endowments of the college, but tram the con- 
tributions of the scholars themselves. Below the head-master, there 
are under-masters and assistants; and besides these there are seventy 
eoholars, seven clerks, ten choristers, and other college officials, who 
being " on the foundation," are accustomed to earn their board and 
education, either by serving the college, or by dialing in the duties 
of instruction. All these people wear the peculiar black college- 

These scholars who have nothing to do with the college, beyond 
receiving its education, and regularly sharing in its church services, 
do not inhabit the college itself, but the little town of Eton close by, 
and are accordingly called in the college " Oppidans. 11 There are 
separate " boarding-houses" in Eton for the accommodation of these 
young people; and the wealthier among them have their own pri- 
vate tutors, with whom they five. 

Very notorious, both, at home and abroad, has been the " Jagging 
system," as maintained among the Eton scholars. It is, namely, the 
custom for every newly-arrived scholar, to become for two years the 
u faff," that is the servant, almost the slave, of some older scholar. 
So far is this servitude often carried, that he must submit, without 
remonstrance, to the most disagreeable services and tasks, or eke he 
is sure to be exposed to all kinds of insults and torments. A some- 
what similar system prevails at most English public schools, bat it is 
Said that nowhere has it been carried to so tyrannical and disgraceful 
an extreme as at Eton. 

I asked my friend, the head-master, whether he attempted retiring 
to stop these abuses. He answered that he did indeed discourage all 
excesses, but that he did not wish to root out the whole svstem. 
For, in the first place, it was an ancient custom, which had attained a 
certain vemxahleness by its antiquity; and in die second place, the 
system was not without its uses. By ragging, the wild young lads 
who came to school with no notion ot disapEne, and had often been 


very much spoilt by theirparents, were at once broken in to obedi- 
ence and subordination. This fagging, imposed upon all new-comers, 
without regard to wealth or station, was also a sort of antidote to the 
general spirit of subservience to rank and riches. The privileges of 
wealth and nobility at Eton are not indeed greater than everywhere 
else in England ; but as in after life the English aristocracy waive 
their claims at times, under particular circumstances, so it is well that 
they should learn to do so sometimes at school. Hie inexperienced 
ana undisciplined young sprig of nobility, learns, by the system of 
fagging, respect and obedience, to those more learned and experienced 
than himself. The students of the foundation, or poor scholars, 
derive the greatest benefit from the fagging system ; for as they 
remain generally longest at college, they are oftener masters ; a for- 
tunate circumstance for them, as protecting them in some measure 
from the contempt of the proud and wealthy oppidans. 

One of the most interesting old customs of the Eton scholars, is 
their famous spring procession to a neighbouring Barrow, called the 
Salt-Hill, which takes place every three years, at the end of May or 
the beginning of June. They call this procession the " Eton Montem," 
or sometimes simply the u Montem." Teachers and scholars go 
together to the Salt-Hill ; the scholars wearing a particular uniform, 
and headed by their seniors, who wear the uniforms of marshals 
captains, and lieutenants. A standard-bearer carries the college-flag, 
with the motto " Pro more et monte /" The objects of the proces- 
sion are, in the first place to have a school festival, and in the second 
dace, to collect money from the spectators, for the future support, at 
Oxford or Cambridge, of the poor scholars educated at Eton. Two 
collectors are appointed to cany the money received, these are called 
44 salt-bearers." They have a number of otner boys called " servitors" 
to assist them, who are dressed in all kinds of gay and fantastic cos- 
tumes. They demand a tribute of every spectator and passer-by, and 
give in return a ticket with a motto, in remembrance of the festival. 
The collection generally brings in from 800/. to 1000/.; last year it 
amounted to 1300/. How the heart of many a poor scholar must pant 
for fine weather, on the eventful Montem day ! 

Next to the rowers of Oxford and Cambridge, those of Eton are 
the most famous in England. Indeed the greater part of the Oxford 
and Cambridge rowers, lay the foundations of their future proficiency 
at Eton. It would be a disgrace to the Etonians if they were not 
good rowers, since the Thames flows almost through their play- 
ground. On two days in summer, which are festivals of the college, 
great " aquatic amusements," and " splendid regattas," take places 
But the Etonians practice other gymnastic sports besides rowing. 
The games of cricket and football, so dear to the English, are not 
omitted. All these exercises for the development and improvement 
of bodily strength and agility, which render the school of Eton a 
gymnasium, in the ancient sense of the word, are very much encou- 
raged by the authorities. To them, it is frequently maintained, 


England chiefly owes the boldness, skill, and courage of her naval 
and military officers. 

Cambridge and Oxford owe more to Eton than skilful rowers. It 
was a provost of Eton, named Saville, who endowed at Oxford a 
professorship of astronomy and geometry. Another provost, named 
William Wayneflet founded the Magdalen College at Oxford; 
King's College at Cambridge receives all its fellows and masters from 
Eton; and the provost of tnat college comes every year to Eton, to 
attend the examinations. As every thing connected with the Eng- 
lish public schools is decided by ancient rules, so each public school 
boasts of certain great families, who have for centuries bad their chil- 
dren educated there, and at no other school. Thus, at Eton, the 
Dukes of Buccleuch were named to me, as invariably sending their 
sons to Eton, and to no other school. One family was named to me 
which had been connected with Eton for three hundred years, and 
whose male members had always been either scholars, or tutors, or 
teachers, or fellows at Eton. 

I viewed with interest the valuable library of the college, under 
the persuasion that it was intended for the use of the scholars, as 
well as of the teachers; and I envied, in secret, the young people 
who had the run of so excellent a library. To my astonishment, 
however, I learnt that the library was intended solely for the benefit 
of the masters, and that the scholars had nothing to do with it at all. 

I begged my friend, the head-master, to show me the laws and re- 
gulations of the schools. He answered that no printed laws and 
regulations existed. The whole school was governed, not according 
to written laws, but according to old custom and usage. Those 
school arrangements which I had seen, such as the division of ranks 
in the chapel seats, &c, were all prescribed, not by any written or 
printed law, but by ancient usage, strictly and closely followed. 
This does not render the routine of the school less fixed and im- 
moveable. The scholars, themselves, are strongly attached to all 
their ancient customs; and if the head-master himself were to do 
any thing contrary to them — were to order, for an instance, an un- 
usual punishment, were it ever so trifling — he would have to en- 
counter the greatest opposition and discontent. Yet a far more severe 
and disagreeable punishment, would be received without a murmur, 
if according to custom. The English are everywhere alike, and 
their schools are governed like their state. 

That which I heard of the punishments used at Eton, not only 
excited my attention, but astonished me not a little. They are all 
very severe, and all the scholars, except those of the highest class, 
are liable to corporeal chastisement. Even those of the highest class 
are liable, for some offences, to be degraded to a lower, and again 
punished with a rod. It is only the upper masters, who have the 
right of administering this punishment, and they execute it them- 
selves, after school-hours. 

Such a custom is certainly very much in opposition to the spirit 


of out times, and would not at all harmonise with the principles 
maintained at our continental schools; and yet I believe upon the 
whole, the English have the right of the matter. I believe that the 
abolition of corporeal punishment in our schools, is only a part of the 
general enervation of discipline, and effeminacy of manners. Three- 
fourths of human sinfulness, our selfishness, our laziness, our sen- 
suality, are the offences of the body, and why should they not be 
punished on the body ? It is said that this kind of punishment de- 
stroys the sense of honour in boys, renders them slavish in spirit, 
lowers the tone of their characters, &c. But do we see in the Peels, 
the Wellingtons, the Grahams, the Russells, of English public life, 
any such effect? They have all passed under the rod or the cane, 
yet are they found wanting in energy, servile in mint, indifferent 
to honour, on that account? On the contrary, I believe that they 
owe much of their energy and greatness, to the strict discipline under 
which they were brought up. 

I was not allowed to be present during a lesson, this being not 
permitted to any stranger. Even the King of Prussia, I was told, 
had not been able to obtain this favour. I went, however, through 
the school-rooms where I found great numbers of names cut with 
penknives on benches and desks. This is allowed to the scholars, 
upon condition that the names are to be neatly cut, and are to be 
done out of school hours. Such a privilege is not without its ad- 
vantages. Among the names are many, now of great fame and 
interest, whose presence must be a spur and an encouragement to 
the scholars. 

I found in one place the names of several scholars inscribed in gold 
letters on a tablet. I was told that these were the Newcastle-scholars ; 
those namely who won the prize, founded by a Duke of Newcastle 
for certain attainments. The Newcastle prize brings the winner 
50/. a year for three years; and the name of every winner is per- 
petuated in gold letters on this tablet. This prize is particularly 
designed for those who pass most creditably through their parting 
examination. There are also prizes at Eton for the best declamation, 
the best piece of Latin prose, &c. Prince Albert has lately founded 
here a prize of 50/. a year, for the study of modern languages, par- 
ticularly German, French, and Italian. I do not understand why no 
one among us founds similar prizes in our schools. One would ex- 
pect to find them at the gymnasiums of our free cities of Bremen, 
Hamburg, Frankfurt, and Lubeck; but I believe there is nothing of 
the kind. If some rich citizen, at either of these places were to 
present 1000 or 2000 dollars to a public school, that the interest 
might be used as a prize for extraordinary exertions among the 
scholars, what a benefit would he confer, for an incalculable period, 
upon the school. 

As most of the scholars who distinguish themselves at Eton, play 
afterwards a distinguished part in the great world, my readers may 
be interested in learning what young people are at present foremost 


in the race, and appear therefore more likely to exercise hereafter a 
wide influence npon their contemporaries. In the Eton calendar of 
1842, I found three foremost; the names of Rice, Joynes, and 
James. The first had been twenty-nine times, the second twenty- 
five times, and the third twenty-two times, " sent up for good;" 
that is, favourably reported to the head-master and provost. The 
first had gained the Verse prize, the Theme prize, the Davie's prise, 
the Newcastle's prize, the Essay prize, the Declamation prize, and 
the Mathematical prize. The two others had also earned great 
numbers of prizes. Are we to see in these boys the future John- 
sons, Gibbons, and Humes of England? Or are such rather to be 
sought among the neglected and obscure? 

The school-room has little that is pleasant or attractive about it 
The present excellent head-master, as I learnt, not from himself, but 
from other persons in the neighbourhood, has done much for the ex- 
ternal improvement of the school. He has laid out a good deal from 
his own purse in collecting a little museum, establishing a singing- 
school among the boys, and other similar works. He himself praised 
the present provost of Eton very highly, as perhaps to a stranger he 
thought it his duty to do. But I learnt in other (juarters, that the 
provosts of Eton are generally very stingy; regarding the college as 
their private property, from which they wish to draw as large an in- 
come, and on which to expend as little as possible. 

The school-books used at Eton have most of them been put to- 
gether by masters of Eton, on purpose for that school; they are 
most of diem now very old. I bought one of these boob, namely, 
the " Eton Latin Grammar." This grammar is a little curiosity, 
and, though printed very neatly on elegant paper, I would not wil- 
lingly exchange for it our rational and modernised grammars. The 
first division of this Latin grammar contains the parts of speech, 
with the declensions and conjugations. It is a master-piece of bre- 
vity, and all the definitions are extremely laconic. To this part is 
attached a series of hexameters, twenty closely-printed pages long, 
in which are sung, the rules and exceptions for the genders, the 
irregular verbs, &c. In our grammars these old-fashioned verses 
have long ago given way to clear rules in plain prose, addressed 
rather to the understanding than the memory. The syntax in the 
Eton grammar is written, not in the English, but the Latin language. 
After it come other rules, occupying a full third of the grammar, 
on prosody, construction, and other matters; and these rules are 
written in English and Latin at the same time, and without any 
inter-punctuation, in the most confused manner. The following is 
an instance: 

" Impersonalia (sc. verba) impersonal verbs non habent have not 
nominativum (sc. casum) any nominativum enunciatum expressed 
(sc. in Latin) ut as taedet me it wearies me that is I am weary or 
tired vitae of life." 

It is certain that the thorny paths of the Latin grammar might 


be far move smoothed for the scholars of Eton than they axe. But 
the English maintain, that this wonderful old grammar of theirs 
lays the foundations of learning more effectually than any modern 
compilation could; and the thorns themselves are dear to them, 
even whoa they draw blood, and leave ineffaceable marks behind* 

Hie scholars at Eton are almost all English. A short time ago, 
there were a few Spaniards there, who, however, were obliged to 
conform to the religious ceremonies of the Established Church. 
Germans there are none here, unless we count for such, the sons of 
the Hungarian Count Bathyany. The school appears to be on the 
increase in its number of pupils. In the year 1836, there were 444 
scholars; in 1837, 472; in 1839, 560; 1840, 593; 1841, 635; 
1842, 662. It may thus be seen that the system of education pur- 
sued at Eton has very far from fallen in the public estimation. 

The young people are not overloaded with school hours. Upon 
an average, they spend only three hours a day in school; but they 
study much more at their own lodgings, with their private tutors: 
Their duty at school consists principally in examinations, in repeat- 
ing the lessons learnt at home, and getting their exercises looked 

The poorer scholars of Eton mostly go to Cambridge ; the 
wealthiest and highest-born to Oxford ; for Oxford, as I have said, 
is far more aristocratic in its spirit than Cambridge. 

In the evening, I went to the singing school, the only Eton lesson 
at which I was present This singing-lesson, however, does not 
belong to the regular course ; it is a voluntary exercise in which 
only a part of the scholars join. It has been very recently established, 
and was one of the many signs I saw in England of a universal, 
active, and increasing taste for music 

The cigars which were brought me in the evening at my inn, 
were wrapped in a piece of a Latin theme* and the fit of twisted 
paper, with which I lighted them, contained a fragment of a Greek 
exercise. Indeed almost every thing which I bought in the shops 
of Eton and Windsor was wrapped in some Greek or Latin compo- 
sition. The servants of the young students must make quite a little 
revenue out of the manuscripts of their masters. Indeed, the greater 
part of the inhabitants of Eton and Windsor live upon these 600 
wealthy young students, many of whom spend 4002. or 500& a year 
at Eton. 


The town of Windsor, and that of Eton, are, in fact, one, and 
the rows of houses stretch, unbroken, on each side of the Thames, 
to the bridge which unites the two. Thus the youth of the aristo- 
cracy grow up under the very eye of the monarch, and the court; 
Windsor Castle, the ordinary residence of the English sovereigns, 
stands on the summit of a bill, which begins its rise within the town 


of Windsor. Its situation and style of architecture are the same as 
those of a great many other castles in England. But it is larger 
and more imposing outside, much more splendid and extensive 
within, and in its situation and prospects also, far more picturesque 
and beautiful than most others. The principal entrance to the first 
court-yard is on the townside, and from thence one ascends gradually 
to the inner court-yards and the principal part of the buildings. 

The first conspicuous point observed, on entering the first court- 
yard, is the chapel of the castle. Near this chapel, we made the 
acquaintance of one of " her Majesty's Poor Knights;" an old naval 
officer, maintained at Windsor after becoming unfit for service. 
These " Poor Knights of Windsor" enjoy a charity founded by 
Edward HE., according to which, eighteen old worn-out officers, 
were to live at the public expense at Windsor. Six of them were 
to be naval officers. Formerly these officers wore an old-fashioned 
uniform, which William IV. exchanged for the modern uniforms 
of their own ranks. I believe there are not many such institutions 
in England, for the benefit of officers in the army, and my new 
friend informed me, that it had cost him no little trouble to obtain 
admittance here. No less than ninety candidates disputed the va- 
cant post with him; but the Duke of Argyle " got him in." Hie 
Poor Knights inhabit a part of the castle, close to the great entrance- 

Morning service had already begun in the chapeL We entered 
and took part in it, as the greater number of the Poor Knights are 
accustomed to do every morning We stepped over the graves of 
many former Poor Knights ; and, strange to say, this curious title, 
which sounds somewhat degrading in our ears, for military men, is 
inscribed even on their gravestones, which are within the chapeL 

This Windsor-chapel is one of those Gothic buildings which one 
is never tired of admiring. The roof is particularly beautiful. 
The ribs and grooves of the columns which support it branch 
out at the top Eke palm-leaves, in a peculiarly elegant manner, 
and bend over to meet the branches of the next columns; the roof 
is supported on these branches. The ceiling looks, therefore, as if 
woven out of an endless series of bunches of boughs. This de- 
coration occurs so frequently in the English churches, that it 
might be called an Anglo-Gothic ornament. Nowhere, however, 
is it carried to such perfection, as in this St. George's Chapel at 
Windsor. It was built by Edward III., the same king who 
founded the charity of the Poor Knights. The name of Edward 
HE. is one of those most honoured at Windsor Castle. It was he, 
also, who founded " the most honourable and noble Order of the 
Garter;" one of the most distinguished and select orders of knight- 
hood in Europe, and confined exclusively to a few persons of high 
rank. The arms, and names of the members of the order, are all put 
up in the beautiful choir of the chapel; and arranged in such a 
manner that the arms of the sovereign and the princes of the blood 


hang right opposite to the altar, in front of the organ. I saw that 
they were already preparing a place for the arms of the little Prince 
of Wales. 

The service was rather long, as is usual with English services. I 
noticed that the prayer-books were still the old ones used in the times 
of George IV. and William IV. Since, however, these names 
with the pronouns " he" and " his" in the prayers would not do 
for Queen Victoria, the expense of new prayer-books had been 

red by pasting everywhere the words " Victoria," " she," her," 
over the former words. One might have thought that in the 
royal chapel itself, new prayer-books would have been considered 
necessary on a change of reigns. 

I and the old " Poor Knight" read in the same prayer-book. 
His sight was now very dim, and he wore gigantic spectacles. I 
thought of the telescope with which his keen eye was once accus- 
tomed to range the furthest horizon. We prayed together out of 
English prayer-book, not omitting that remarkable clause which I 
do not think would be found in all prayers for sovereigns, that it 
might please Heaven to " vanquish and overcome all her enemies." 
We had even to pray for the Order of the Garter, that it might 
please Heaven to preserve " this illustrious confraternity !" 

After divine service, I took a nearer view of the helmets and arms 
upon the wall. I found on the list of knights, not one French 
sovereign, but six German ones, among whom the King of Prussia 
has now taken his place. The Emperor of Russia, and the King of 
Belgium, are also members of the order. On the wooden walls 
behind the seats in the choir, little metal tablets are nailed up, on 
which are engraved, not in English but in French, the names and 
titles of former knights; as for instance, " Les armoiries du tr&s- 
haut puissant et ties-noble Prince Henri Due de Somerset, &c, 
Chevalier du tr&s-noble Ordre de la Jarreti&re." The windows of 
the chapel are rich in old and new glass-paintings; and on each side 
of the main body of the church stand rows of little chapels, which 
all have their peculiar interest. They all derive their names from 
some distinguished English families, by which they were erected 
as mausoleums; there are the Bray-chapel, the Kutland-chapel, 
the Lincoln-chapel, &c. Everywhere I found such an extraordinary 
number of coats of arms, and heraldic signs painted, moulded, 
chiselled, and engraved on every wall and doorway, that I suppose 
St. George's Chapel surpasses all other chapels in tne world, in that 
respect. Many words and signs remained entirely enigmatical to 
me; such for instance as the gold letters: " i h c A " upon a blue Jt\^ 
ground. One chapel wall was covered with painted bunches^ of flax, 
another with iron gratings, a third with crosses, a fourth with peli- 
cans, &c. ; these being the armorial bearings of the families to wnom 
the chapels belong. 

In one of the side chapels stands the Cenotaphium of the Princess 
Charlotte, which was executed by Wyatt. The body of the prin- 


cess, covered with a cloth, is represented as lying on a bier. A part 
of her right hand alone is uncovered, but, through the cloth, the 
form of the body and the features of the face may be traced. On 
both sides of the bier kneel or stand, in various sorrowful attitudes, 
mourning females, all deeply veiled. This is the lower part of the 
scene. Above is represented the apotheosis of the princess. She rises 
to Heaven, borne by two angels; another angel bears her child. In 
the lower department, not a single uncovered face is to be seen; there 
is nothing but drapery. Nor can I regard it as aethetieally correct and 
pleasing thus to represent the figure of the princess twice in the same 
group. Is not the body entirely superfluous? I was also displeased 
that m the apotheosis the infant should be placed in the arms of an 
angel, and not of its mother. There is another very well known 
monument— I do not recollect at this moment where — erected, Eke 
this, in honour of a mother who died in childbed, in which the artist 
has placed the child in the arms of its mother, and represented both 
as bursting out of the grave as blessed spirits. Of course, in this in- 
stance, it is the moment of the resurrection from the grave, that is 
represented, and not the moment of death, as in the monument of 
the Princess Charlotte. 

The whole lower division of the castle is occupied by the dwell- 
ings of poor knights, and of ecclesiastics attached to the chapel, and 
by a great number of towers; the Wardrobe tower, Julius Caesar's 
tower, the Salisbury tower, &c The upper department, entitled 
" the Upper Ward, contains the real royal residence. Between the 
two wards stands the inner keep, a massive round tower, which stands 
on the top of an artificial mound, and overlooks die whole castle. 
It is the residence of the governors of Windsor Castle. This office 
has always been regarded as a very important one, because the go- 
vernor has not only to rule over the castle itself, but sometimes to 
take charge of state prisoners of high rank, who are, occasionally, 
placed here. Two captive kings have been imprisoned within the 
walls of Windsor Castle, King David of Scotland and King John of 

When the Queen is at Windsor Castle the royal standard is hoisted 
over the inner keep. When she is absent, as happened to be the 
case during my visit, the union jack alone fluttered there. There is 
a printed order in which alone strangers are allowed to pass through 
the rooms of Windsor Castle. We entered, first, the Brunswick 
tower, which contains the kitchen-department of the castle. Pass- 
ing through many dark and many light passages, and leaving be- 
hind us the " Confectionary-department," we entered the " Gold- 
room," which is full of splendid pieces of gold and silver plate. The 
" yeoman of the gold" led us round the room. This whole depart- 
ment, he told us, is under the superintendance of the Lord Steward. 
He told us a great deal of the gradations in rank and dignity of the 
various gold and diver plates and dishes, of which different sets are 
used, according to the solemnity and importance of the feast. 


Hie following are a few of the most splendid pieces of gold and 
sAver workm*mship I saw. # 

St. George's candelabra, consists of a silver tree, at whose feet St. 
George is represented in the act of slaying the dragon. Angels 
with flowers, and wreaths of laurel, are represented hovering among 
the branches of the tree above the victorious hero. 

A silver vase of very beautiful form, which was worked by 
Burmese silversmiths, and presented by Lord William BentindL 
Although the shape of the vase is as classically elegant as any Etrus- 
can vase, yet the peculiarities of its carving and decoration, show it 
to have come from an Indian shore. Nor are the circles and lines 
all drawn with that mathematical precision which would have been 
pre s e r ve d by our artists. This is called the Burmese vase. 

The largest piece of pure gold to be seen here is the Lion's Head 
of Tippoo oaib , which is nearly as large as a real lion's head would be. 
His teeth and eyes are farmed of immense jewels. This golden head 
elbows, however, that the country inhabited by the lion, is not that 
where hisportrait is moat faithiuily taken. A similar piece is the pea- 
cock of Tippoo Saib, whose tail is sown with pearls, diamonds, and 
other jewels. This peacock is valued at 30,000/. There are, 
in all, no less than 200 gold and silver vases, three of which are by 
GellinL There is, comparatively speaking, very little plate kept at 
the St. James's and Buckingham palaces at London ; just as in the 
town-houses of the nobility, very little of their gold and silver trear 
sures are to be seen, these being mostly kept at their country-seats. 
Windsor-Castle stands in about the same relation to London that 
Versailles does to Paris; although inferior, both in size and mag- 
nificence, to that palace. Its buildings and apartments are all on a 
much smaller scale ; they are also less numerous, and less magnifi- 
cent in their architecture. The stone of which the castle is built, is of 
an unpleasing and melancholy colour, every building being of the same 
uniform dark gray. In the walls, however, great numbers of little 
fire-stones are to lie seen imbedded in the stone, which gives it a very 
rough appearance. Within, the rooms vary of course, very much in 
size and fitting up; but while Versailles surpasses Windsor in size and 
splendour as a building, Windsor is far superior, in the comfort and 
beauty of its furnishing. 

A long corridor running along the series of state rooms, offers a 
spectacle of peculiar interest to the stranger. It contains a gallery of 
portraits of celebrated Englishmen, whicn is probably the most com- 
plete in the world. It is a large crescent-shaped gallery, about 250 
paces long. On both sides hang portraits, and in front of the por- 
traits stand, in marble or bronze, bust after bust and statue after statue. 
There is the harmonious and beautiful countenance of Shakespeare, 
the well-filled head of Bacon, the lean, sickly face of Pope, the round, 
puffy cheeks of Handel, the bushy eyebrows of Fox, the clever nose 
of Pitt, the stern, sagacious countenance of Elizabeth, Charles L 
in three different attitudes ; and a number of other portraits, beau- 


tifully executed, which cannot fail to excite the deepest interest in 
the spectator. 

I question whether there is another royal castle in Europe, so 
rich in portraits as that of Windsor. There are thirty large and 
magnificent portraits in the " Vandyke-room" alone. There are 
full as many by Sir Thomas Lawrence, in another magnificent saloon, 
called the " Waterloo-room," because it contains only the portraits 
of men connected, in some way or other, with the battle of Waterloo. 
I was rather surprised that, among all these portraits of the victors of 
Waterloo, there was not a single representation of the Great Defeated. 

The other rooms, also, are all rich in pictures, old and new, although 
there are none of such value as some of those at Versailles. The 
most beautiful work of its kind which I saw, was the immense 
Gobelin tapestry. This splendid specimen of industry, containing, 
as it does, a series of pictures going through the whole story of Jason 
and Medea, and that of Esther, is certainly the grandest needle-and- 
thread epic ever produced. A rich collection of bronze statues and 

roups, about two feet in height, which goes through several of the 

[ueen's private rooms, is also well worthy the attention of the lover 
of art. 

In the " Guard-chamber," I observed two small banners hanging 
over the statues of the Dukes of Marlborough and Wellington; and 
I learnt that these banners were presented every year to the Queen 
by the two dukes, as tokens of vassallage, in return for the fiefs of 
Blenheim and Strathfieldsaye. On this annual act of homage de- 
pends the tenure of each estate. 

. My readers will understand that it is impossible for a sketch like 
this, to name, in the very briefest manner, naif the interesting and 
curious particulars to be observed at Windsor Castle. This is, of all 
royal country residences of Europe, the most ancient. The French 
Versailles, the Spanish Escurial, the Austrian Schonbriinn, the 
Prussian Potsdam, the Russian Zarskaye-Selo, all are new in com- 
parison with Windsor. It has been inhabited almost uninter- 
ruptedly by sovereigns. Here resided all the famous Edwards; here 
the Stewarts expended immense sums upon their favourite abode; 
and here George HI. made himself as comfortable as he could, during 
the whole of his long reign. The parliament of 1824 voted the sum of 
300,0007. for its decoration; and its embellishment has cost the na- 
tion, since the beginning of the nineteenth century, nearly a million 
sterling ! 

It was a gray, mistv winter's day, when I stepped out of Windsor 
Castle upon its beautiful terraces; the fog hung heavily round, and 
the trees were bare of their foliage. Nevertheless, these terraces, 
the gardens, the green landscape around, with the old Thames wind- 
ing through it, the venerable tree skeletons on their rich green turf; 
and lastly, Eton, with its ancient college, its splendid church, and 
its lovely play-grounds, presented altogether so attractive and beau- 
tiful a prospect, that not even the fog and cold could damp my 


delight This Windsor terrace has some resemblance to that of 
Richmond, although it is far superior. A new tall building, which 
is rising just in front of the Eton Chapel, will unluckily, however, 
mask a part of this beautiful prospect. 

" Time and tide wait for nobody," says the English proverb. In 
this age of railroads we ought to add, " lime, tide, and train, wait 
for nobody." We hastened away from the lovely landscapes of 
Windsor, and the evening train bore us away, with a thousand fellow 
travellers, to be merged like an insignificant drop in the ocean of 
human life that surges for ever on the shores of the Thames. 


All London was wrapped, on the day of our arrival, in one of 
those dense impenetrable fogs, of which it is commonly said in 
England, that " you could cut it with a knife." In spite of the 
brilliant gas-illumination of the London streets, we often saw literally 
nothing but the melancholy glimmer of a lamp, and this only when 
we had fairly hold of the lamp-post. The brightest gas-lights 
looked like expiring night-lamps. 

Such a veil of fog must really be a source of great embarrassment 
to all the inhabitants of London. Tou cannot make two steps in 
the streets, without risking the embrace of a lamp-post, or the run- 
ning butt up against some other passenger. Particularly dangerous 
are those streets paved with wood, wnere the carriages roll very 
softly. It must be fine weather for pickpockets and other scamps, 
who can be out of sight in a moment. It is, probably, owing to tne 
admirable skill of the English coachmen, that such a state of the 
atmosphere does not occasion more frequent accidents. 

The next day, the air was no clearer. We burnt candles till ele- 
ven o'clock; at which time a sort of daylight made its appearance. 
The sun shone, but I know not how many miles above the heads of 
the Londoners. Around them all was twilight; and in many shops 
and offices, lights were burning all day long. Strange to say, this 
London fog is not like that of other countries, but of an unnatural 
blackish yellow tint. When you look up to the sky, during one of 
them, you seem looking into a boundless sea of blackish yellow fluid. 
I believe it is the coal-smoke which gives the London fogs this pe- 
culiar colour. 

In ancient Rome, the month of December was distinguished by 
the celebration of the Saturnalia. In Franconia and Thuringia, the 
village children were formerly accustomed to go in fantastic disguises 
from house to house, collecting, amidst songs and jests, presents and 
money, which, however, they also again distributed. 

In France there were, at this time of the year, diversions of a si- 
milar' character; and there, also, a dignitary was chosen to preside 



over them, called L'Abbe de la Malgouvernee, in England, the 
" Lord of Misrule," and in Oxford, " Lnperator et Praefectus ludo- 
rum." Thus, all over Europe, Christmas formerly brought in his 
train the same mummeries, pantomimes, and games. Nowhere, 
however, were they more abundant than in England, where even at 
the courts of the kings, Christmas pantomimes were produced; and 
nowhere eke, we may add, are there at the present day, so many traces 
of old Christmas observances to be found. In the capital, panto- 
mimes are presented in a more brilliant manner than they ever were 
before, as the extraordinary resources of the principal theatres are 
lavished upon them. In the country, and at tne seats of the gentry, 
the peasants are still the usual actors in them. I happened to pass, 
at this season, through several little villages of Wiltshire, and al- 
most in every one, we encountered a band of boys in fantastic and 
comic disguises, going from house to house, and representing a kind 
of dramatic performance. The most usual Dramatis Personae are 
Old Father Christmas, St. George and the Dragon, Maid Marian, 
Beelzebub, a Giant, the Dumb Daughter of the King of Egypt, 
&c, &c, and the dialogue is pretty much the same in alL 

Shakspeare, in his youth, had, doubtless, witnessed, and assisted 
in such performances, in the little village of Stratford-on-Avon, and 
his classical and humorous weavers, carpenters, tailors, and bellows- 
menders, in the Midsummer Night's Dream were probably suggested 
by them. 

The disorders which frequently, in former times, attended these 
masquerades, and their unquestionably heathen origin, brought them 
into bad odour with the clergy, and they were often forbidden under 
severe penalties, but they have not the less maintained themselves 
up to the present time — nay, they have, as I have said, assumed a 
more splendid form, since' they have been taken up by the theatres, 
where, every Christmas, is presented a f ' New Grand Musical, Ro- 
mantic, Historical," and Tragi-comical Pantomime," in which the 
conjurations and enchantments of Fairyland are mingled with all 
sorts of jests on politics and the topics of the day, seasoned with a 
liberal distribution of kicks and cuffs among all the male personages 
of the drama. 


By the time the Christmas festivities are fairly over, the members 
of parliament, who are for London the earliest messengers of spring, 
return to town, and gradually, as the beautiful parks and squares 
begin to assume their verdant robes, they are followed by a crowd of 
pleasure-seeking ladies and gentlemen. This season of the year, 
when the bees begpn to find their narrow dwellings insupportable, 
when worms and birds, and all creatures, seek the open air, and when 
the people of all nations feel an impulse to leave the crowded abodes 


of cities, for the beautiful scenes of nature — at this very time an un- 
accountable kind of instinct seems to lead the English gentry to hurry 
into London — which they quit again on the approach of autumn. 
This " London season" furnished me with such copious materials for 
observation, that it would lead me too far away from my present 
subject to enter upon them at all, and I must therefore reserve them 
for a future work expressly devoted to the metropolis of England. 

Of three great roads which led from London to — the Antipodes, 
the one by the railroad to Folkstone, Boulogne, and Picardy, another 
down the Thames to Calais, I preferred the third, over Southamp- 
ton and the Isle of Wight to Havre-de-Grace. It is perhaps the 
most interesting of all, and I was already acquainted with both the 

The railroad leading to Portsmouth and Southampton, is called 
the South Western, and leads, first through the county of Surrey, 
which, after the English Paradise, Kent, is the principal hop country 
— the hop gardens, as is well known, taking the place of vineyards 
in England, as beer may be said to do that of wine with the English 
population. The " picking season" is as animated a time as is the 
Tintege, on the banks of the Rhine. The poor but merry Irishmen 
come over in swarms for this work, and the owners of the hop- 
gardens erect long barns or sheds in the fields for their accommoda- 
tion, or sometimes leave them to bivouac like gipsies under the 
hedges. Maidstone and its lovely environs I have seen, but from 
what I have heard, I think Farnham, in Surrey, must carry off the 
prize of beauty even from it. 

A handsome young lady, who sat opposite to me in the railroad 
carriage, informed me also, that to the other attraction of Farnham, 
besides the best hops, must be added that of a great number of young 
unmarried ladies. My informant, who, with the exception of an old 
gentleman, who did nothing but cough, was my only companion, 
was going down there to visit her friends, during the temporary ab- 
sence of her husband. 

We Germans have such exaggerated notions of the reserve and 
stiffness of the English ladies, that I hesitated some time before 
venturing on a remark. As, however, the above-mentioned coughing 
old gentleman, who began the journey with us, got out at Wimble- 
don, and I had contrived in two or three manoeuvres, to advance 
from the distant end to the opposite seat of the carriage, I took 
courage at length to observe that it was " a very fine day." " In- 
deed most beautiful," was the answer, in a soft flute-like voice, and 
as the ice was now broken, we proceeded from observations on the 
weather and the country, to a lively conversation, in the course of 
which she informed me that she had been five years married to a 
barrister, that she lived in the neighbourhood of London in a prettjr 
cottage in the Hampstead-road, and that she looked forward with 
much pleasure to returning to her native place for the " picking 



season," with which so many recollections of her childhood and youth 
were associated. Her husband was to take her back with him on his 
return from the sea-side, whither he had gone for his health. She 
had one child, a boy of four years old, whom she said the father had 
taken with him. I could not help thinking that with us or in France 
so young a child would have been left with the mother; but this 
is not the only occasion I have had to remark the attention paid by 
Englishmen to their children. 

I must confess also, that the simple natural manners of English- 
women of the middle as well as the higher classes, are exceedingly 
bewitching, and that I felt much annoyed when the cry of " Farn- 
ham station, Farnham station," gave the signal of separation from 
my new and charming acquaintance. I assisted her out of the car- 
riage, and delivered her over to the care of her waiting-maid, and at 
parting we shook hands in the most friendly manner; she even re- 
commended me to stop also at Farnham for a few days, to see the 
hop picking, and then continue my journey. I do not believe that 
many of our continental ladies would have done as much. 

Resisting, not without a struggle, the temptation to follow this 
pleasant advice, and warned by tne vile whistle of the locomotive, J 
resumed my place, which now appeared so unsupportably lonely, 
that I too/thl first opportunity, ofchTring it fo/one in l second 
class carriage, where I could again enjoy the society of human crea- 
tures. Chance would have it that I should again find an opportunity 
of observing the relations of the sexes in England. I found myself 
now placed opposite to a pleasant-looking girl, whose modest though 
neat costume declared her to be a London maid-servant. I soon 
learned that shehad been some years in service with a merchant in Lon- 
don, and that she was going to Winchester to see her mother and her 
brother. She had with her several pots of flowers, which she had 
purchased in London for her brother, as, she said they were not to 
be had so good or so reasonable in Winchester. A young man who 
was seated beside her, and who looked like a clerk, politely offered to 
cany some of these for her, as he perceived they were rather trouble- 
some to her, and I, although somewhat late, followed his example, 
and relieved her from the remainder of her burden. 

When we reached the station, we found that she had such an 
endless list of goods and chattels to get collected, that the omnibus 
drove off and left us; the clerk and I, however, divided her baggage 
between us, and placing our maid-servant in the middle, marched in 
this order into the renowned city of Winchester. We had to drag 
the luggage quite to the other end of the town, where dwelt the re- 
latives of our protest, and our way led us past the celebrated cathe- 
dral, whose magnificent outline was visible even through the dark- 
ness of the night. It is surrounded by a large churchyard with fine 
old trees, and we crossed its lonely paths, and wound our way 
through a series of crooked narrow streets, unenlivened by a single 


lamp, through which our young companion seemed perfectly to 
know her way, but none of which I could recognise on the fol- 
lowing morning. 

We arrived at length at the house of her mother, delivered our 
flower-pots, carpet-bags, baskets, and hat-boxes, and after receiving 
many hearty thanks in return, set off to seek out our inn, and our 
own effects, which had been carried off by the omnibus aforesaid. 
This was not the only time when an Enghshman had been before- 
hand with me in attention and politeness to the weaker sex; I could 
relate many little adventures of a similar character, which all go to 
prove that in England, even among the lower classes, women are 
usually treated with much attention and delicacy. I may add that 
in England also, I have met with maid-servants, waiting-maids, cooks, 
and nurses, whose deportment was such, that it seemed to me im- 
possible for men to treat them with any thing but respect. 

On the same evening I found myself in company, in a comfortable 
and antique mansion, the residence of a clergyman of the established 
church, but I did not till the following morning become acquainted 
with its beauties. 

The " Baronial Halls of England" are paradises, and many mag- 
nificent works have been devoted to views and descriptions of them; 
but not less charming are many of the residences of the clergy, the 
rectors, vicars, curates, and especially of the deans and chapters — 
When I run over in my memory the parsonages I have teen, I 
bring before, my mind's eye a wtole mSm rf picturesque and in- 
teresting buildings, one of the time of Elizabeth, another in the 
old French taste; a third resembling, externally, a castle of the 
middle ages, but fitted up with every modern comfort, and al- 
most all draperied with luxuriant ivy, and surrounded by rich 
flower-gardens and smooth shaven lawns. Even the ecclesiastical 
residences in the cities, as for instance, the palace of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, have usually a rural and villa 
like air about them. 

When, on the morning after my arrival, I accompanied my clerical 
friend into his beautiful grounds, I was really enraptured with the 
place ; it seemed to me as if I could live there for ever, but the owner 
spent little of his time in it as he had several other residences in which 
he spent a part of the year. We had also from these gardens a very 
fine view of the cathedral, but we did not remain long in the con- 
templation of it, as I was eager to enter this magnificent edifice, one 
■of the finest and most ancient of the English cathedrals. Winchester, 
as is well known, was the place of residence of the kings of England 
down to Edward I., in whose reign London began to rise in im- 
portance, and Winchester, as well as its neighbour, Salisbury, to de- 

I will not attempt here any description of this building, since I 
have already spoken of those of York and Salisbury, which it much 
Tesembles, but one remark I cannot avoid making, with respect to its 


situation. The Cathedral of Rouen, the Dom of Cologne, the Min- 
ster of Strasburg, indeed all the fine old Christian temples of the 
continent, lie in the very midst of the bustle and uproar of town life. 
They are mostly surrounded by market-places, and all the busy traffic 
of the most crowded streets. They rear their lofty spires out of the 
thickest throng of houses, which are sometimes built so closely 
round as almost to conceal them. 

Not so the cathedrals of England. Smooth lawns, parks, stately 
old trees, and a solemn cloistral silence, seem to throw around them 
a perpetual sabbath. At a little distance from them lie the quiet 
dwellings of the clergy attached to them; thus at least it is with 
Winchester, Salisbury, Durham, partly with Westminster Abbey, 
and, in short, with most of the cathedrals all over England. The 
English plan is certainly the most pleasing at a first glance, but there 
is something to be said also for that of the continent. The English 
churches often convey the idea of being in some sort the property of 
the clergy; and of not belonging to the town. Our cathedrals, on 
the contrary, seem seated like mothers among their children, or like 
pillars or rocks of refuge, in the midst of the troubled tempestuous 
ocean of worldly business. 

Since the royal palaces of Winchester have fallen to decay, its 
most celebrated institution is the old college, on account of its school, 
which rivals Eton, Westminster, and Harrow. It was founded in 
the 14th century by the renowned prelate Wykeham, whose name, 
by the establishment of this and a college at Oxford, has become 
familiar to the students, and through them to the whole population 
of England. The seventy poor scholars of Winchester, are called 
after him Wykehamites, and are educated gratuitously from his 
endowment; but besides these, there are many wealthy scholars'who 
study here at their own expense. The whole arrangement of the 
buildings, churches, and school-rooms, resembles in many particulars 
those of Eton and Oxford, but I still observed much tliat was pecu- 
liar. In one room a figure is shown to strangers, which is meant to 
represent the ideal of a trusty servant. It is compounded of a stag, 
a hog, an ass, and a man — the ass symbolising the patience, the stag 
the swiftness, and the hog the contentedness of a good servant with 
what is given to him to eat and to drink. 

On the wall of one of the school-rooms I observed the representa- 
tions, first of a bishop's cap and staff*, with the words " Aut disee;" 
secondly of an inkstand and a sword, significant of expulsion, with 
the words " Aut discede;" and finally, of a rod with the superscrip- 
tion " Manet sors tertia craft," that is to say, " Either stay and learn, 
or leave the school, or, as a ihird choice, stay and be flogged." 

Touching this third point of the rod, a foreigner has some difficulty 
in understanding its niceties. A little treatise might be written upon 
it, entitled " The Rod in the Public Schools of England," for in 
every gymnasium the customs respecting its distribution are some- 
what different. In some, the culprit receives it in the presence of 


the other scholars, in others, after their departure. In some of the 
buildings a room is set apart for this recreation — known to the boys 
as the " brushing-room." In one school which I visited, I was told 
that the boys formerly had to make the rods themselves, in their 
leisure hours, but as it was found they played too many tricks over 
this employment (probably they thrashed each other beforehand 
with the dreaded implement), the custom has been abandoned. Such 
of these instruments as came under my observation were generally 
rather more than a yard long, very solid in their construction, and 
with the appearance of having seen service, although I was told they 
were seldom used more Hian two or three times. 

One of the most remarkable documents was the code of laws for 
the discipline of Winchester School, inscribed on the walls of the 
school-room. They are so singularly characteristic of English school 
life, that I shall here transcribe them, from a printed copy for the 
year 1840, which I purchased in Winchester. 


In Tbmplo.— Dens colitor. Preces cum pio animi affectu per a* 
ffuntor. OcuK ne vagantor. Silentium esto. Nihil prof anum legitor. 

In Schola. — Dtkgentia quisque utitor. Submisse loquitor secunu 
Clare ad prceceptorem. Nemini molestus esto. Orthographies scri* 
Into. Arma Seholastica in promptu semper habeto. 

In Aula. — Qtti mentas consecrat dare pronunciato. Ccsteri re- 
spondento. Recti interim omnes stanto. Recitationes intelHgenter et 
apte dHstmguuntor. Admensas sedentibus omnia decora sunto. 

In Atrio. — JNe quis fenestras taxis piUsve petito. JEkti/icium 
neve inscribendo neve insculpando deformato. Neve operto capUe neve 
sine socio coram Magistris incedito. 

In Cubiculis. — Munda omnia sunto. Vespers studetor. Noctu 
quies esto. 

In Oppedo ad Montem. — Sociati omnes incedunto. Modestiam 
prtB seferunto. Magistris ac obviis honestionibus. Capita aperiuntor. 
Vttltus gestae incessus componuntor. Intra terminos apud Montem 
prascriptos masque se contineto. 

In omni Logo et Tempore. — Qui Plebejus estPrafectis oblem- 
perato. Qui Frajfectus est legitime imperato. Is ordo vitio caretxu 
Cederis specimen esto. Uterque a pravis omnibus verbisque factisque 

H<BCj out his similia qui contra faxit, si quando defer antur judicium 

Ferns exactis, nemo domi impune moratur. Extra collegium absque 
venia exeuntes, tertia vice expellimus. 

In many old institutions and colleges among us, the number 
twelve has been regarded as holy, because it was that of the apostles. 


This appears also to have been the case in England; and in Winches- 
ter the number of the various classes seems also to have been re- 
gulated by some sacred or biblical signification. The warden and 
the ten fellows who are appointed for life, represent the apostles, with 
the exception of Judas Iscariot, who is of course not represented; — 
the head and second master, and the seventy scholars, represent the 
seventy-two disciples, and the sixteen choristers the four great and 
twelve lesser prophets. 

At the close of the school year the scholars break up, after having 
solemnly sung, in the presence of the assembled clergy and gentry of 
the neighbourhood, the hymn of Dulce Domum, known throughout 
England, and said to have been composed by a poor Wykehamist, 
condemned as a punishment to remain at school during the holidays. 
The story goes that after composing this song and the melody to it, 
he continued singing it incessantly, till, languishing more and more, 
in vain longing for his home, he fell sick and died. The aesthetic 
value of the composition is of course not great, but it is so expres- 
sive of the feelings which animate millions of hearts, that it has 
spread from Winchester to Eton, Harrow, Westminster, and all 
public schools, and is everywhere sung with enthusiasm. The mail 
coaches used formerly, at Christmas and other holiday times, to be 
filled with boys, singing this favourite ditty, and holding in their 
hands little banners, on which Dulce Domum was inscribed, in great 
letters. Now, that mail coaches have been driven out of fashion 
by railroads, this has gone the way of many good old customs, and 
these well filled coaches are only to be seen in the pictorial represen- 
tations of the well known " Christmas book." 

There were few things in England that interested me more than 
these ancient foundation schools, intimately connected as the history 
of most of them is with that of the country at large, and I made a 
point of seeing them all, and of examining the annals of most, in 
which are faithfully recorded the names of all who have received 
their education in them. 

The city of Winchester is a clean and pleasant place, as most 
English country towns are, which have nothing to do with trade and 
manufactures, steam, smoke, or sea-coal. In this respect they con- 
trast most agreeably with the provincial towns of northern France, 
which are usually dirty and disorderly, and surrounded by gloomy 
.old walls and fortifications, whilst those of England are seated among 
trees and blooming gardens, connecting them with the open coun- 
try. The French towns show nothing but walls and stones, but the 
English are full of shrubs, grass, and foliage; and such a thing as 
dirt or rubbish is scarcely to be seen in them. This is especially 
remarkable in Winchester, which, though so old a city, shows nothing 
of the wrinkles of age, but looks as fresh and gay as a city of yester- 
day. I have frequently mentioned the market-halls, erected during 
the present century in most of the English towns. Winchester also 
possesses one, where the market-women sit in long rows, a more con- 


venient, but by no means so picturesque an arrangement, as when they 
sat with their butter, and eggs, and vegetables, on the steps, and 
around the old market-cross, a beautiful memorial of former days. 
Thus do our times, even in the smallest things, daily grow more ra- 
tional, but less interesting. 

In the Netherlands, and in the north of France, there are many of 
these crosses. 

From Winchester, I made a little excursion to the neighbouring 
poor-house of St. Cross, an ancient and beneficent institution, dating 
from the beginning of the twelfth century. England swarms with 
such, and they, as well as many of the schools, have much that is 
monastic in their arrangements. Frequently the school and the poor 
house are connected together, as in the case of the celebrated " Charter 
House" of London, where there are apartments for the reception of 
the aged and the care of the sick, in the same building as the school- 

The poor of St. Cross wear a peculiar costume, which resembles 
that of monks — a long black robe with a silver cross round the neck. 
They call each other " brother," and are called so by the world, and 
the building in which they reside has quite the air of a convent. It 
consists of three sides, enclosing a spacious court, and opposite to the 
entrance lies the magnificent old church of the establishment. Each 
brother has his cell, or rather his three cells, in which if he is married 
he lives with his family. Behind his cell lies his garden. In this, 
as in many convents, there is on certain holidays, a distribution of 
provisions to the poor of the neighbourhood. There is also a daily 
" dole" at the gate, of bread and beer, which is given to all who ap- 
ply for it. I have already had occasion to speak of such a one, in de- 
scribing the seat of the Duke of Sutherland; and though this of St. 
Cross is only the second I have seen, there are in England many 
such. The porter receives, every day, a certain number of cans of 
beer, and loaves of bread to distribute. The beer I found standing 
in metal vessels near the door, and the bread, cut in pieces, lay near 
it. The porter informed me that he not only always gave away what 
he had, but had frequently not enough . for the applicants. I was 
myself there at eleven o'clock in the morning, and there was but 
little of the daily portion left, so that I fear the guests who arrived in 
the evening would have been badly entertained. 

It seems to me that a certain part ought to be set aside for the 
weary wanderers who might arrive towards the close of the day. In 
the middle of the day the distribution might with more propriety be 
discontinued; but the early morning, when the wayfarer may be pre- 
paring for a journey, or the evening, after the fatigue of the day, 
appear to be the times when such a gift is most needed. To many 
a one it may be a consoling thought, on a long and weary way, that 
he is sure to find refreshment in the evening at St. Cross. 

These English " doles" at the gates of castles and colleges are cer- 
tainly among the most beneficent of charitable institutions. They 


seem to imitate the kind providence of God, which everywhere, in 
field and forest, scatters the sweet refreshment of fruits and berries. 
Were there a few of these charitable doles in the streets of London, 
some unfortunate creatures might be saved from dying of starvation ; 
and had I the means, I would gladly establish such on all the roads of 
the world. 


After passing Winchester the railroad divides into two branches, 
one leading to Portsmouth, and the other to Southampton. The 
latter, to which I now hastened, is, decidedly one of the handsomest 
towns in England. It is beautifully situated ; encircled with gentle 
slopes covered with wood, and sprinkled with charming country 
seats. Coming from the interior of the country, we discover the 
beautiful waters of the Bay of Southampton, or " Southampton 
Water," as it is called, close on the shores of which lies the town, 
while beyond it stretches the largest forest in England, called the 
New Forest. It has the air of a happy and prosperous place, and I 
believe this appearance is not deceitful, the trade of the town having 
nearly doubled within the last ten years. The completion of the 
railroad to London, and the consequent facility of transmitting goods 
in four hours, instead of by a long day's journey, has of oouree opened 
many new prospects for it, and one of its most immediate conse- 
quences has been the removal to Southampton of the East India 
packet station. 

Considering its many advantages of position, the wonder is that 
Southampton has not long since risen to much greater importance. 
It has always been a harbour of the second or third, class, the duties 
paid in Liverpool amounting to eighty, and those of London to two 
hundred times those received in it — indeed it could by no means 
pretend to rival the commerce even of Hull, Bristol, or Newcastle. 
The town has a pleasant fresh appearance, but possesses some an- 
tique remains, which harmonise very agreeably with its more modern 
edifices, as I have noticed the new and the old usually does in Eng- 
lish towns. One of its most interesting antiquities is an ancient 
gate, called " Bargate," at the beginning of the principal street of 
the town. It exhibits two great coarsely executed figures, very much 
like the Gog and Magog of Guildhall in London. These two of 
Southampton are said to relate to the romantic history of the war- 
like knight, Sir Bevis, of Southampton, the hero of many legends, 
who slew two giants, one of whom called " Ascapart," he had pre- 
Piously retained for a considerable time in his ser&e. 

I took a particular interest in this last-named giant, because he 
was baptised at Cologne on the Rhine, whither Sir Bevis had ar- 
rived from the East, with his beautiful heathen bride, Josyan. 
This beauty received the rite at the same time, and demeaned ner- 
self, of course, in a becoming manner; but the giant, for whose 


christening a whole tun of water had been prepared, behaved very 
ill, and took the cold bath very much amiss. 

" The people had good game and laughe, 
Bat the Byshoppe was wrath enoughe." 

Southampton was a town as early as the time of the Romans, by 
whom it was called Clausentum ; but it did not then include the whole 
area of the present town, but lay to the side, on a peninsula, around 
which winds the river Itchen. On this spot stands one of the de- 
lightful country-houses I have so often alluded to, " Bittern Manor, * 
the property of a Scotch lady, and the residence of the celebrated 
oriental traveller, Urquhart. It was my agreeable fate to pass several 
sunny autumn days in this, in so many ways interesting spot, among 
persons in every way worthy of it. 

There is really something heavenly in this English country life. 
In the morning one finds oneself at breakfast with all the great 
London newspapers; the day is spent in excursions, and in the 
evening, purified from the soil of travel, by the help of soap and 
brushes, and clean linen, one enjoys the society and conversation of 
ladies and gentlemen, while lounging in luxurious arm-chairs, at 
the tea-table or over the fire; and should there happen to be found 
among the company two travellers, one of whom has seen the whole 
East, and the other a considerable portion of it, these two can go 
out together at night into the park, and, kindling a fire in the 
Roumelian or Tatar manner, wile away, in stories 01 strange lands, 
a part of the time which others are passing, in "oblivion on soft 
feather beds. 


My first excursion from Southampton was to the ruins of Netley 
Abbey, from the sight of which I promised myself so much the 
more pleasure, that I had neglected to see many other beautiful 
and celebrated ruins of English monasteries. 

The ruins of Netley Abbey lie on the shores of the bay, and the road 
to them passes between a number of parks and country-seats. The 
rich profusion with which these are scattered all over the country really 
amazes a foreigner; in these is seated the real marrow of the country, 
the most opulent, influential, and cultivated classes of the English 
people. With this abbey many interesting historical recollections 
are associated. It was in possession of the Cistercian monks down 
to the reign of Henry Vlll., who drove them away, and presented 
the abbey to Sir William Paulet. This remarkable man raised 
himself to be Marquis of Winchester, and Lord High Treasurer of 
England; and, what is more, maintained himself in th is post thirty 
years, through all the stormy times of Henry "VJLLL, MaTy, and 
Elizabeth. He maintained himself at this elevation, accor£ng to 
his own confession, by having in his composition more of the 
willow than of the oak; and he was not taken from it by deat" 


till he had had the satisfaction of seeing one hundred and three of 
his lineal descendants. 

Netley Abbey became subsequently the residence of several Earls 
of Hereford, tin at length, in the year 1700, it appeared to be in so 
decayed a state, that he sold a part of it for building materials. 
The person who bought it, began immediately to take down a part 
of the building, but was, according to the story, stopped one night 
by a dream that appeared of evil import. He dreamed that while 
he was taking down the arch of one of the abbey windows, a stone 
fell on his head and killed him. His friends begged him to desist 
from the destruction of the building, but he paid no attention to 
their remonstrances; and one day while he was endeavouring to 
loosen a plank from a wall, a huge stone was shaken from its place, 
and falling on his head, struck his skull. The wound was not dan- 
gerous, but it happened that while the surgeon was endeavouring to 
remove a splinter of the bone, his knife supped, and caused the in- 
stant death of the patient. 

One principal cause of the beauty of English ruins is the damp- 
ness of the climate, which covers them so immediately with a mantle 
of verdure. At Netley Abbey, the court-yards, chapels, halls, and 
chambers are all filled with trees, the edges of the walls covered with 
plants, and the ivy has hung its rich garlands round every elegant 
column and window-frame. In the centre of the largest space 
within the ruins, some speculator has established a table where the 
traveller may obtain ginger-bread, and ginger-beer, soda-water, and 
biscuits, and the vendor of these dainties has set up his tent in the 
cell of one of the monks. The trees and bushes seem here as if 
they were representing the scenes in Ovid's Metamorphoses. A 
thorn covered with its red berries, seems to be looking out of one 
of the windows at the Southampton Water, as once the young 
daughters of the Earl of Hereford, or some among the 103 descen- 
dants of the Marquis of Winchester may have done. Instead of 
porters and tall lacqueys, two tall trees keep watch at the gate; and 
instead of horses, we find in the stables, fine specimens of the stately 
ash. For the aged crones who may once have tenanted its chimney 
corners, we find there knotted and gnarled trunks, and the church is 
filled with plants and shrubs which seem like a metamorphosed 
congregation of devout worshippers. Beyond the abbey, the ground 
rises a little, and thence I had the view of the sea through its 
arched windows. 

During the excursion which I made on the following day from 
. Bittern Manor, I saw many more extraordinary and fantastic deco- 
rations of walls, also of vegetable origin. I had been told of a 
wine-cellar in Southampton, from the vaults of which the fungi 
had formed enormous garlands and tassels. I wished to see it, but 
as it was a bonded warehouse I could not be admitted without the 
concurrence of so many of the official persons, that I almost repented 
a request that seemed to occasion so much trouble. The sight, 
however, was really such as to make amends for it. The whole 


extent of the vaults was thickly hung with tassels, composed of a 
countless number of small mushrooms, and varying from a foot to a 
yard and a half long. Some hung perpendicularly down, others 
across from one wall to another. Sometimes they were shaped 
like round balls, and strung like beads together. Most of these 
wreaths were of a dark gray colour, but some were snow-white. The 
whole was suspended in a mass over our heads, and the cellar had 
something the appearance of a stalactical cavern, with only the dif- 
ference, that every breath of air that rustled through it, set the 
whole in motion. 

The people would not allow me to take down one of these 
mouldy garlands, saying that the owner of the cellar was so jealous 
of them, that he would not have them touched. The whole had 
indeed so pretty an effect, that it seemed a pity to disturb them, 
but it was certainly the first time in my life, that I recollect to have 
seen dirt and dust turned into an article of luxury, and made an 
object of jealousy. My inquiries were vain as to how this cellar 
came to be so especially decorated, as I was told there was no other 
like it in Southampton. 


The most interesting scene in the neighbourhood of Southamp- 
ton is, perhaps, the New Forest, which lies opposite to the town. 
It includes an area of 66,000 acres — more than half of the extent 
of the whole of the royal forests in England, of which there are but 
ten, Dean Forest and Windsor Forest being among the principal. 
This New Forest is said to owe its origin to the barbarous tyranny 
of William the Conqueror, who laid waste the country far and wide, 
destroying the dwellings, driving away the inhabitants, and not 
even sparing the churches, of which some assert that he destroyed 
no less than thirty-six, though other historians limit the number to 
twenty-two. All this was m order to form, from their fields and 
homesteads, a hunting-ground, convenient for his neighbouring resi- 
dence at Winchester. 

The highest officer appointed to the care of the New Forest is 
the Lord Warden, and under him there is a numerous establish- 
ment of official personages — some for the " venison," and others for 
the " wrt" — an old Norman French word signifying any bush large 
enough to conceal a deer. As we seldom hear among us of English 
forestry, my German readers may, perhaps, wish to mow something 
of the distribution of these officers. The whole forest is divided 
into fifteen walks, and for each of these is appointed a " keeper." 
The trees stand under the special superintendence of the " Wood- 
ward," who has under him twelve regarders. There is a particular 
tribunal for all matters connected with the forest, composed of four 
verderers, who are usually men of property and interest in the neigh- 
bourhood. Besides these, there is a forest surveyor, whose busi- 
ness it is to mark the wood which is fit for the use of the navy. 


The New Forest is, however, not quite an unbroken stretch of 
woodland, as it is interrupted in many places by fields and villages. 
Some of its most interesting inhabitants are the gipsies, who abound 
more within its limits than anywhere else in England ; for which 
reason most of the attempts towards the reformation and Christian- 
ising of these people, have proceeded from Southampton. A Com- 
mittee has been formed there called the " Southampton Committee 
for the Improvement of the Condition of the Gipsies," and there is a 
clergyman here who has made these wanderers his especial study, and 
published a little book concerning them. I paid a visit to this gen- 
tleman, and made an excursion for the express purpose of meeting 
some gipsies, but was not successful, the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
ing huts telling us that they had gone away the day before. From 
what I have had other opportunities of seeing and hearing, however, 
concerning English gipsies, I do not believe they are a much more 
civilised race than those of Hungary and South Russia, although they 
are by no means so purely oriental in their exterior, as in those more 
eastern parts of Europe. Many who pass in England by the name 
of gipsies, appear to have scarcely a trace of their Hindostanee 
origin, but others again with their dark skins, black eyes, Indian 
features, and language, sufficiently indicate the part 01 the world 
whence they have proceeded. 

As in England in the New Forest, so they have in Scotland their 
head quarters in a wildly romantic region in the Cheviot Hills, near 
the village of Kirk Yetholm close to the English border, whence they 
roam over all the neighbouring countries. From the New Forest, 
they visit principally the fairs round London. In some letters con- 
cerning the gipsies written by a Scotch preacher, near the above 
mentioned establishment, (the metropolis of the g[ipsy kingdom, as it 
is sometimes called,) there are many remarks which strikingly coin- 
cide with what I have myself seen of this singular people among the 
South Russians and Tartars. The extraordinary suddenness and vio- 
lence of their quarrels, for instance, the fantastic and terrible curses they 
heap on each other, and their equally sudden reconciliations. The pride 
also which they have in their race, outcasts as they are, is a point 
in which the Hungarian gipsies appear closely to resemble those 
of Scotland. Among the former 1 have often heard the remark 
that their people was the oldest and most distinguished in Europe. 
Attachment to their children is a marked characteristic of both, but the 
Scottish gipsies form an exception to almost all others, in desiring 
that their children should be instructed. The majority of them can 
read, and many possess a Bible, so that even among these eccentric 
people the love of learning, so general in this country, manifests itself. 

The gipsies in Scotland commonly profess to belong to the Pres- 
byterian church, as in Liefland and Cottrland they do to the Lutheran, 
in Hungary to the Catholic, in Moscow to the Greek, and in Tartary 
to the Mahomedan religion. In South Russia I recollect being par- 
ticularly struck by the exquisite development of the figure, and a 
certain air of elegance often observable among the gipsy women ; 


the Scotch preacher says the deportment of the gipsy women is often, 
so graceful, that one might sometimes fancy they had been brought 
up at a European court. 

Crabb, the " gipsies' advocate," as he has been called, has sometimes 
such extraordinary notions concerning the reform of the gipsies, 
especially on the subject of religion, that I must confess he does not 
appear to me to be building on very solid ground. It is said, in* 
deed, that he has been very unfortunate in his " reformed gipsies," 
as they have mostly turned out more criminal and more unhappy 
than tkeir wild brethren. ™ 

In illustration of the difficulty of reforming a gipsy, a story was 
told me, which, strange and romantic as it sounds, was undoubtedly 
true in its principal circumstances. 

A lady of rank and fortune, who happened to have no children, 
and who lived in the neighbourhood, had taken so great a liking to 
a beautiful little gipsy girl, that she took her home, had her edu- 
cated, and at length adopted her as her daughter. She was called 
Charlotte Stanley, received the education of a young English lady 
of rank, and grew up to be a beautiful, well-informed, and accom- 
plished girL In the course of time a young man of good family 
became attached to her, and wished to marry her. 

The nearer, however, this plan approached the period of its exe- 
cution, the more melancholy became the young Hindostanee bride, 
and one day, to the terror of her foster mother, and her betrothed 
husband, she was found to have disappeared. It was known that 
there had been gipsies in the neighbourhood; a search was set on 
foot, and Charlotte Stanley was discovered in the arms of a long, 
lean, brown, ugly gipsy, the chief of the band. She declared 
she was his wife, and no one had a right to take her away from 
him, and the benefactress and the bridegroom returned inconsolable. 
Charlotte afterwards came to visit them, and told how, as she grew 
up, she had felt more and more confined within the walls of the 
castle, and an irresistible longing had at length seized her to return 
to her wild gipsy life. The fellow whom she had chosen for her 
husband, was said to be one of the wildest and ugliest of the whole 
tribe, and to treat his beautiful and delicate wife in the most bar- 
barous manner. He was some time after, condemned to be hanged 
for theft, but his wife, through the influence of her distinguished 
connexions, procured the commutation of his sentence to that of 
confinement in the hulks. During the time of his imprisonment, 
she visited him constantly, and contrived in many ways to improve 
his situation, without the savage manifesting in return the smallest 
gratitude. He accepted her marks of affection as a tribute due 
from a slave, and frequently even during hex visits ill treated her. 
She toiled incessantly, however, to obtain his liberation, supplicat- 
ing both hex foster mother and her former lover, to use all their 
efforts in his favour. At the very moment of his liberation, how- 
ever, when Charlotte was hastening to meet him across the plank 


placed from the boat to the shore, the savage repulsed her so roughly 
that she fell into the water. She was drawn out again, but could 
not be induced to leave him, and returned to her former wild way of 
life, in the New Forest and the fairs of London. I saw the portrait 
of Charlotte Stanley, which was preserved by the friend of her 
youth. Her story is a kind of inversion to that of Preciosa, and 
might make an interesting romance. The Southampton committee, 
it is said, have not been more fortunate with the gipsies, whom at 
different times they have put out to service, than was the bene- 
factress of Charlotte Stanley, for they all return, sooner or later, to 
their wild wandering life. 

The number of aft the Scotch and English gipsies is estimated 
by Mr. Crabb at 18,000 — a number which I should be inclined to 
think even overrated. 


In the morning, before breakfast, I usually placed myself on the 
lawn before the house at Bittern Manor, and sent up the incense of 
a cigar, from the altar of a Roman divinity, to me unknown, the 
Goddess Ancasta. The altar was in excellent preservation, and the 
words " DecB Ancasta" were perfectly legible, as well as some let- 
lers which looked like " Tetricus." This deity, I found, was not 
known to any of the mythologists of Southampton, and was, pro- 
bably, one of the innumerable little local goddesses, which abounded 
within the wide limits of the Roman empire, and which the amazing 
religious liberality of the Romans, was always ready to receive into 
their Olympus. Tetricus was, perhaps, the person who erected the 
altar to her. Many others had been dug up in the park, and many 
Roman coins found on the site of the ancient Clausentum. A line 
of circumvallation was also shown to me, which extended from water 
to water, and cut off the peninsula on the land side. 

A lovely garden, stretching across these memorials of a time past 
away, and a seat by the altar of an unknown goddess, were of course 
sources of enjoyment to a lover of antiquity, such as he does not 
often meet with. After this morning sacrifice, I betook myself to 
the town to admire the handsome and interesting shops in the High- 
street. This looking into shop windows is a favourite amusement 
in England, and I met with many, even of serious, middle-aged men, 
who acknowledged to taking great delight in it. The variety and 
elegance of the wares to be found in this rich country, where the 
American, African, East Indian, and Chinese goddesses of plenty 
pour out the abundance of their horns, is really astonishing. But 
among all the shops, none interested me more than those called ship 
chandlers, and which include almost all imaginable things wanted 
for ships or sailors. Not only* the English seaport towns in general, 
but also all the little ports on the Thames — Woolwich, Gravesend, 


Chatham, &c., swarm with these shops, but those of Southampton 
excel both in the quantity and quality of their wares, from the cir- 
cumstance that the Southampton waters are filled with the yachts 
of noblemen and gentlemen, lying at anchor, several of which I 
visited, and found them, in every respect, patterns of beautiful and 
solid construction. 

In these shops the elegant looking sailors that one sees about South- 
ampton, with fine blue jackets and snow-white trousers, and who, on 
inquiry, we find to be Lord This and Colonel That, purchase what they 
require for the fitting out of their vessels, and the goods kept in them 
are, consequently, of the best quality. Since we know little of such 
shops among us in Germany I will endeavour to describe the nature 
of their contents. 

In the first place we find all kinds of astronomical and marine in- 
struments — sextants, quadrants, telescopes, barometers, compasses, 
&c., of the greatest variety and the most costly construction, for in- 
stance, sextants of the finest steel, with their scales marked on silver 
gold, or platina, and placed in mahogany boxes lined with velvet, 
with ivory handles; telescopes from a loot and a half to seven feet in 
length; drawing implements of every description; lanterns adapted 
to all kinds of weather — signal lanterns, deck lanterns, captains' 
lamps, illuminators, concave, convex, fiat and prismatic lamps and 
lanterns, some of which could be fired under water; compact heating 
and cooking apparatus; " patent concave cabin stoves;" improved 
safety fire hearths, for crews of from 8 to 135 men ; and fishing tackle 
for every kind of fish to be found in the world. 

Further, there are machines for filtering water of a most ingenious 
construction, and which cannot be excelled, for the perfection and 
rapidity of the process, the dirtiest water coming out as clear as crys- 
tal; and there are wine-coolers and butter-coolers, " on the most im- 
proved scientific principles," in which butter is preserved in the hot- 
test climate as well as in the coldest winter in Germany. Then we 
find an immense collection of maps and charts of the eastern, western, 
southern, and northern seas, besides an interesting collection of what 
are called nautical books, a branch of literature of which we Ger- 
mans know little or nothing. Among these are works in which the 
flags of all the nations in the world are represented, and " codes of 
signals" for merchant ships and ships of war, and " Rhodes' Uni- 
versal Signals for Day or Night at Seal" Treatises on British and 
French lighthouses; collections of novels, tales, and songs for sailors; 
nautical miscellanies; and sailors' prayer-books. One of the richest 
classes of these marine books is that of the " Sailing Directions" for 
the Northern Ocean, for the coasts of England and Scotland, for 
Brazil and South America, for the Mediterranean, to and from the 
East Indies, &c. To a Humboldt or a Bitter such books as these, 
containing the most exact observations on the formation of the coasts, 
the variations of weather, and all other phenomena of those seas, 



would be of the greatest value; but the cost of a collection of them 
would be so great, that I fear we cannot expect our Royal German 
Libraries to be enriched with them, for the benefit of our geographers 
and men of science. 

There is an immense variety in the size and form of the account- 
books for ships kept in these shops, and the arrangement of many of 
them is admirable; and there are besides, flags, and stuff called 
"bunting," used for this purpose, sails, anchors, chains, from 
u quarter-inch link chains," up to " sixteen-inch best proved link 
chains," a whole catalogue of sporting tackle, and things never 
seen before under the title of "miscellaneous articles." As the 
yacht which I have mentioned, and many other vessels, generally 
take some guns on board, these also belong to the list of the 
chandler's goods, and their doors are generally decorated with 
cannon of various calibre, from one to two-and-thirty pounders, with 
the necessary ammunition. Our peaceful German Kramers would 
Utile think of dealing in such warlike articles; but the English have 
also boarding swords, scimitars, boarding pikes, and even toma- 
hawks. Among their ordinary articles of trade, also, axe fire- works, 
serpents, crackers, pin-wheels, Jacks-in-the-box, French squibs, gold 
rain, air balloons, &c., &c. One chandler, whose shop I visited, 
said he was always ready to execute any order for fire-works, " up 
to the value of 500/." — an expression which may give some idea 
of the sums sometimes consumed in this way in one evening by a 
rich Englishman. In London, of course, the trade in all the articles 
I have enumerated is carried on on such an extensive scale, that it 
is not possible to include so many in one shop as at Southampton, 
but there exist separate establishments for each branch. 


One of the most interesting excursions I made from Bittern 
Manor, was that to Portsmouth and the Me of Wight, and, by the 
help of steam and post-horses, it only occupied a few days. 

Portsmouth forms a remarkable contrast with Southampton; it is 
an ugly, ill-built town, consisting of a great heap of small, insig- 
nificant houses. It neither exhibits any thing old, nor any thing 
new, which could be of the smallest interest in an architectural 
point of view, and the inns are so bad, that one might fancy oneself 
m the most out-of-the-way corner of England. All, indeed, that 
Portsmouth offers to interest a stranger, lies partly on, and partly 
under the watoMumely, the great ships of wbj^ the marme arsenals, 
and what is contained in the dock-yards. I have visited all the 
celebrated dock-yards of England — Deptford, Woolwich, Chatham, 
and Portsmouth, and each presented so much food for observation, 
that were I to attempt to give any thing like a complete description 


of them, I should ran the risk of doubling the size of my book. I 
will, therefore, merely mention some particulars that have remained 
on mj memory. I began my inspection of Portsmouth dock-yard, 
by partaking of an excellent breakfast on board the Excellent, an 
English ship of war, where all the young artillerists of the fleet 
practise mancBUTring: I had arrived with the governor in a beau- 
tiful eight-oared boat, and we were received with all military honours, 
the captain coming to meet us, and along with him a lovely little 
antelope from Syria, brought from Egypt by one of the officers of 
the expedition. This charming little animal sported round the 
breakfast-table, eat pieces of bread, and seemed as full of life and 
health as the officers and crew of the ship, which is saying much. 
A slight mist which had hung over the surface of the water, when 
we began breakfast, dispersed just as we rose from table; the 
morning sun shone out brightly, and all prepared for the expert- 
ment in gunnery which welad come to see. Some new kinoi of 
shell were to be tried, each winged by ten pounds of gunpowder, 
and having in the centre a tube containing fire, and closed by a 
wooden peg, which required it to strike against wood or stone before 
it could explode. Out of thirty-eight bombs which were tried* 
fifteen burst on striking the water, or before reaching their destined 
point, so that the experiment was not considered successful. It 
seemed to me, however, that I should explode myself at every shot, 
and I really could not refrain from sundry convulsive starts. I 
remained near the cannon, that I might observe all the operations, 
and I found the concussion much stronger on the deck above than 
immediately behind it The ricochetting of the balls on the smooth, 
mirror-like surface of the sea, was beautiful, and when they struck 
the water a powerful shock was felt, even at the distance of the 
vessel. They threw up high fountains at every stroke, out of the 
midst of which they rose, and then struck the water again, twelve or 
fourteen times, raising each time a dashing column of spray. The 
shells were not thrown out of mortars, but from large cannons, about 
each of which more than a dozen men were busied like ants, each, 
however, keeping exactly to his own department. The bombs were 
filled in a particular apartment, and for the necessary illumination 
of the magazine, a long corridor was parted off, and separated from 
it by strong glass windows, behind which were placed the lamps, bo 
that the rays of light could pass through, but no spark. 

Among the manoeuvres which I witnessed, no one interested me 
so much, as that of firing with a cannon placed on a moveable plate, 
made to represent the motion of a vessel on the waves of the sea. It 
swayed about forward or backward, to the right or the left — in 
short, with that pleasing variety of movement, so well known as 
occasioning seanritinesB. The gunner, however, by drawing a small 
card, can regulate the whole machinery and bring it to a stand-still 
in a moment. This he does at the moment when he thinks he sees, 



exactly before the cannon's month, the'object at which he is supposed 
to aim, and the officers can then judge whether that would have 
been the proper moment to fire the gun. Another interesting vessel 
which I visited at Portsmouth, was the Victory, -well-known as that 
in which Nelson breathed his last. The little cabin into which he 
was carried, from the deck where he received his mortal wound, 
was, when we visited it, illuminated with six lamps, as well as the 
between decks, where there was a small arsenal of the arms of ma- 
rines. This vessel is the residence of the captain of the harbour, 
who has under his superintendence all the hulks and ships lying in 
ordinary. His apartments were admirably fitted up, but really after 
I had heard so much of the effects of cannon-balls, upon these wooden 
dwellings, they no longer appeared to me very attractive. I was 
told by many experienced sailors, that the balls,, when not fired from 
too great a distance, generally go right through plank and copper 
sheathing, and every thing living or dead that comes in their way. 
I should feel in a sea-fight, like the princess in the fable, who, in 
her glass-house under the sea, could nowhere feel herself safe from 
the goggling eyes of the great fish, her husband. Sailors axe, how- 
ever, it is said, not so often wounded by the balls themselves, as by 
the splinters of wood which strike and often kill them. It appears, 
therefore, that their wounds and mutilations must be more various 
and complicated than those of land troops. 

There were few other ships, than those in ordinary lying at Spit- 
head, and of these there were about thirty lying at anchor in a long 
row, extending three or four miles; they were without masts, and 
each had a sort of roof or shed erected over it for its protection, 
and a few men are left on board of each; and this motionless fleet is 
commanded by a lieutenant, whose business it is to watch all that 
goes on, on board these vessels, to inspect them from time to time, 
and to report upon their condition. 

Of the machinery which I saw in the dock-yards of Portsmouth, 
none appeared to me more remarkable, or more truly admirable, 
than what is called the " Block machinery," constructed by the 
celebrated engineer Brunei, to see which alone it is worth while to 
go there. Blocks are, as is well known, the sheaves of the pulleys 
which receive the ropes or tackle of a ship, and every vessel requires 
some hundreds of them. These were lately manufactured for the 
English, as they still are for every other navy, by a very crude pro- 
cess, with the help of the common turning lathe, and the object was 
to produce a machine, by which a great number could be made at a 
time. Mr. Brunei found means to overcome the difficulties of this 
task, and invented a machine, worked by steam, which fully an- 
swered the purpose. The most remarkable circumstance connected 
with this invention is, however, that it was produced at once in 
complete perfection — like Minerva springing fully armed from the 
head of Jupiter. I was told it was more than twenty years since it 


was set up, and that when lately it was visited and inspected by the 
inventor, he declared he could mid nothing in it to alter or improve. 
This is, perhaps, unexampled in the history of human inventions. 

It would be impossible by description to give any idea of the con* 
struction of this machine, and, indeed, it is not always perfectly un- 
derstood even by those familiar with the subject. 

The wood of which these blocks are made is peculiarly hard, and 
this it was that formerly rendered the work so toilsome, and the ap- 
plication of the irresistible steam-power so very desirable. The wood 
is cut, by ever-revolving circular saws, into cubic masses; and twelve 
of these are placed at a time on the spokes of a wheel, which in its 
evolution presses them against a sharp knife. This operation is 
afterwards repeated, with a finer cutting instrument. The blocks 
are then bored through to make room for the pulleys, and the diffi- 
culty of these operations is great, as the block has not a cylindrical, 
but an irregular form. The whole is then polished, and tins, as well 
as all the other operations, is so perfectly executed by the machine, 
that it might be thought the work of the most careful and skilful 
turners. The same machine also makes the metal rollers and pulleys, 
and fixes them firmly in the sheaves — in short, it is a perfect won- 
der, and had Mr. Brunei never done any thing else than invent this 
block-machinery, he would have rendered his name immortal. It 
is used only, however, for the English ships of war, and I cannot 
understand why the government does not allow such to be manufac- 
tured also for the use of the merchant navy. 

Among the other interesting operations which I saw here was also, 
the making of copper bolts, used in such large quantities in ship- 
building, and the forging of a great anchor lor a man-of-war, the 
most tedious, toilsome, and difficult of all the operations of the smithy. 
Powerful men, wielding vast hammers, .strike the glowing mass of ' 
iron for a quarter of an hour together, every stroke seeming enough 
to shatter a rock, without producing any visible effect upon it. 
Every time, after having received a lew blows, it cools again to a 
degree of unconquerable obstinacy, and must again, with incredible 
toil be placed in the fire, and heated for half a day before it is capa- 
ble of being worked any more. If it is necessary to strike the iron 
on the other side, the turning takes so much time, that it is sure to 
cool during the operation, and must then be again placed in the fire 
for a quarter or half a day, and I believe weeks or months elapse 
before any thing like an anchor is produced. One's heart is really 
torn to witness such never ending toil. 

The collection of anchors here at Portsmouth is I suppose the 
largest in the world, and there are hundreds of them with such 
mighty arms, that it is inexplicable and inconceivable, how the power 
of wind and water can ever avail to rend their giant grasp. 

As the anchors consist of a great number of bars of iron forged 
together, so do the masts, of many trees, fastened together by bolts 


and braces. In walking in the forests of Russia and Poland, I have 
sometimes admired the gigantic firs I saw there, and wondered how 
it was possible to use such a tree for the mast of a ship, but here at 
Portsmouth I learned that for a mast of the largest size, almost a 
dozen such trees are required. The centre or kernel of the mast is 
cut square, and is made of one particular kind of tree, and the side 
pieces, which have all their separate names, are taken from other trees. 
Even if the whole could be found at once as long and as thick as re- 
quired, a mast composed of several pieces would be preferred, as it is 
considered to be more elastic and to stand better in a gale. It must 
also be more easily replaced, at least it appears probable that in a storm 
a part might give way without the whole being destroyed. When a 
mast is struck by lightning also, I am told, the injury is more par- 
tial, in the case of a mast of this description, than it would be with 
one made of a single tree; and how important this consideration is, 
may appear from the circumstance that, during the forty years of the 
present century, no fewer than a 120 British ships of war, in various 
parte of the world, have had their masts partially or wholly destroyed 
by lightning. 

The various establishments connected with the navy, lie on both 
rides of the water, and our boat, rowed by eight " jolly young 
watermen," shot across from one to another like a trout. Clarence- 
yard is a particular division of the docks, occupied only with the 
victualling of the fleet, and one of its most remarkable departments 
is that employed in biscuit-baking. The dough is there, like the 
wood, iron, and copper, on the other side of tne water, worked by 
steam. It is kneaded, rolled out, cut into six-sided pieces, and 
pierced with holes, (to assist in its preservation by letting the air 
through,) — all by mighty steam-engines. In the baking-house, 
which put me in mind of a great cotton-spinning establishment in 
Manchester, are fabricated no fewer than nine tons of biscuits daily— 
about 18,000 pounds, — a magnificent provision of food for the hungry 
stomachs of the English sailors, and unfortunately also for the worms, 
for the preparation of biscuit has not yet reached such perfection, 
as to preclude the ravages of these unpleasant companions at the 
feast. The English sailors, however, look on them as quite in the 
ordinary course of things, and have thus acquired a habit of always 
knocking their biscuit on the table before they eat it, with a view 
to shake out the worms. Indeed this is so constant a practice with 
them, that they do it involuntarily, even when they eat biscuits on 

Near this baking-house lies that where the beef is prepared, and 
near this, immense stores of rum, tea, cacao, and other articles, of 
which the enormous quantity of cacao especially struck us. This 
excellent, nourishing, and not intoxicating beverage, plays a very 
important part in the English navy, ana, with tne present zeal 
against rum and brandy, it is daily becoming more so. English 


sailors are always abundantly provided with it, and considering the 
greatness of the navy, it may be imagined that the quantity con- 
sumed is very large. The tanks for water, which are made of iron 
and lined with tin, keep it in excellent preservation. Some was 
given me to taste which had been kept no less than fourteen years, 
and yet tasted as sweet and fresh as if it had just been fetched from 
a spring. 

Early on the following morning I set off for the Isle of Wight, 
crossing to reach it, the famous roads of Spithead, the best and most 
spacious in the kingdom, which, as well as the harbour of Ports- 
mouth, is deep and wide enough for the whole British fleet to lie at 
anchor in perfect safety. It is narrow at the entrance, but spreads 
out to a great breadth within, the Isle of Wight lying like a pro- 
tecting dam before it. A thousand ships of the line might He be- 
hind Eke a flock of ducks. It seems, indeed, as if people considered 
themselves quite too safe here, for it is well known that the Royal 
George, a great ship of war of 100 guns, sunk in this harbour in the 
finest weather. The ballast of the vessel had been thrown all on 
one side, in order to lift the other partly out of the water, for the 
sake of some necessary repairs ; the operation was unskilfully per- 
formed, and some guns probably rolled suddenly over, so ttlat the 
lower port-holes on that side touched the surface of the water, and 
as these were all open, the water rushed in and filled the vessel, so 
that it sunk in a few seconds with all that it contained. Probably 
some of the crew may have jumped overboard, and been drawn 
down afterwards with the vessel, but 600 persons lost their lives by 
this accident, which took place only about 100 yards from the shore. 
I was told by an eye-witness of the scene, that the waters closed over 
the spot with a peculiarly hollow sound, and there arose from it a 
column of water almost like a water-spout, and the great waves oc- 
casioned by the sinking of such a vast body, spread all across the 
harbour, and set every vessel in motion. This took place in the 
year 1782, and down to the present time, during a period of more 
than sixty years, the divers have been employed in bringing up 
from the wreck, treasures and curiosities buried in her. We sailed 
dose to the spot, and saw two vessels lying at anchor there, between 
which heavy burdens were drawn up, such as two cannons lately 
recovered. I was told the work would now soon be finished, but it 
as likely that many an object, much coveted by man, is lying there 
buried under slime and sand. A whole library of books has been 
written concerning the melancholy fate of this vessel, and all the at- 
tempts to raise it, either wholly or in parts, which have, from time 
to tune been made. 



The beautiful little harbour of the Isle of Wight, opposite to 
Portsmouth, called Ryde, has, during the last ten years, risen from an 
unimportant village to a town of 5000 inhabitants, and I had occasion 
to make the same remark, with respect to perhaps a hundred places on 
the English coast, which, lying on rivers or arms of the sea, have been 
indebted for their increase to the vast facilities afforded by steam 
navigation. Let any one cast a glance at the map of England, 
and consider the numerous openings of this kind, ana the innumer- 
able points, whence it is necessary to cross, and he will be able to 
make something like an estimate of the number of such little har- 
bours which are rising into importance by the aid of steam. 

The Mole at Ryde, which is thrown out into the sea, is 2000 feet 
long, and forms, as an Englishman said to me, one of the finest 
marine promenades in the kingdom. These marine promenades, on 
the moles of their harbours, on the ramparts of their coast fortresses, 
and on quays and breastworks, form a class of walks peculiar to 
England; and they are usually seen covered with promenaders, in- 
haling the fresh sea breeze, till the sun has sunk beneath the 

The promenaders of Ryde, from their mole, look with especial 
satisfaction on what they boast " is the finest piece of water in the 
kingdom." I remained twice standing there looking over at Ports- 
mouth, and the Swedish and French as well as English ships that 
were lying there; and each time some old sailors, or other idlers, 
who are always lounging about, made the observation to me, " I 
dare say, sir, no country can boast of such a fine piece of water," 
and both times I heartily concurred in their opinion. From Ryde 
I travelled in the very agreeable company of a good-humoured 
native of the island, round to its southernmost point, and then crossed 
it through the centre. The little towns of Newport, Brading, and 
Cowes, have delightful situations, and the sea-shore presents the 
most beautiful views of rocks and sea. The road leads sometimes 
through meadows, sometimes through lovely groves, and is almost 
always sprinkled, on both sides, with villas and country-houses. Hie 
climate of the island is so mild, that there are places on the south 
coast, where ice and snow are unknown. The myrtles bloom here 
the winter through, and many invalids desiring a warm climate, yet 
unable or unwilling to go further, live constantly in the Isle of 
Wight. Almost in every place where we stopped, we were told of 
some such lady or gentleman, who had come for the benefit of the 
air. Yet though the climate is so extremely mild, the vine does not 
flourish here, although it is said that it formerly did as well as in 
many other parts of England, where it is never cultivated at present. 
It is likely, however, this is not so much to be attributed to a change 


of climate any more than in America and Prussia, where the same 
observation has been made, as to the increased means of commu- 
nication, by which it has become easier to procure good foreign 
wine, so that it has no longer been thought worth while to make 
bad wine at home. There is in the Isle of Wight, not sun enough 
to rij>en grapes, although there is no deficiency of warmth, but the 
heat is distributed through the whole year. Inhere are many plants 
of southern origin which grow in England, and will not grow in 
Germany, because the severity of our winter kills them; whilst, on 
the other hand, there are a great number which do well with us, 
and would not live in England, because there is not heat enough in 
the summer. 

The Isle of Wight has the form of a lozenge, having two sides 
turned to the south, and two to the north, and differing widely in 
their aspect. The former are rocky and abrupt, and the sea often 
undermines the cliffs, so that large masses fall down into it, and these 
falls have occasioned many bold and singular configurations, of which 
the most celebrated is the so-called Needles, a group of precipitous 
crags on the western point of the island. The waters which break 
from its centre also, have, in forcing their way through the rocks, 
gnawed out many steep valleys and ravines, here called " Chines." 
This word signifies in met, the part of the back near the spine, and is 
not used to signify a valley anywhere in England but in the Isle of 
Wight; but there we have Luccomb Chine, Franklin Chine, Brooke 
Chine, and Black Gang Chine, which as England swarms with lovers 
of the romantic, and travellers in search of the picturesque, are ex- 
tolled to the skies for their beauty and sublimity. The whole island 
is intersected from north to south by a valley, watered by a river 
with a Spanish name, the Medina, and the town of Newport, lying 
about in the middle, is its capital. It is beautifully situated, is an 
ancient town, and sent two members to parliament before Manches- 
ter and Birmingham were heard of there, and has besides, in testi- 
mony of its antiquity, the fine old Castle of Carisbrook, rearing its 
stately front from a rock in the neighbourhood. The whole way is 
beautiful to Cowes, the celebrated little port, where the Queen of 
England is now about to establish her residence. The whole harbour 
was full, when we arrived, of the elegant yachts of the " Royal Yacht 
Squadron," which has a house here for the reception of its members; 
and we cast many a " longing lingering look" behind at the lovely 
scenery around, as the steamboat carried us swiftly away on our re- 
turn to Southampton. 

I remained only one day longer in the neighbourhood of the Goddess 
Ancasta, and the next evening, when the dinner cloth \vas removed, 
and the ladies disappeared, took the opportunity, sorely against my 
will, to utter my farewell to England. One of my last recollections of 
it, is of the interesting physiognomies of a well-known amiable English 
traveller, and a renowned admiral, as they kindly stood on the steps 


of the hospitable threshold to see me off. Without, all was darkness, 
and when I reached the pier of Southampton, I could only distinguish 
the steamer that was to take us to Havre, by the lanterns at her mast 
head. The wind was very high, every body was muffled up, and I 
could only just perceive some shadowy forms, which deposited my 
luggage, and some outstretched hands which held a lantern, and de- 
manded a remuneration. I crept into my favourite corner near the 
bowsprit; all the beautiful objects on the shore were veiled in 
murkiest night, and towards twelve o'clock, when we were dashing 
across the channel, my thoughts of England gradually faded into 
confused dreams. 




A FEW Scottish gentlemen from the linen and silk districts, a few 
cotton-twiners, cotton-weavers, and cotton-bleachers, and one gentle- 
man, who, when I inquired after his occupation, replied : " lam in 
the woollen line ;" these were my companions in the first cabin of the 
steamboat, which left Belfast for Glasgow, in very stormy weather, 
in the beginning of October. The fore part of the deck was oc- 
cupied by poor Irish, ragged and miserable, who were about to seek, 
in the manufacturing cities of Scotland, for that which their native 
Paradise denied them, namely work to do and potatoes to eat. The 
rest of the vessel was filled with dead and living animals, poultry, 
pigs, and oxen, whom we bipeds could not help envying for their 
happy immunity from cares and sea-sickness. 

We steered north-north-east, for it is in this direction that the inte- 
rior of Scotland is always approached from the western side, whether 
sailing up the Frith of Clyde towards Greenock and Glasgow, or up 
Loch Fyne towards Inverary, or up Loch Linne towards Fort Wil- 
liam. All these long arms of the sea stretch from south-west to north- 
east, while on the contrary, all those on the eastern coast, the Frith of 
Forth, the Frith of Tay, the Murray Frith, &c, run in the opposite 
direction. The whole of Scotland is plentifully marked and indented 
in these directions. Like its gulfs, so also its peninsulas, and most 
of its interior valleys, mountains, and lakes, run in a north-easterly 
or south-westerly direction. When the internal structure of its sur- 
face is geologically examined, it is also found that the different strata 
of which it is composed do not run parallel to the main length of 
the country, but in the opposite direction ; that is from south-west 
to north-east. Doubtless this geological and geographical formation 
of the country has its parallel in the moral and political diversities 
of the people, which will mostly be found to correspond with the 
former; that is to say, the sections into which the country is divided 
politically, and those into which it may be parted with regard to race, 



habits, and language, will be found to have each of them its axis lying 
in a direction from S. W. to N. E. 

The lighthouses at Copeland island, Maiden rocks, Corsewall-point, 
Pladda island, Little Cambray, and the Mull of Cantire, sent out 
friendly rays towards us from north, south, east, and west, and guided 
our way. We would gladly have approached nearer to the Pladda 
Light, for this island is situated close to the coast of Arran, the wild 
variety and grandeur of whose formation renders it a real treasure, 
both to the painter and the geologist Arran is of all Scotland, that 
point, where, from the eldest and most primeval formations, down to 
the very newest and latest, specimens ol every thing that can interest 
the geologist, are collected together in the smallest compass. 

At the Pladda lighthouse, we entered the quieter waters of the 
Frith of Clyde, and at the lighthouse of Cambray, the narrower part 
of this Fritn further on, we came to the lighthouses of Inoland and 
Greenock. We saw in this one night, no fewer than nine light- 
houses. It is doubtful whether there exists in the world any line of 
coast possessing so many lighthouses in proportion to its extent. 
Scotland has at present, in all, twenty-seven lighthouses, which have 
all either been entirely built since the year 1810, or else have been 
since then so altered and improved, that their useful and effective 
existence cannot be said to have begun earlier. Most have been 
built since 1820. It is a very remarkable circumstance, that coasts 
so long and frequently navigated should have been only so very 
lately supplied with lighthouses. The most costly and celebrated 
among them are those lying on the Bellrock, at the entrance of the 
Frith of Tay, and on the Isle of May, at the entrance of the Frith of 
Forth. The erection of these two buildings cost nearly as much as all 
the rest put together, namely, 132,000/., while the cost of the rest 
was only 150,000/. The wnole annual cost of all the Scottish light- 
houses put together, does not amount to 15,000/.; and the value of 
the cargoes carried by many of the vessels passing them is above 
that sum. If, therefore, these twenty-seven lighthouses only save 
one or two ships annually from destruction, they more than pay 
their expenses ; and the beneficial influence they really exercise, 
may certainly be rated very much higher than this. 

The next morning, however, our way was guided by a species of 
coast-illumination, which all navigators must prefer even to the best 
lighthouses, namely, that of the sun. We were now just opposite 
the town of Greenock, and on the right and left, the new scenes of 
an unknown country opened before me, like the leaves of a newly 
opened book. The very first two or three lines I read were so ex- 
quisitely beautiful, that I almost regretted having spent so long a 
time away from them, in studying those of Ireland. On our left, the 
snowy summits of the Scottish Highlands towered one above ano- 
ther in the distance ; and on our right, stretched away the bright 
green plains of the Barony of Renfrew, which has the honour of 
adding one to the long string of magnificent titles, bestowed in his 


cradle upon the little prince of Wales. Behind us rose out of the 
sea the picturesque islands which we had passed during the night ; 
and before us the gulf divided into several arms, Loch Long, Loch 
Garo, and the river Clyde. At Greenock the water of the gulf ceases 
to be salt, and begins to be called a river. At Greenock, this river 
is from two to three miles wide, but narrows itself very rapidly, and 
at Glasgow it is not so wide as the Seine at Paris. 

The voyage from Greenock to Glasgow is one of the most beautiful 
that can be imagined, and there ;s no doubt that it would be amongst 
the most admired and the most frequented by pleasure tourists, if it 
were not situated in a country so cut off from the central districts 
of European society as Scotland. It is a great pity that so beau* 
tiful a country as Scotland, should not possess a more favourable 
climate. A country so diversified and so interesing in its picturesque 
beauty, and so delightfully indented by the sea, is scarcely to be 
found in any other part of the world, and it really deserves to be situated 
among the fortunate isles of a more genial latitude. How delight- 
iully cooling and refreshing would be in a warmer climate, its deep 
bays and gulfs, running up into the very heart of the country ! 

One of the most beautiful spots on the Clyde is Dumbarton, with 
its old castle towering up from a lofty and picturesque rock. At 
Dumbarton the waters of Loch Lomond empty themselves into those 
©f the Clyde. That of Dumbarton is not the only old castle whose 
pedestal is washed by the broad waves of that stream. Monuments 
of other kinds also decorate the river side, among others that of the 
ingenious engineer, Henry Bell. This Henry Bell was the first who 
placed a steamboat on the Clyde, and the Clyde was the first river 
of the old hemisphere which was ever navigated by a steam- 
boat. Nay, it is even said, that the river Clyde possessed twelve 
steamers before the fishes of the Thames were disturbed by a single 
one. In the year 1835, no fewer than sixty-seven steamboats pad- 
dled up and down the Clyde, 

Art and nature, antiquity and modern enterprise, unite to beau- 
tify the banks of the Clyde. Most of the old castles and ruins lie 
on the northern or Highland side, and most of the modern towns and 
villages, Greenock, Port Glasgow, Erskine, Renfrew, and Paisley, on 
the southern or Lowland side. The measures adopted within late years 
for the improvement of the navigation of the Clyde, are very well 
worthy the attention of the stranger. Five-and-twenty years ago no 
ships which drew more than four feet of water could come quite up to 
Glasgow. By means of dredging-machines, of which six are con- 
stantly kept working on the river, and by means of various other 
apparatus, among which are two great diving bells, in which work- 
men are occasionally employed under water upon the rocks, the 
navigation has at length been so much improved, that large ships 
of sixteen or seventeen feet draught, can come up to Glasgow at high 
water. One place was pointed out to me, however, which had 



hitherto been found incurable, in consequence of the masses of sanct 
continually deposited by the river. The captain of our steamboat 
told me that the river could only be maintained in its present artifi- 
cial state by a yearly expenditure of nearly 50,000/. sterling. 

The navigation-line of the river is pointed out by a series of buoys. 
These buoys consist in England of great hollow iron pyramids, which 
being fastened to the bed of the river with anchors, float on its surface r 
and raise their red and black nodding tops above the water. Besides 
these buoys, the river is marked by a variety of other contrivances, such 
as a number of little milestones, erected upon rocks and sandbanks, 
which point out the exact distance from Glasgow, and a series of little 
houses called Biggins, which are lighted up at night to guide vessels 
through the narrow channel. In " the old times" the only guides both 
by night and day consisted of large heaps of stones, out of which rose 
a great thick pole surmounted by a basket, a barrel, or some such 
mark. These were called Parches, and many still lie useless by the 
river side. " The old times" were scarcely ten years ago. The ex- 
tremely modern date of all these striking improvements in the navi- 
gation of the Clyde may reasonably lead us to hope yet further ad- 
vances with the progress of time. It is a remarkable fact, however, 
that the river steamboats have passed the zenith of their prosperity* 
here, as elsewhere in England. Two or three years ago the number 
of steamers plying on the Clyde was greater than it is at present. Thia 
is occasioned by the railroads, the great increase of which has di- 
minished the number of passengers on all the English rivers. 

The further we advanced into the interior of the country the cloudier 
and thicker became the air; and finally when we reached Glasgow, 
nothing of the sun remained, but a rayless, blood-red ball looming 
dimly through the mist. There are probably countries in the world 
whose inhabitants never have an opportunity of observing the sun's 
disk in such a condition ; for these the spectacle of the copper sun, 
peculiar to the misty atmosphere of northern countries, would be a 
sight of no common interest and wonder. 

The numerous chemical operations carried on in Glasgow render 
its smoke particularly pernicious and unwholesome. I was told that 
its poisonous influence had compelled the removal of the Botanical 
Garden from the neighbourhood of the city, and had also caused the 
removal of the Astronomical Observatory. 


The first object which greeted my eyes on entering Glasgow, was 
an enormous chimney which towered out through the mist over the 
city, like the Minster of Strasburg, and the St. Stephen's Tower of 
Vienna. This chimney is said to be the loftiest in the British Em- 
pire, and is a real wonder in its way. I heard its height estimated at 
450 feet. As this appeared to me impossible, and as I wished to ex- 


amine this giant chimney nearer, my first walk in Glasgow was to 
" Tennant's Stalk," as it is commonly called by the townspeople. 
Tennant is the proprietor of one of the largest chemical works in Glas- 
gow, or indeed in Great Britain. Sulphuric acid, soda, and many 
other articles, are there manufactured. It was very desirable to carry 
up to a great height the many noxious vapours which rise from these 
works ; and in order to avoid quarrels with his neighbours, the owner 
•resolved to erect this gigantic chimney, which probably has not its 
.equal in the world. The whole chemical establishment of Mr. Ten- 
nant, occupies of course a considerable space, and a subterranean pas- 
-sage leads from each of the fires in all the different departments, to 
the giant chimney. These numerous walled passages unite under 
ground into a few large ones, which in their turn meet in the 
great chimney, which thus carries up the smoke of the whole 
-establishment at once. The workmen told me that when they de- 
scended for repairs into any of these subterranean channels, if the 
-doors were not very carefully closed, the draught of air was so strong, 
■that it was with great difficulty they could escape being carried away 
with it. The " Stalk" itself consists of an immense, round, hollow 
-column, very broad at the bottom, and narrowing slightly towards 
.the top. The walls are much thicker at their foundations, than at 
the top ; although even at the top they are sixteen inches thick. They 
Are further strengthened by a very thick outer wall, which surrounds 
them at the bottom like a shell. 

Here and there in England, manufacturers have united for the 
erection of smoke apparatuses on a grand scale, similar to that of 
Mr. Tennant. What an excellent thing it would be to make them 
yet more extensive, and make a few giant chimneys carry up 
the smoke of a whole town, by conducting it through subter- 
ranean passages from each of the houses. These colossal chimneys 
might easily be converted into picturesque and beautiful objects, by 
the application of some architectural taste to their construction and 
decoration. The numberless, ugly, little chimneys which at present 
^deform great towns, would then vanish ; and as the whole might be 
placed under the superintendence of regular functionaries, the many 
fires which now continually break out in private chimneys, would 
Jbe avoided. 

Glasgow is distinguished from all the other manufacturing cities 
«of Great Britain, by the number and magnitude of its chemical 
works; but it also contains many manufactories of other kinds. In 
-order to see something of all, or at least of a great many at once, I 
visited the greatest warehouse of manufactured goods in the town, 
that of the brothers Campbell, who employ no fewer than 200 
clerks in their establishment* Of all the goods sold there, none 
interested me more than the Scottish checked cloth, or " Tartan" 

* The largest warehouses in Paris do not boast of employing more than a hun- 
dred clerks. 


as it is called. We are all indeed well acquainted in Germany with 
the nature of this material, whose gay yet simple combinations of 
colour are admired all over Europe; but we little guess the im- 
portance formerly, and in some measure even now, attached in Scot- 
land to the smallest variations in the patterns and colours of their 
tartan. Checked stuff appears to have been worn by all the Gallic 
nations; at least Caesar mentions observing it among all the tribes of 
Gaul and Britain; and in many valleys of the Tyrol, tartans similar 
to those of Scotland are still woven, though they are not used in the 
same manner for articles of wearing apparel. But as the distinction 
of clans survived in Scotland, long after all trace of it had elsewhere 
disappeared, so is it with the tartan, by the various patterns of which 
the costumes of the various Scottish clans were and still are dis- 
tinguished. Every clan still has its own tartan, which contains one 
prominent and fundamental colour, through and across which all 
the other stripes are drawn. The breadth and the order of the stripes, 
as well as their precise shade and colour, were all established many 
hundreds of years ago, and have remained unaltered to the present 
day. The tartans derive a peculiar interest from the fact, that every 
thread still runs as it ran long centuries ago, and that there is not a 
stripe which had not once its peculiar significance, and is not still in- 
terwoven with all the dearest memories, traditions, and patriotic 
emotions of its wearers. I have frequently heard instances of the 
most painful home-longings excited in the heart of a Scotchman by 
the mere sight of his clan tartan in a foreign land; and it is well 
known what a vision passed before the eyes of Burns, at the sight of 
the tartan costume of nis " bonnie Jean," of whom he sings, 

* Down floVd her robe, a tartan sheen, &c 
Her mantle large of greenish hue, 
My gazing wonder chiefly drew, 
Beep lights and shades, bold mingling, threw 

A lustre grand, 
And seem'd, to my astonish'd view, 
A well-known land." 

The poet saw in the gay tartan of his beloved a whole map of 
Scotland, with its rivers, forests, mountains, lakes, gardens, and 

Formerly there were no tartans, except those appropriated to the 
particular clans, and which were worn by none but the clanspeople. 
Many new patterns, however, have been invented in modern times, 
and these modern inventions, which are generally patronised by 
and named after some distinguished personage, are called fancy tar- 
tans in contradistinction to the old historical clan-tartans of former 
days. Some of the old clan-tartans are very simple, such as that of 
the Macgregors, rendered so celebrated by Walter Scott in his 
Rob Roy, and which consisted merely of two stripes of equal 
breadth, one red and one .black, crossing each other in regular 
order. Others again are very complicated, such as that of the 
clan Stuart, in which the royal purple predominates, but in which 


yellow, black, blue, white, and green stripes, cross and follow each 
other in very intricate combinations. The colour of red predo- 
minates in a great many tartans, and of all those which 1 saw, that 
of the clan Mac Neil alone, had no vestige of red. Next to red 
green seems the favourite colour, and there are tartans such as that 
of Argyle, which are almost entirely green. Some tartans are 
almost entirely white, such as that of the clan Clunie MTherson. 
There is not one of these patterns which is ugly, and it is easy to 
understand, while looking at any one of them, how that identical 
combination of colours may seem to a particular clan the most beau- 
tiful in the world. 

Next to the tartans, the great embroidering establishments in the 
house of the brothers Campbell attracted my attention. Numbers 
of young girls were there occupied in embroidering caps, collars, 
christening robes, and other garments. The kind of embroidery 
here worked is called Moravian point. Means have been discovered 
for printing the pattern to be followed upon the muslin to be em- 
broidered, and this occasions a great saving of time and trouble. 
In this way, 150 embroiderers can produce from 1500 to 2000 
richly embroidered caps in a month. A great number of these, as 
of the other embroidered articles, are of course sent to London. 

The owners of this great establishment, the Messrs. Campbell, 
began with only a hundred pounds capital They are now among 
the richest people in Glasgow, and one of them is lord-provost of 
the city. Chambers, asserts in his Picture of Scotland, that the 
receipts of this house amounted in the year 1834 to 433,021/. ster- 
ling, an amount probably unequalled by any other similar retail 
dealers in the world. These gentlemen may, perhaps, have earned 
their wealth hardly enough; but it very frequently happens that a 
single lucky hit, a single happy idea makes the fortune of a ma- 
nufacturer m Glasgow. The animation and spirit with which com- 
merce is carried on in Great Britain, and the immense extent of 
the market which lies open to the British manufacturer, give such 
a wide sphere to every invention, and allow each, if successful, 
such rich and immediate rewards, as can be realized in no other 
country. I was told of a man who invented a new kind of pocket- 
handkerchief, the colour and pattern of which happening suddenly to 
become fashionable among the English, and their 100,000,000 of 
colonists, he became a very wealthy man in an incredibly short 
space of time. Many other manufacturers endeavoured, of course 
to imitate these favourite handkerchiefs, but they did not succeed 
until the inventor had had time, as I have said, to realize most 
ample profits. England is truly the country for inventors: here a 
single lucky thought in this way, hundreds of thousands of which, 
would elsewhere be comparatively useless, may become a true For- 
tunatus's purse to the possessor. Doubtless hundreds of such lucky 
notions, which might make a millionaire of me in England, are per- 
petually springing up in my brain, and dying away for want of 


exercise; lucky notions upon which others will some day grow 
rich, although they will at last take the same way which I next 
took, namely towards the churchyard. 

The churchyard, or Necropolis of Glasgow may vie with Pere 
la Chaise, if not in the number of its monuments, yet in the 
beauty of its situation and appearance. It is a fine hill, the sides of 
which as well as the valleys which surround it, are filled up with trees, 
graves, flower-beds, and walks, in picturesque confusion. The top 
of the hill is crowned with a fine monument of Knox, the great 
Scottish reformer, whose task consisted of a double struggle, on«the 
one hand with Catholicism, and on the other^with Episcopacy. The 
Necropolis of Glasgow is of very modern origin, for it was not till 
1831 , that the ground was first appropriated to the burial of the dead. 
Near the Necropolis stands the cathedral of Glasgow, the oldest 
and most interesting building in the town. It is said to contain the 
finest crypt in Great Britain; but certain repairs which were going 
on in the church, unfortunately prevented me from seeing it. This 
adds one to the immense list of Gothic churches which were under- 
going repair and restoration in different parts of Europe, in the 
year 1842. It is a curious anomaly, that, while throughout Eng- 
land, Scotland, France, Belgium, Germany, and other countries, 
every city is busy in repairing its old Gothic churches, and restoring 
them to even more than their original splendour and beauty, all the 
new buildings erected should be imitations of Grecian architecture. 
In England, as in other countries, I was astonished at the multi- 
tude of Corinthian, Ionic, and Doric columns and porticoes, with 
which all the new buildings were furnished. At Glasgow, the 
Hunterian Museum, the Exchange, and the Town-hall, are all built 
in the Grecian style. These buildings are, indeed, more resolutely 
and obstinately Grecian than the Parthenon itself. 

This imitation of Grecian architecture is quite as prevalent in 
Petersburg, Berlin, Munich, and Paris, as in England or Scotland. 
It is really extraordinary that we are perpetually obliged to recur, 
in all our new buildings, to Gothic or Greek forms, and that 
the last five or six centuries have never been able, either to invent a 
new architecture, or to improve upon the old. Shall the world 
never escape the bondage of Grecian columns, Byzantine cupolas, 
and Gothic arches; and while the new perpetually supplants the old 
in every thing else, shall its architecture perpetually be condemned 
to repeat and imitate the antique? Shall not the busy brain of 
man cause new, and as yet undreamt of, forms and combinations to 
spring up out of the ground around him? If we cannot as yet 
imagine the untried combinations of form, that is no sign that they 
shall not hereafter be realised. The old Greek mind nad no con- 
ception of the grandeur and beauty afterwards to be embodied in 
the Gothic cathedral. It is, however, rather astonishing, that none 
of our present architects have imagination enough to produce one 
building, at the same time beautiful and original. 


The Necropolis and the cathedral stand at the end of the longest 
street in Glasgow, the High-street, in the neighbourhood of which still 
exist many traces of the more ancient parts of Glasgow. These 
traces are, however, not very abundant, for Glasgow is a very 
modern city, and lias raised itself in the course of the last century, 
from the most utter insignificance to an important place among the 
cities of Europe. At the time of the Union, about a hundred years 
ago, Glasgow contained only 12,000 inhabitants, and was totally 
unknown to the rest of Europe. Since then the city has twelve 
times doubled its original population; and it now contains 282,000 
inhabitants. It is to the cotton lords, and their enterprising specu- 
lations, that Glasgow chiefly owes its prosperity. The landlords 
prefer residing in the old aristocratic cities of Eastern Scotland, par- 
ticularly in Edinburgh, which offers in every thing a striking contrast 
to Glasgow. Edinburgh is the centre of rank, cultivation, art, and 
literature; Glasgow of wealth, manufacture, and commerce. Edin- 
burgh glories in antiquity and historical recollections; Glasgow in 
its rapid rise, and ever-increasing vigour. Both cities are, upon the 
whole, favourable to the cause of reform and progress, but Glasgow 
more uniformly so than Edinburgh. Paisley is the grand centre of 
Radicalism, Glasgow of Whiggism, and the Highlands of Toryism, 
in Scotland. 

The number of Irish in Glasgow is said to be no less than 
30,000. I saw the greater part of this Irish population in the 
streets at night, as I walked home along High-street, past the Cross, 
and past the Salt-market and the Trongate; for it was Saturday, 
and the whole Irish population in all the British cities, is sure to 
turn out into the streets on Saturday evening. The streets in the 
neighbourhood of the Cross were particularly crowded. A1J. the 
time I was in Glasgow, most of the manufactories had dismissed 
half of their work-people, and it was computed that, in Paisley and 
Glasgow put together, no less than 12,000 human beings were 
without bread or work. The sight of the crowds of these unfortu- 
nate creatures, who wandered up and down the streets, singing their 
miseries in doleful strains, and begging for bread of the passers 
by, was painful and melancholy in the extreme. A particularly 
mournful feature of the scene, consisted of the many young, healthy, 
decently- dressed persons, who stood, dumb and motionless as wax 
dolls, in the gutters, between the road and the trottoir, holding out 
their hats for alms. When I asked some of them why they begged, 
being so well able to work, they answered: " We have clothes, sir, 
which nobody will buy, but we can get no work, and haven't a 
morsel of bread to eat." 

A great contrast was presented by the appearance of the Glasgow 
streets on Saturday evening and on Sunday morning. On Saturday 
the rich stop at home and leave the streets to the poor; on Sunday 
the rich come out in their holiday clothes, and the poor are no- 
where to be seen. Although to the stranger, from the continent, the 


Sunday in London appears grave and sober in the extreme, yet it is 
far more so in the Scottish cities, and Glasgow and Edinburgh look 
down upon London, in the matter of Sabbath-keeping, as upon a 
real Sodom and Gomorrah. In Glasgow, on Sunday, nothing is 
seen or heard all day but long processions of ladies and gentle- 
men going from one church to another. I also visited two or 
three churches this day, but I cannot say that I was particularly 
edified by the discourses I heard, although one of the preachers was 
especially recommended to me as the best and most eloquent pulpit 
orator in Glasgow. There is a certain exaggerated vehemence, a 
certain oriental, hyperbolic tone of expression in the language of the 
Presbyterian divines, which ill accords with the simplicity of their 
religious ceremonies and their outward appearance. Besides, all their 
oratorical flowers and flourishes are of so stereotyped a kind, that 
they never have the appearance of coming warm and fresh from a 
heart glowing with enthusiasm. This vehement Calvinistic fervour 
was the importation of John Knox, who has transmitted it through 
a long line of imitators to the present generation. No ordinary 
mind must have been that of John Knox, thus to have imprinted 
his own character and manner on a barbarous and turbulent na* 
tion, and transmitted it to an enlightened and civilized one, and 
that in a great measure against the nature of the national mind it- 
self; for to the cool, rational, self-possessed character of the Scotch, 
religious fanaticism would in itself appear the most unnatural thin? 
intLworld. Pi*** S 

The University of Glasgow is not so well known abroad as that 
of Edinburgh, although it is in fact older than the latter, having 
been founded in 1450, while that of Edinburgh dates back only to 
1582 ; but Edinburgh, as the capital of the country and the residence 
of its nobles, naturally attracts more strangers than Glasgow. The 
buildings of the University at Glasgow are as antique, venerable, 
and gloomy-looking as continental monasteries; indeed, the splendid 
monasteries of the Danube look very worldly and ostentatious, when 
compared to the English colleges. Those of Glasgow are built in 
a simple and sober gothic style, of dark gray stone. They are 
ranged round silent and solitary quadrangles, and shut out by walls 
and gates from all the rest of the world. 

The Hunterian Museum contains fine collections in all branches 
of natural history, and is particularly remarkable for its splendid 
anatomical museum. It was founded by the celebrated anatomist, 
William Hunter, and presented by him to the University. Like the 
whole of the University it is full of the feme of its great inventor, 
Watt, whose statue stands in the Hunterian Museum, and whose 
portrait decorates the hall of the University. Many little machines, 
at which he worked when a boy, are still preserved here as relics. 
Young Watt was at first an engineer in the service of the Glas- 
gow University, which had the merit of discovering and encouraging 
his genius. Watt is justly regarded as the inventor of the steam 


engine, since, although steam-engines existed before his time, it 
was he who first turned them to practical utility, and brought them 
under subjection to man. The great idea of nis life seems to have 
dimly brooded over Watt from nis earliest childhood. Arago re- 
lates, in his life of Watt, that one day, when a boy, he was thus re- 
proached by one of his aunts : " Are you not ashamed of yourself, 
James, to sit moping and idling there? I do believe at times you 
don't know what you are doing. I have noticed you this long 
time, and not a thing have you done but look at the steam of the 
kettle, taking off the lid and putting it on again, and watching the 
steam turn into drops of water. Do for goodness sake leave off this 
idleness, and set about something useful." 

Doubtless the great idea of the steam-engine lay already an un- 
developed embryo in the mind of the child. 

It is a singular fact, that while the number of students in the 
other universities of Britain, has been almost continually increasing, 
that of the " Universitas Glasguana, ,, or " Glasguensis," (for upon 
this point the learned are not agreed,) has been regularly diminish- 
ing for some time. Between 1820 and 1826, there were nearly 
1600 students here, and now there are only 1000. A great many 
of the students, both at Glasgow and Edinburgh, are of colonial 
origin ; for since the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge 
admit no students who will not conform to the established church, 
the colonial students, who are mostly dissenters, prefer the Scottish 
universities. The faculty of medicine attracts most of these students, 
and on that account, the rules of discipline for this faculty are un- 
usually mild. It* has often been remarked that the children of the 
free and freedom-loving English, are subjected to a strictness and 
severity of discipline, to which our German youth would never sub- 
mit. In what German university, for instance, would be tolerated 
the surveillance of the censor, who sits beside each professor at the 
university of Glasgow ? It is the office of this censor, to watch the 
behaviour of each student during the lecture, and to note every 
symptom of inattention or misconduct. One of the offences, for in- 
stance, which it is his duty to watch, is that habit so common in all 
English schools, of regarding the wood of the college desks, as a 
good material for practising sculpture, and using them accordingly. 
I saw large tablets put up in the Glasgow colleges, covered with in- 
scriptions, threatening severe punishments to all guilty of this irre- 
gular practice of the fine arts. It is rather singular that while these 
British youths, treated like mere schoolboys until the moment of 
their entrance into the world often make such energetic and even 
obstinate opposition-men, our wild, unruly German students, to 
whom these restraints and restrictions would be utterly intolerable, 
often afterwards become such quiet, obedient citizens. 

The word " humanity," as used in the Scotch universities, still sig- 
nifies as formerly with us, the same thing as philology ; or rather, as ip 


England, little else of philology is taught but Latin and Greek, it means 
nothing but the knowledge of Latin and Greek. Indeed, as the Greek 
language is very much less studied here than with us, " a professor 
of humanity" generally means little else than a teacher of Latin. 
In the middle ages, when Latin was really the herald of the Muses, 
and the universal language of civilized mankind, this name was not 
inappropriate ; but at present, these old learned titles have no more 
meaning than the old feudal titles which have gradually died away 
among the nobility, and should accordingly be disused. The light 
of the new humanity, which the zealous and industrious study of 
Nature has disseminated among the nations of modern Europe, has 
had the greatest difficulty in breaking for itself a path through the 
ponderous walls of the old Latin humanity. It was not till very 
lately that a professor of natural history was appointed at Glasgow, 
and it was not till 1818 that it possessed a professor of chemistry, 
properly so called ; having till then tolerated only a ' lecturer* on 
that most important branch of science. Other new professorships 
have since been established, but they are as yet debarred from the 
enjoyment of many of the privileges appertaining to the old profes- 
sorships. The old and the new professorships live in a state of per- 
petual warfare, the former refusing, and the latter demanding, a 
perfect equality of college votes and privileges. The latter will, 
doubtless, very soon gain the day. National prejudices and mono- 

gslies are also rapidly giving way here. Until lately none but 
cotchmen could be professors at the Scotch universities, although 
it was notorious that Irish students formed as large a part of these 
bodies, as Lish labourers do in the Scotch dying and colouring works. 
Most of the handsome new buildings of Glasgow, and great num- 
bers of its private houses, are built of a gray sandstone found in the 
neighbourhood of the town. This sandstone is a very beautiful ma- 
terial when new, but it has defects. It contains ferruginous veins 
and spots, which very soon oxidate and decay in the air ; and at 
other places it grows soft, and soon crumbles away. Many fine build- 
ings in Glasgow and Edinburgh, are spoilt by these defects. 

The best private houses in Glasgow, are those at the west end of 
the town, to which the wealthy citizens and moneyed men always 
retire. It is the same in London, in Edinburgh, and in many other 
English cities. Almost everywhere, the fashionable quarter is not 
only called the west end, but is actually so situated. I should like 
to have this curious coincidence explained. Perhaps it arises from 
the fact that as most of the winds felt in England blow from the west, 
the west ends of the English towns must be freer from smoke and 
vapour than the east. 

Not far from the West end of Glasgow, I visited that part of the 
town called port Dundas, at which place commences one of the arms 
of the great canal uniting the Clyde and the Forth. This canal runs 
along the high bank of Clydesdale, above the town, and it is strange 


to see from afar, the vessels and their masts riding high over the tops 
of the houses in the suburbs. The canal system of Scotland is diffe- 
rent from that of Ireland. ^ In Ireland all the canals branch off from 
one place, from Dublin ; in Scotland they intersect the country in 
different directions. The great Caledonian canal in the north is 116 
feet wide, and from 15 to 20 feet deep, a truly colossal work, effec- 
tually uniting the two seas, since the largest ships can by its means 
ride in triumph, through the very heart of the countiy, from one sea 
to the other. 


From the great dying and colouring works which would be 
among the most interesting places in Glasgow to the stranger, he is 
inexorably excluded, by the jealous care taken of their trade se- 
crets and mysteries by the proprietors. The Sunday excluded me, 
also, from many other interesting places, and accordingly, tired of 
the mystery which for a time enveloped the town, I took my place 
that evening, on the railroad for Edinburgh. It was a very dark 
night, and as the landscape was thus entirely concealed from me, I 
had to content myself with studying the country through which I 
was travelling, on the map, by the brilliant and comfortable light 
of the lamps inside the railway carriages. 

This country is the flattest, the most fertile, the most populous, 
and the best cultivated part of Scotland. This plain, the heart of 
the Scottish Lowlands, occupies part of the counties of Ayr, Ren- 
frew, Lanark, Dumbarton, Stirling, Fife, Linlithgow, and Edin- 
burgh. These beautiful counties sketching between the mouths of 
the Clyde and the Forth, and between the mountains of the border 
country and those of the highlands, are twenty or thirty times as 

Eopulous as some of the barren counties of the north* This little mid- 
tnd district of Scotland, contains almost all the places most famous in 
Scottish history. Here are the old royal residences of Perth, Stir- 
ling, and Edinburgh; here are the most important cities — Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, Paisley, Dundee; here are found the famous battlefields 
of Stirling, Falkirk, and Bannockburn. Here all that is greatest 
and most important in Scottish history has taken its rise. Here was 
formed the Anglo-Saxon language of Scotland, which has gradually 
supplanted the Gaelic of the highlands. Here the reformation 
began, here it first became popular, here it fought and conquered* 
Here in later times the manufacturing and commercial enterprize 
and industry of England first took root in Scotland, bringing with 
it population and prosperity; and here the best roads, railroads* 

* E. g. In the counties of Renfrew, Lanark, Edinburgh, Fife, Linlithgow, and 
Stirling, the population is at the rate of one individual to from one to four acres; in 
Argyle, Inverness, Boss, and Selkirk, there are from twenty to thirty-four acres per 
head of the population; and in Sutherland, the most northern county of Scotland^ 
which is worse peopled than even the Orkneys and the Hebrides, there is but one in- 
habitant to every forty-three acres. 

14 edmbubgh. 

and canals in Scotland, facilitate communication and encourage in* 

The weather was so bad, the darkness so profound, that I saw 
nothing whatever of the counties of Dumbarton, Stirling, and Lin- 
lithgow, through which we passed. In vain the finger of a patriotic 
and obliging Scotsman who sat beside me, pointed now to tne large 
and beautiful villages near Falkirk, now to the old castle of Lin- 
lithgow, the birthplace of Mary Stuart, and now to the picturesque 
country seat of some wealthy Scotch nobleman ; wherever I turned 
my eyes they were met by the same black impenetrable darkness, 
which concealed in its gloomy folds so many a beautiful and inter- 
esting prospect. 


At last every thing again grew light around us; so brilliantly 
light, indeed, that we seemed to have been travelling through some 
blank and sunless region of space from one constellation to another; 
so dazzling was the brightness of every thing around me, as leaving 
the darkness of the railway, I drove in a little minibus* through the 
gaslight streets, the garden-clad valleys, and castle-clad hills of 

Whatever one may have read or heard of Edinburgh, one cannot 
fail to be as much astonished as delighted by the unrivalled beauty 
of this town and its position. Edinburgh would be universally ac- 
knowledged as the most beautiful and picturesque town in the world, 
if the envious fates had not denied it the advantage of a fine 
sheet of water, to which Edinburgh possesses no approximation. 
It enjoys all the beauties and attractions which can be afforded 
by every possible variety of hill and dale, mountain and valley, 
rock and glen, but the charms of water scenery it does not possess. 
The Frith of Forth is two miles off, and the little stream which 
trickles quietly along the north-west side of the town, and does not 
even claim the name of a river, but contents itself with the modest 
appellation of the Water of Leith, is the only approach to a river 
in its neighbourhood. 

Edinburgh has been compared to Athens for the beauty of its 
appearance and position; and this resemblance, together with the 
circumstance of its being the centre of Scottish refinement, learning, 
and culture, has conferred upon it the title of the Athens of the 
North. The resemblance is indeed very striking. Athens, like 
Edinburgh, was a city of hills and valleys, and its Jflyssus was pro- 
bably not much larger than the Water of Leith. Athens, like Edin- 
burgh, was an inland town, and had its harbour, Pyraeus, on the 

* These minibuses are curious little one-horsed or two-horsed vehicles for four 
persons, much used in Edinburgh. The English, who like to abbreviate every thing, 
shorten the word into " bus," and say : " Will you go by the bus ?" In Glasgow they 
have similar conveyances, which they call " noddies." 


sea-coast The mountains near Edinburgh, very much resemble 
those near Athens. I have little doubt, nowever, that Athens is 
more honoured by being compared to Edinburgh, than Edinburgh 
to Athens; for it is probable that the scenery and position of the 
Northern, are more grand and striking in their beauty, than those of 
the Southern Athens. 

It had been my plan to set off immediately the next day, in order 
to take advantage of the tolerably propitious weather for a short tour 
in the Highlands. The beauty of Edinburgh however, so delighted 
and charmed me, that I could not relinquish the desire of dedicating 
a few days to the study of this magnificent city. In order to have a 
correct idea of its appearance, the reader must imagine himself 
stationed at that point which commands the best view of the streets 
and houses, namely the Castle Hill. This Castle Hill, a mass of 
trap rock descending perpendicularly on three sides, is admirably 
adapted by its form and height, as well as by the wide plain which it 
commands on every side, for the site of a castle; and no doubt it 
was this hill which first attracted human inhabitants to this place. 
Upon one side it slopes off gradually into a long valley, which lies 
between the Calton Hill on the one side, and the Salisbury 
Craigs, with the lofty summit of Arthur's Seat on the other. In 
this valley, in which the base of the Castle Hill loses itself, lies 
the old palace of the Scottish Kings, " Holyrood House;" while 
the principal street of the Old Town, the High-street, runs straight 
along the valley, from the Castle Hill at one end, to Holyrood 
House at the other. From the sides of High-street, right and left, 
diverge numbers of narrow little streets, called " Closes," which 
run up the sides of the rocks on either hand. These closes are 
generally scarcely wide enough for two passengers to traverse 
them comfortably abreast; and as they are built of very high 
houses, and run up the steep sides of the hills, they present the 
appearance of deep narrow clefts hewn in the rocks. The High- 
street, with its innumerable closes, and its houses of eight or 
nine stories, rising one above the other, forms the principal street of 
the antique part of Edinburgh, which lies in the triangle formed by 
the three hills. Beyond the two hills between which it runs, lie two 
, smaller valleys, divergingfrom Holyrood House. The part of the High- 
street immediately in front of Holyrood House, is called the Canon- 
gate, and accordingly the valley which runs northward behind the 
palace, is the North Back of Canongate, and that which runs south- 
ward, the South Back of Canongate. The latter is connected with 
many old streets, the Cowgate, the Grass-market, &c, which fill the 
valley ; and the former with the Fishmarket, and numbers of gardens, 
covering the valley north of the old town. 

Beyond these two valleys lies the New Town of Edinburgh, which 
has surrounded the old kernel of the city with a husk of great splen- 
dour and magnitude. The northern part of the New Town is the > 
largest and newest, and contains the handsomest and most fashion- 


able streets and squares of Edinburgh. From its principal street, 
George-street, one of the most imposing in Europe, a number of 
broad and splendid cross streets run down to the valley of gardens, 
which separates the New from the Old Town. These handsome 
branch streets form a striking and picturesque contrast to the closes 
on the opposite side of the valley. Of the two hills I have men- 
tioned as forming a triangle with that of the Castle, one of them, the 
Calton Hill, belongs to the town, while the other, the Salisbury 
Craigs, has preserved all its original wildness and savage grandeur. 
It consists of a high, steep trap-rock, with bare, sharp, almost per- 
pendicular sides, and covered at the top with a scanty grass, upon 
which a few flocks of sheep and goats are always feeding. The ap- 
pearance of this great volcanic formation is so wild that one naturally 
expects to see tne roaring and heaving waters of a stormy ocean, 
boiling at its base, instead of the elegant squares and streets which 
spread far away at its feet. The sombre and majestic summit of 
Arthur's Seat is seen towering over almost all the houses and streets 
of the city. 

The Calton Hill forms, as I have said, a part of the city itself. 
The Scotch have apparently designed to cover it, like the Acropolis 
of Athens, with monuments of their national heroes and poets, and 
many of these are already completed. There is a high monument 
something like a lighthouse, to the memory of Nelson; another to 
Play fair ; another to Dugald Stewart, and another to the poet Burns, 
whose life would have been gladdened, and whose death postponed, 
by the possession of but a quarter of the sum now devoted to his 
monument. But the most conspicuous object on the Calton Hill is 
the beginning of a great national monument, very much resembling 
the Parthenon, and intended to crown the hill, as the former does the 
Acropolis. This monument, dedicated to the memory of the victors 
of Waterloo has, however, been stopped at its commencement for 
want of money, and this is hardly to be wondered at, if it be true, as 
is said, that each of the ten or twelve columns now erected, cost a 
thousand pounds. 

Such is the plan of Edinburgh, and the points I have described 
are the most conspicuous in its varied and beautiful scenery. Let 
the reader now imagine the effect of the whole, as we drove slowly 
through, and contemplated the imposing and magnificent streets 
of the New Town, which, although rectangular and uniform, 
are preserved from monotony by the continual rise and fall of the 
ground on which they stand — the beautiful squares and gardens 
which diversify these stately lines of palaces — the gigantic houses 
and narrow streets of the Old Town, which, though dirty and 
ruinous, are in the highest degree picturesque and interesting — the 
dry valleys and chasms, filled with beautiful gardens, over which are 
arched large and handsome bridges (for though Edinburgh is desti- 
tute of water, it is rich in bridges of the finest and most imposing 
kind), — the life and animation of the streets above, and the busy 


stir and bustle of the market-places below — the architectural variety, 
beauty, and interest of the Greek, Gothic, and Composite buildings, 
old and new, of every size, class, and merit — the three hills which 
look down on the city from almost every point of view, the fortress- 
crowned Castle Hill, the monument-covered Calton Hill, and the 
cloud-topt or sun-clad summit of the majestic Arthur's Seat; — let 
the reader imagine all these various charms and beauties, and he 
will yet have but a faint idea of the attractions afforded to a lover of 
the picturesque, by a drive or walk through the streets of this beau- 
tiful city, " Scotland's darling Seat," as Vv alter Scott justly calls it. 
The elegant, nay splendid streets of the New Town seem to be 
inhabited only by prosperous and wealthy families. These consist 
of the professors of the University and the lawyers (to which classes, 
including their families, belong no less than 4000 and 8000 inha- 
bitants respectively) — many families of the nobility and gentry, 
whose income is too limited to support the expense of a fashionable 
residence in London — and a number of other families belonging to 
the cultivated classes, who assemble from all parts of Great Britain 
in Edinburgh, where all the enjoyments of social life are offered 
them in equal perfection, and at smaller cost, than in London. 
Edinburgh is, with regard to the brilliancy of its society and the 
multitude of its resources, the second city in the British empire, and 
offers a striking contrast to Dublin, in its freedom from all traces of 
absenteeism. The Scotch, who wander out to all parts of the world 
in search of wealth, generally return to settle in the capital of their 
native country, when their efforts are crowned with success. It may 
therefore very possibly be true, as the Scots assert, that nearly one 
third of the 150,000 inhabitants* of their capital belong to the edu- 
cated classes. 

The appearance of Edinburgh is particularly striking at night, 

and I do not believe there is. a city in Europe which is rendered so 

beautiful by its street lamps and house lights of different kinds. 

The Old Town, the immense houses of which, towering one above 

another, are seen from the splendid line of Princes-street, which runs 

all along the side of the flower-and-tree-filled valley, like a quay 

along a river-bank — is particularly brilliant at night. This Old 

Town glitters every day of the week with numberless ranges and 

clusters of lights, as other cities do only on great festive occasions. 

Yet all this splendid array of lights is the consequence of poverty 

and wretchedness. All these high houses are filled with crowded 

inhabitants from cellar to roof, and every room has its separate 

family. As all these poor people are at work till very late at night, 

light glimmers from the window of every crowded and comfortless 

room; whilst in the houses of the rich, whole suites of rooms lie 

unoccupied, and consequently dark. 

" You must yourself visit the narrow streets of the Old Town, and 
must see the squalid misery in which the poor of this great city 
live," said a German settled in Edinburgh to me; " else you will 
probably, like most foreigners, go back to Germany, praising the 



magnificence of the English cities, the hospitality of their inhabit- 
ants, the splendour of their dinner parties, and I know not what 
besides; forgetting the poor of England as totally as the English 
themselves forget them. I can tell you that if you will go about 
with me over some of those old houses, you will see things such as you 
have never seen before, and will not easily forget. Such scenes of 
human wretchedness and degradation are there to be witnessed, as 
never ought to exist in any country, and never could, in one well 

And, indeed, had I not witnessed the condition of the poor in the 
Polish cities, and had I not seen in various parts of the world so 
much misery, squalidness, and privation everywhere connected with 
poverty, I should say that the condition of the poor in some parts of 
the old town of Edinburgh, was the most painful and humiliating 
spectacle that human eye could witness ; but so great is the amount of 
privation and wretchedness endured in different parts of the world, 
that I hesitate to give the preference to any. Certain it is, however, 
that the manner of life of the poor in Edinburgh has its own very 
peculiar evils, which arise chiefly from the remarkable mode of build- 
ing adopted in the part of the town they inhabit. The " closes" of 
the Old Town are probably the narrowest streets in the world. The 
lanes and alleys of Genoa and those of the Oriental cities, are 
broad and spacious compared to them. Some are literally only a 
yard and a half or two yards across from house to house ! Formerly 
the houses in these closes were inhabited by wealthy nobles, and 
many of them still bear the names of distinguished old families, 
such as " Morrison's Close," " Grey's Close," " Stewart's Close," &c. 
The old nobles built their houses in these close and narrow streets, 
in order to be more secure from attack, and to be able to defend 
and fortify the entrances of their streets more completely. Many 
of these closes still bear the arms of these old families over their en- 
trances. In Blythe's Close is still shown the palace of the Queen 
Begent, Mary of Guise. It is now in a very ruinous condition, 
and is inhabited from top to bottom, by numbers of poor families. 
In Bakehouse Close stand the old houses of the Earls of Gosford 
and Moray, and of the Dukes of Queensberry ; the latter is now a 
beggar's lodging-house. Such once distinguished and now degraded 
houses are found in every part of the Old Town. 

I have never found the very poor in any part of the world, or- 
derly or cleanly in their habits, for a certain degree of prosperity 
and comfort is necessary to awaken in any the taste for order and 
cleanliness. In England and Scotland a very considerable degree 
of worldly advantages are required, before the love of cleanliness, 
frugality, or order is developed. The English poor are too often 
dirty, disorderly, and extravagant in their habits, and of the poorest 
among the Scotch, this is still more invariably the case. It may be 
imagined therefore how filthy and pestilential is the very air in these 
closes. As neither sun nor wind can ever pierce them, they are 


always damp. In many places I saw heaps of dirt lying in them, 
which had evidently been accumulating for years. Strange irregu- 
lar piles of steps, placed like ladders, on the outside, lead into the 
upper and inner parts of these houses, which consist of narrow pas- 
sages, stone steps, and wretched holes of rooms, all forming the 
most irregular and intricate labyrinths. The windows of these 
miserable dens often command the most extensive and magnificent 
views through the narrow mountain-clefts, called streets, over the 
beautiful New Town with its hills, valleys, and gardens. 

The cholera made frightful ravages in these closes, often as un- 
visited by the physician and the police, as by the sun and wind; 
and it is said that some of them are never quite free from infectious 
diseases of the worst kinds. They contain many Irish inhabitants; 
and as the Irish never can do without pigs wherever they are, they 
often take their favourite animals to live with them five or six stories 
high, where they fatten them in the bed-chamber or dressing-room 
of some noble courtier of the sixteenth century. It is said that at 
the time of the cholera, when the police endeavoured to clean out 
and set in order some of these wretched places, they once had to 
let down a number of pigs through a window four stories high, 
because they had grown too fat to pass through the narrow stone 
doorways by which they were brought in. Most of the crimes 
committed m Edinburgh take place in these closes, which offer the 
greatest facilities for robbery, murder, and concealment. As in 
many of them, two passengers cannot pass without touching each 
other, it is easy for tne murderer to disable his victim and stifle his 
cries in a moment. The opportunities afforded by these closes, per- 
haps first gave the notorious murderer, Burke, the idea of his horrible 
crimes; at all events it was in one of them, called the West Port, 
near the Grass Market, that his atrocities took place. 

I confess that I was deeply interested by the extraordinary scenes 
and sufferings to be witnessed in these old parts of Edinburgh ; and 
I visited them several times, both by day and night. The most pain- 
ful thought connected with them, was that the misery and wretch- 
edness of these places seem likely to remain unimproved for an in- 
definite period of time. Something indeed, the authorities of Edin- 
burgh are doing here and there, for the purification and enlarge- 
ment of the closes; and old buildings and alleys are occasionally 
C'led down to make room for new ones. But the city of Edinburgh 
only 30,000 pounds annual revenue, and the small portion of 
this sum, devoted to the improvement of the Old Town, is a mere 
trifle compared to the magnitude of the task implied in the purifi- 
cation of this Augean stable. The old buildings are so solid and 
durable, that their destruction alone would be a most expensive un- 
dertaking, and will not probably for many years be attempted. 
Their solidity, and the circumstance of their being entirely built of 
stone, lenders it scarcely possible that a great conflagration should 
eventually clear them away, as has been the case in so many other cities. 



It is, however, rather surprising that among all the wealthy citizens 
of the New Town, although there exist so many societies for the con- 
version of the Jews and the negroes, and other similar purposes, there 
exists not one for the far more necessary and desirable object of 
gradually cleansing out the wretched dens of the Old Town, destroy- 
ing the miserable habitations of the poor, and supplying them with 
new dwellings, rather more accessible to air and light, and rather more 
favourable to health and morality. The wants of the Jew and the 
negro in distant zones and unknown circumstances, cannot possibly 
be adequately understood, and therefore properly supplied, by the 
citizens of Edinburgh. But what their own poor require, and how 
they can best be assisted, this they may know very well, if they choose. 
Yet as all the world over there is more joy over one convert, than over 
many that never erred, so in Edinburgh the baptism of one negro seems 
a more worthy subject of Christian triumph and exultation, than the 
deliverance of a hundred of these poor outcasts of civilisation, whose 
claims upon society and Christianity are so much nearer and greater. 
The Edinburgh Presbyterian, with his missionary zeal, is like a shep- 
herd who has a hundred sick sheep in his own flock, and who, instead 
of endeavouring to cure and save them, spends all his time and money 
in the purchase of one rare and expensive ram. To sweeten the bit- 
ter cup of life to the poor of High-street and its closes, to snatch the 
toddy-bottle from the poor man's hand, and press the cup of salva- 
tion to his lips, these would be such worthy objects for a missionary's 
zeal and devotion, that I cannot sufficiently wonder how they have 
never been yet attempted. It is evident, nowever, that the praises 
and laurels heaped upon the missionary who returns from Africa,. 
Australia, or Walachia, with a few black, brown, or Jewish converts, 
would be but sparingly bestowed upon the nobler philanthropist, who 
should make the wynds and closes of Edinburgn the scenes of his 
charitable exertions. 

During my repeated walks through the streets of the Old Town, 
I noticed that the Irish inhabitants were scarcely ever in the very 
lowest state of misery, which seemed to be almost entirely monopo- 
lised by the Scotch. The Irish were mostly small shopkeepers and 
tradespeople. I was told that the Irish poor in Edinburgh generally 
lived better upon very little, than the Scotch upon a good deaL 
" We should get on very well here," said a poor Irishman to me, 
<€ if we had but equal rignts with the Scotch ; but its so hard for us» 
to get into the laws." 

A walk from the top of the Castle Hill down High-street and the 
Canongate, to Holyrood House, and its beautiful garden in the val- 
ley, is one of the most interesting town walks which can be taken 
anywhere. The first things to be seen are the Regalia of Scotland, 
preserved in a little room at the top of the castle. These regalia 
vanished entirely for about a hundred years ; being walled up by 
some Scottish patriots, in the year of the union, 1707, in order to 
prevent their being taken to London. They were not discovered 


and un walled till the year 1818. I was told that Sir Walter Scott 
had obtained some information concerning them, and had contributed 
much to their discovery. The whole story appears to me a very re- 
markable one: for, whereas, it is scarcely credible but that the place 
where the regalia were hidden must always have been known to. 
some perspns, it would seem that there must have been all along 
individuals among the Scottish nobility who never put full trust in. 
the union, and never gave up all hope that the Scottish regalia 
might, sometime or other, be put in practical requisition, instead of 
•continuing to be what they now are, merely interesting antiquities. 
That they were not brought forth from their concealment in 1745, 
is accounted for by the simple fact that the castle was never in the 
hands of the pretender, who besieged it in vain. These regalia con- 
sist of the crown of Robert Bruce, the sceptre of James the Fifth, a 
*word presented by Pope Julius the Second to James the Sixth, and 
various smaller articles. Besides the pearls and other foreign jewels 
with which they are set, they are decorated with many of the well- 
known Scotch crystals, called Cairngorms. These Cairngorms are 
rsmoky quartz crystals, found chiefly in the granite of the Cairn- 
gorm mountain. They are favourite decorations of the Scotch, 
who use them for ornamenting their daggers, hunting-knives, walk-; 
ing-sticks, and snuff-boxes. 

Scarcely any considerable English town is without its castle, old 
or new, and all these castles have a great resemblance to each other. 
I should know an English town castle from all other castles what- 
ever, although I should not find it easy to describe all the little 
signs and peculiarities which distinguish them. Leaving the Edin- 
burgh town castle, I next traversed the lofty esplanade, where the 
English redcoats, nicknamed " lobsters" by the common people, 
were performing their exercises, and entered the Old Town, which 
is connected with the New Town on the left, by a broad earthen 
mound, and with the suburbs on the right, by a splendid bridge, 
under which the stream of population flows on perpetually, through 
the channel of the Cow Gate. Near to this bridge is situated the 
old Scottish Parliament House, now containing the courts of law 
and the library of the Scottish advocates. The largest hall in this 
building is now a sort of assembling room for the lawyers, and when 
I entered it contained some hundreds of gown-men as they are some- 
times called. They were all young vigorous-looking men, and 
wore long robes and powdered wigs. I had never seen so many 
learned wigs together before; but not even the wigs and gowns 
struck me so much as the fine appearance of the lawyers themselves ; 
the intelligent manly beauty of their faces, and the handsome propor- 
tions and growth of their figures. The stranger will always be struck 
by this, wherever he sees a number of English from the upper classes 
assembled together. I do. not believe that there is any country 
where the cast of countenance and figure of the upper classes, both 
male and female, is so beautiful and noble as in Great Britain. 


The Advocate's library is one of the finest and most complete In 
Great Britain; it is one of the few which possess the privilege of re- 
ceiving a copy of every new publication printed. It contains no leas 
than 150,000 volumes, as welt as many very valuable old manuscripts. 
I was pleased to see that these old English manuscripts were all written 
in our German letters, whose " crickle crackle" shapes are daily more 
and more disappearing in Europe, before the invasions of the Latin let- 
ters. The reading-rooms of the Edinburgh advocates and writers to 
the signet are among the most attractive, comfortable, and luxurious in 
the world, uniting all the elegance and luxury of a London club, with 
the learned wealth and seclusion of a German library. I could not 
resist the temptation, and ensconcing myself in one of the armchairs 
by the side of a blazing fire, I turned over at my ease the splendid 
pages of u Audubon's American Ornithology." I watched the fierce 
combats of gigantic American eagles, observed the hesitation of a 
cormorant mother as to which of her hideous little open-mouthed 
nestlings should receive the berry in her beak, contemplated with 
delight the brilliant colours of butterflies and humming-birds, and 
the eager animation of hungry woodducks, and admired the terror 
depicted in the face of a poor little frog about to be swallowed up by 
a devouring night-heron; thus enjoying at the same time the loneli- 
ness and wild wonders of an American forest, with the comfort and 
luxury of an English fireside. 

Opposite to the Advocate's library, in the middle of the High* 
street, was formerly situated a place in which we have every one of 
ns stood once, namely, the Old Tolbooth, whose dark chambers and 
gloomy portals Walter Scott has so brilliantly illuminated in the 
" Heart of Mid-Lothian." Everywhere in Scotland, indeed, we 
come to places lit up by the all-penetrating light of genius in the 
pages of Scott or Burns; and perhaps there is no country in the 
world whose obscurest holes and corners have been rendered so 
illustrious by the power of fiction. 

Another interesting spot near the Advocate's Library, although in 
a very different way, is the establishment of the Brothers Chambers, 
whose publications have of late years attained such extraordinary 
success and popularity in Great Britain. These gentlemen are at 
the same time authors, printers, publishers, bookbinders, and book- 
sellers. The principal author of the two is Robert Chambers, while 
William, the younger brother, is the chief man of business. I had an 
opportunity of inspecting their interesting establishment in Edin- 
burgh, in which all possible operations connected with the book trade 
are carried on together. The Messrs. Chambers began with very 
small speculations, but their undertakings are now very extensive, 
and they employ nearly a hundred persons in their great book-ma- 
nufactory. All their publications are at the same time so cheap and 
so well got up, and are generally so exactly adapted to the wants of 
the time, that they scarcely ever fail of success. Their principal 
periodical, " Chambers' Edinburgh Journal," is well known, even 


among us, for its cheapness and intrinsic value. Their " People's 
Editions" are reprints of well-known and highly-reputed works likely 
to interest the mass of the people. These editions are surprisingly 
cheap, although very correct ana well printed. The " Minor Essays" 
of the philosopher Bacon, with a sketch of this great man's life, 
are sold for eightpence, " Locke's* Essay on the Human Under- 
standing," for sixpence, and other boots at proportionate prices. 
Their " Information for the People" is a sort of popular cyclopaedia, 
of which no less than 70,000 copies have already been struck off. 
Their " Educational Course/' consists of a series of small, com* 
pendious, attractive-looking little books, in which the elements of 
different branches of knowledge are dearly and skilfully explained 
and classified. All these successful undertakings of the Brothers 
Chambers cannot but have exercised an important and beneficial 
influence on the popular literature, both of England and Scotland. 
It was with great interest and admiration that I went over their 
whole establishment, and examined the printing-rooms wherein the 
great cylindrical presses were busy at work, the library in which 
several young men were writing, the binding room, in wnich young 
girls were busy pressing and stitching the books, the warehouse in 
which stood immense piles of neat little volumes, of various sizes and 
shapes, and finally the selling room, in which these volumes were 
transferred from the hands of the dealers to those of the buyers. AH 
the details of this great book manufactory seemed to be conducted 
with an order, a completeness, and a skilful adaptation of means to 
ends, which renders it the most perfect thing of its kind I have ever 

Passing the Canongate Church, where repose the bones of Fer- 
gusson, the poet, and Adam Smith, the political economist, and the 
uxeyfriars Church, where rest those of Blair, Robertson, Ramsay, 
and others; passing also the Exchange and the Tronkirk, the pe- 
destrian reaches a place where the High-street draws together into a 
narrow street, called the Netherbow. In this narrow street still 
stands the house of the great reformer, Knox. In this house he 
lived for many years, here 'he died, and out of that little balcony, he 
is said often to nave addressed the assembled people. A small stone 
effigy of Knox is still to be seen at the corner of the wall, and near 
it are cut in the stone the words: " 6eos — deus 1 — God." Strange to 
say this house is now a gin-shop, and as it was in the evening that I 
entered it, I had great difficulty in making my way through the 
crowd of noisy dram-drinkers, who filled its intricate nttle rooms and 
passages. If old John Knox could return to the Netherbow, he 
would have abominations and desecrations, against which to 
launch his thunders, quite as bad as those of superstition and popery. 
If the Edinburgh magistrates have not authority enough to chase 
gin-drinkers and their profanations from the house once sanctified 
by the Kfe and death of a great reformer, they^ ought at least to re- 
move from its walls the old effigy and inscription which form so re- 
proachful a contrast to its present use and condition. 


Passing down the Canongate, I at length leached Holyrood 
House. Although this palace is no longer used as a royal residence, 
it is allowed to retain many of the rights and privileges of one ; 
among others, the rather curious privilege of forming a sanctuary for 
debtors, who cannot be arrested within a certain circle round the 
palace. The poor people who inhabit the little houses in its neigh- 
bourhood, often make a good deal of money by letting them to 
aristocratic defaulters. The debtor's wife and children go about 
freely to visit their friends and acquaintance in the city, but the 
debtor himself is liable to be pounced upon the moment he sets his 
foot beyond the neighbourhood of the palace. Holyrood House 
was once a convent, founded by David I., and was not inhabited by 
the Kings of Scotland, till the sixteenth century. It is Queen. 
Mary, or Mary Queen of Scots, as the English generally call her, to 
distinguish her from her cousin Mary of England, who has conferred 
the greatest historical interest upon this palace. The extraordinary 
events which signalized the reign of that beautiful and unfortunate 
woman, as well as her own extraordinary character and life, have 
conferred such a peculiar interest upon every thing connected with 
her, that the spot where she was born, that where she gave birth to 
James VI., that where she slept, that where she concealed herself, 
that where she was taken prisoner, are all still remembered and 
pointed out in Scotland. 

" The German gentlemen who come here," said the old house- 
keeper who pointed out the chamber of Mary at Holyrood to me, 
" are always particularly eager to hear about our Queen Mary, and 
to see every thing that is left of her. I think they have a writer 
among themselves, whom they are all very fond of, and who tells 
about Queen Mary." And in feet Schiller has created in every 
German mind, such a romantic interest in Mary Stuart, Joan of Arc, 
Fiesco of Genoa, Don Carlos of Spain, and other great historic 
names, that we always search for traces and relics of them with 
peculiar zeal and eagerness. 

Little as the bed-chamber of Mary was respected by the fierce 

conspirators who perpetrated within it Ae murder of her favourite 

Bizzio, after generations appear to have regarded it with peculiar 

jespect and tenderness. During the lapse of three hundred years, 

nothing has been altered in it, and it still looks as if the queen had 

but just left it, and was about to return immediately. The Earl of 

Bedford, in his letter to the lords of the privy council, detailing the 

murder of Bizzio, relates that the bed-chamber of the queen was 

only twelve feet square, that it contained a table and a bed, and 

that a private staircase and private door led to it from the chamber 

of the king. Such is still the case, and every thing, down to the 

window-curtains, the table-cover, and the footstool, is still the 

same as when the livid countenance of the hollow-eyed Ruthven, 

and his fierce associates, interrupted the supper of Queen Mary 

and her friends with their harsh voices and threatening gestures, 

on that memorable Saturday evening of March, 1566. 


All the minute circumstances connected with the tragical fate 
of Rizzio (as detailed in the letter of the Earl of Bedford), were 
brought vividly before us by the sight of the chamber where they 
happened. At this table, between these curtains — near this door — 
upon this carpet was the fearful scene enacted ! It is to be re- 
gretted that the want of solidity in modern workmanship, will not 
permit any of our modern palaces to preserve for future historical 
enquirers any such interesting and enduring relics as are found in 
the interior of these apartments. 

Near the chamber of " Mary Queen of Scots" is a gallery, con- 
taining long rows of portraits of the size of life, of Scottish kings 
and queens. Their physiognomies are, however, almost undistin- 
guishable, from the darkness of the colours, and the want of light 
m the hall ; but as many of them are, probably, mere fancy pieces, 
painted after the imaginative descriptions of Scotch historians, this 
is of little importance. 

These writers, like those of Ireland, have generally adopted, as 
literal truth, all the Celtic traditions of the bards; and there are, I 
believe, no nations in Europe who carry their historical preten- 
sions so far back into the darkness of by-gone ages as these two. 
They give us long series of kings, as well before as after the birth 
of Christ, and enter into the most exact details of the events of these 
imaginary reigns, and know all about the character, the mode 
of life, the grandfathers, uncles, and cousins of these fictitious 

An historian may assuredly reject all such stories at once, as mere 
fables; but considered in a different point of view — psychologically 
and ethnographically, they have a certain interest. The Scotch 
have such a mania for devising an early history of their country, 
that they have even gone so far as to paint the portraits of these 
airy phantoms, and hang them up among the Jameses and Alex- 
anders, who really once were clothed in flesh and blood. The por- 
trait of " Maria Stuartus," here, is a bad copy; the best picture of 
her is said to be in the possession of the Duke of Hamilton, and of 
this we were shown a small copy, in which the most characteristic 
feature are the eyebrows, high arched, and standing far apart. It is 
remarkable that the Dukes of Hamilton, who were once very near 
the throne, have remained to this day hereditary keepers of Holy- 
rood House, and premier peers of Scotland. 

Another part of the palace, destroyed by the soldiers of Crom- 
well, and rebuilt by Charles II., and consisting of a range of rather 
uncomfortable rooms, was inhabited in 1830 by Charles X. and his 
family. Some of them are hung with tapestry, representing Niobe 
and her children struck by the arrows of Apollo; but three or four 
of the ceilings are merely painted with the clouds. " They wanted 
to paint something that would not take long to do," said the woman 
who showed me the rooms, " and so they painted the clouds." 
The expiring race of the Bourbons must have found a melancholy 


refuge in these cloudy chambers, where so many parallels must 
have suggested themselves between their own fate and that of the 

Both families have experienced a violent revolution, the execution 
of one of their crowned heads, — a first banishment (a Cromwell, a 
Napoleon), a restoration, a second banishment, have seen another 
on the throne of their ancestors (William III. and Louis Philippe), 
and both have left a Pretender (Prince Charles Edward, and 
Henry V). It is not surprising that Queen Victoria, on her visit to 
Scotland, avoided the gloomy old palace of the Stuarts, and pre- 
ferred the beautiful and. comfortable abode of her wealthy subject. 

It is now said that Holyrood is, indeed, to be fitted up for the oc- 
casional residence of the sovereign, but the melancholy remem- 
brances can no more be effaced from it, than, according to popular 
belief, the stains of blood. The housekeeper maintained stoutly that 
nothing could ever wash away those of Rizzio. 

The Royal Chapel of Holyrood, a part of the ancient abbey, 
founded by David I., lies in ruins. Charles I. had it repaired for 
the service of the Church of England, and James II. for that of 
Rome, but as the Scots like one as little as the other, they have suf- 
fered the chapel to go to decay. These ruins, which He close to the 
palace, are very beautiful, especially an old gothic gateway, and 
some columns, which still remain in a perpendicular position, and 
are surrounded by the tombs of Scottish magnates; some of whom 
are still occasionally buried here. A fee of seventy guineas is, how- 
ever, demanded for this honour. 

On some of the stones a sword and cross are scratched in, accord- 
ing to what, I believe, was a general custom among the Scots, for I 
saw them in several of their churchyards. Lx this chapel is shown 
the altar before which Mary was married to Darnley, Queen Mary's 
own confessing room, and the royal vault, where several of the 
Stuart kings he buried. The coffins, it was said, had been taken 
and sold by Cromwell's soldiers, and the bones had been afterwards 
collected and placed upon boards, where, on looking through an iron 

Eating, I saw them. There are two sculls and some arm and leg 
nes. Never have I seen royal remains laid out in such a fashion. 
A bottle lay among them which, I was told, contained records. 
The vault is painted black on the inside, and decorated with a 
number of little white spots to represent tears; such as used to be 
seen on the mourning scutcheons of catholic families. 

Every thing, therefore, appeared in the mournful palace of the 
Stuarts in due tragic order; in the corridors spots of blood that can 
never be washed away; Qn the ceilings of the chambers, dark clouds 
instead of gay coloured pictures, and over their last remains, tears 
constantly falling — or at all events feigning to fell. 



Holjrood at Edinburgh, Stirling Castle, the Castle of Linlithgow, 
and that of Scone near Perth, were the chief residences of the Scottish 
kings. They all lie at no great distance from each other, in this, the 
widest and most beautiful opening in the Scotch Lowlands, and in 
the neighbourhood of the Forth and the Tay, which approach each 
other in a neighbourly manner before they fall into the sea, taking 
between them the lovely county of Fife. When I had tolerably 
well satisfied myself with the sight of Edinburgh, I prepared to 
visit the next royal seat of Stirling, which is pleasantly reached by 
steam, along the pleasant Frith of Forth. 

We found our boat at Leith, the harbour of Edinburgh, connected 
with it by a fine broad road, always animated by a busy traffic. Our 
Kttle vessel lay near the Trident, a large and magnificent sea-boat, 
just come in from London, and in whose honour a flag had been 
hoisted on the Nelson monument on the Calton Hill. A passenger 
enlarged to me on the wonderful and admirable qualities of the ves- 
sel, and mentioned that the Queen had preferred her to the Royal 
George for her return to London. 

Close to Leith is a little village called Newhaven, celebrated in 
Edinburgh for the peculiar character of its population. The inha- 
bitants, about a thousand, subsist entirely on fishing, and in their 
dress and manners, even in the mode of building their houses, differ 
entirely from the people in the vicinity, with whom they seldom in* 
termarry. The men are almost constantly upon the water, and this 
is, perhaps, why the government of the house is always wholly in 
the hands of the women, who carry the produce of their husbands' 
toils to the fish market of Edinburgh, where they are gre&tljr feared 
and respected for their bodily strength and prowess. The wife is so 

merally recognised as the chief person in the manage of Newhaven, 

^at it is common when a woman marries, who, in the opinion of 
her neighbours, is not strong and active enough for the duties she 
has taken on herself, to hear them say, " What business has she to 
get married? Is she able to win her gudeman and her burns their 

A short way down the Frith is another fishing village, Mussel- 
burgh, whose inhabitants in many particulars resemble those of New*- 
haven; and in the north of Scotland, near Aberdeen, axe others 
whose occupants differ from the people by whom they are sur- 
rounded, and who axe believed to be descended from ancient Danish 
or Norwegian colonies, that came across the German Ocean, and 
have held themselves apart from the people among whom they settled. 

It is to be observed, however, that villages inhabited only by fisher- 
men usually present many peculiarities. On the coasts of the Baltic, 
where the population is German, there are some inhabited solely by 
Letts; among the Letts in Courland some with Esthonian fishers: 


among the Esthonians there are some villages of Swedish fishermen, 
and on the coasts of the Black Sea, among races of Walachians, 
Tartars, and others, there are villages of Cossacks. Either these 
must be the remains of the ancient population of the respective 
countries who have been driven thus to their extremest verge, where 
they stand in a manner with one foot in the sea, or they must be 
colonies from opposite coasts, who, wanting little land, have easily 
taken root and been suffered to remain. 

The whole mouth of the Frith of Forth was covered by little fish- 
ing boats, which seemed to hover over the water like sea mews, and 
sometimes slipped about almost under our steamer. The principal 
fish found in these Scotch bays are the salmon and the herring, but 
these two were now out of season, and I could not make out what 
these boats were employed about. 

It is singular that the English and Scotch, who from the nature 
of their countries should be among the oldest and best fishers in the 
world, have only within a comparatively recent period made use of 
the boundless treasures of their seas; and down to the middle of the 
last century allowed the Dutch to snatch the fish almost out of their 
mouths. Even now many kinds of fish are brought to the London 
market only by the latter. The Frieslanders, the Dutch, and the 
Norwegians have been fishermen and sailors from the earliest periods, 
and it is very probable that all the colonies I have spoken of on the 
coasts of Scotland are descended from them. 

The broad surface of the Forth was beautifully variegated, not 
only by the swarms of fishing-boats, but by vessels of all sizes, 
eteamers, and many small islands of most picturesque forms — Inch- 
keith, Cramond, and others. To somp of these we passed quite 
close, so that we could clearly perceive them to be of volcanic origin, 
probably trap or basalt. The little island of Stone Mickerey has 
exactly the appearance of a fortress ruined by a heavy cannonade. 
On Inch Colme an old convent lies in ruins among the rocks, and 
on some there are fine and extensive oyster beds, which, however, 
•do not benefit the poor Newhaveners, or any other fishermen, being 
the property of the Duke of Buccleugh and other noblemen. The 
convent was founded by Alexander I., when he was detained three 
days on the island by a violent storm, in crossing the Frith from 
Fife. He found there no one but a poor hermit, who entertained 
him and his suite with milk and shellfish. Mary of Guise, also a 
•Queen of Scotland, was wrecked here at the mouth of the Forth at 
Fife Ness, and was hospitably received by the owner of Balcolmie 
House, an old castle near the promontory; and there is also another 

Sint of the coast called Margaret's Hope, where a Saxon princess, 
argaret of England, was driven by a tempest. 
The Frith of Forth is from ten to twenty miles broad at its 
mouth, and about five or six at Leith. A little further up, at 
Queensferry, the shores approach within half a mile of each other, 
and then again expand to a breadth of three miles. Beyond the 


narrow strait the water is still brackish, although this is considered 
the commencement of the river. 

It is remarkable that almost all the Scottish rivers assume a 
similar form. The Frith of Tay, for instance, narrows to a strait at 
Portoncraig, and the Frith of Murray at Fort George, and thus 
they all form two bays, an outer ana an inner. At each strait 
there is a ferry, usually worked by a steamer. The Queensberry 
ferry connects the counties of Linlithgow and Fife, one of the 
most lovely and fertile districts of Scotland, and which is re- 
garded by the Scots as a little paradise. A valley in the centre, 
commonly called the " How of Fife," is indeed watered by the river 
Eden, and the fame of its beauty is spread far and wide. 

Fife has no great town but many very fine seats, and a great 
number of villages, almost all lying on the Frith of Forth. It may 
well bear comparison with the county of Wicklow in Ireland, or of 
Sent in England. The county of Linlithgow, south of the Forth is 
mostly level, and the hills only begin to rise towards the west by 
Stirling. As we entered the inner bay after passing the ferry, we 
saw an immense number of wild ducks, and the captain informed Mb 
that in winter their numbers, and those of other sea-birds, are so 
great, that small bays are sometimes entirely covered by them. 

We had agreai number of jmaengL on board whom we 
dropped at various little towns and villages as we went along. Steam 
navigation has in this country penetrated so into every river, bay, 
cree£, and corner, that it has entirely changed the face of things, 
and by establishing new relations, and forming new channels of 
activity, opened such immense and incalculable prospects, that one 
has not courage even to begin to speak of them. 

The material progress of the world is at the present day pro- 
ceeding with such marvellous rapidity, that it becomes almost im- 
possible to observe and record it, and future historians must pro- 
vide themselves with a hundred hands and a thousand fingers, if 
they would retain in them all the threads of human development. 

Among our passengers the two that chiefly interested me were an 
Italian named Ortelli from Rivolta, in the neighbourhood of the 
Lake of Como, and a Scotch preacher. From this Italian, I learned 
for the first time that the remarkable spread of his countrymen over 
the British islands reaches even to the north of Scotland. In many 
places in Great Britain the Italian foreigners are far more nu- 
merous than the Germans, sometimes doubly so, although the latter 
are both morally and geographically nearer akin to the English: 
there are also, 1 believe, many more Italians living in the English 
than in the German towns (certainly so, if we except those of 
Austria), notwithstanding our long subsisting and more intimate 
relations with Italy. 

Their chief occupations are music, the making of barometers and 
thermometers, and plaster casts, and dealing in Italian wares. My 
friend Ortelli was hung all round with barometers, and he told me 


He was in the habit of going up and down the country through all 
Scotland in this manner. 

My preacher was from Fifeshire, a large strong-built farmer- 
looking man, with a very powerful voice. I was told he was a 
" Highflyer," that is, one of the enthusiasts of the Scotch presby- 
terian party, who carry to the greatest height the pretensions of the 

It is well known that since the Tories have been in power, there 
has existed any thing but a good understanding between the ministry 
and the Scotch church, and that these differences have led to a 
great schism, in which 600 preachers, and their friends, have re* 
tired, and constituted themselves into what they call the " Free 

" The Tories have broken into the church," said the Fifeshire 
minister in explanation to me ; " they wanted to take from us the 
power of the keys bestowed on us by God himself, but we could not 
endure that they should deprive him of his glory." 

I had, I know not how, taken up in my youthful dap a notion, 
that the simplicity of the Presbyterians was combined with modesty 
and a spirit of toleration; and even though history has long since 
told me another tale, I find it hard to divest myself of it. Nothing 
fern, however, be farther from the truth, for the humility, the love, 
the gentleness, of the early Christians, which shone so conspicuously 
in the founder of our religion, are nowhere seen less than among 
the Scotch presbyterians, nowever the external simplicity of their 
mode of worship may seem to assimilate them to the first professors 
of Christianity. In the severity with which they maintain their ar- 
ticles of faith, and in their notions of priestly power and authority, 
they bear, indeed, a far closer resemblance to tne church of Rome. 
They maintain that theirs is the true apostolic church, that the power 
to bind and to loose, or the power of the keys, as they call it, has 
descended to them direct from St. Peter, ana that the General As- 
sembly, with the moderator at its head, has, in spiritual matters, an 
authority in Scotland equal to that of the state in things temporal. 
This distinction between things spiritual and temporal is easy enough 
to lay down, but the limits of the two are not always very obvious 
in practice ; and some points have accordingly always remained in 
dispute, which have led to occasional collisions between the kirk 
ana the state. 

j\ One of these points is the question concerning the right of pre- 
sentation ; whether a preacher presented by a patron must be ac- 
cepted unconditionally by a congregation, or may be rejected; and 
the question is a very important one, since almost all the Scotch 
livings have lay patrons. There are some, indeed, in the gift of the 
crown, or the town council of Edinburgh, and a very few in that of 
the congregations themselves, the communicants namely, but the very 
great majority is in the great landed proprietors — the. dukes, mar- 
quises, and earls. The Dukes of Argyle and Buccleugh have an 
extraordinary number of churches, and out of .the five and thirty 


parishes of the Orkney and Shetland Isles, there are but six of 
which the Earl of Zetland is not patron. 

The immense power possessed by these noblemen has not been 
submitted to without a struggle. Antipatronage societies have been 
founded, and, during a per&d of eighty years, petitions continually 
presented to the parliament ; and since the helm of the state has been 
intrusted to Tory hands, the strife has become much embittered ; the 
patrons have taken a higher tone, and the Court of Session has, it is 
said, made frequent attempts to encroach on the spiritual privileges 
of the kirk. A speech of Sir Robert Peel also, in the last session 
of parliament, was very unfavourable to its pretensions, and the 
General Assembly, finding their representations of little effect at 
Westminster, have brought their case before the country at large in 
a Declaration, which, were it not too lengthy, I would gladly cite as 
most characteristic of the country and people, and as a document, not 
only interesting in itself, but as really necessary to be understood by 
an/one traveling in Scotland, if & wlkLw any thing of th4 
causes of the excitement prevailing everywhere around him. 

The Fifeshire minister I have mentioned, had been in Germany, 
and called the Germans " simple-hearted creatures." He had seen the 
" Sabbath," he said, in Dresden, Frankfort, and other German cities, 
and he murmured, with two eyes "cast up to Heaven, something of 
regret at the little respect with which he thought the Sabbath was 
treated. Geneva had, however, been the goal of his journey, and he 
considered himself fortunate in having seen the city of Calvin, the 
Zion of the Scotch Presbyterian. 

" I should like to see Geneva," was a wish I often heard from the 
lips of pious Scotchmen. At a little hamlet on the shores of life, 
we lost our " Highflyer," but, for my consolation, there remained 
behind another and a far more agreeable and cultivated minister of 
the kirk, who invited me to visit his manse and glebe, as the parsonage 
house and the land attached to it are called in Scotland. 

We steamed up the beautiful Forth till it had become a very nar- 
row stream, and were at length compelled, as it was ebb tide, to leave 
our " Victoria," and continue our journey to Stirling in a smaller 
boat. The innumerable windings of the river made city, tower, and 
mountain appear to be perpetually changing their places, and they were 
now seen on the right, now on the left, now before and now behind 
us. The shores were finely varied, and even this upper part of the 
Forth near Stirling is amazmgly beautiful. The magnificent Abbey 
of Culross, the little town of Kincardine, the town of Alloa, with its 
ancient tower, and the seat of the Earls of Marr, many memorials of 
Robert Bruce, such as abound all over Scotland, and many remains of 
Roman fortifications also frequent in the Lowlands, made this part 
of the journey rich, both in historical and romantic interest. 



We landed at length in Stirling, and walked through the town to 
the inn, bringing an excellent appetite to an excellent luncheon. 

A small chain of mountains crosses this part of the Lowlands of Scot- 
land from S. W. to JN". E., running parallel to the Grampians. It begins 
not far from Dumbarton, near the valley of the Clyde, and crossing Stir- 
ling and Perth, loses itself by Montrose near the sea coast, about 
eighty miles from its commencement. The highest points are not 
more than from 2000 to 2400 feet high, and in two places it is 
broken through by two chasms or gates, wider than the Porta West- 
phalica of the Weser, and through one of which pour the waters of 
the Forth, and through the other those of the Tay. On the broken 
side of the mountain lies the town of Stirling. 

Although this mountain chain is undoubtedly one in a geological 
point of view, it is known by various names. The southern part is 
calledt he " Campsie Hills," that between the Tay and Forth the 
" Ochill Hills," and the part beyond the Tay the " Sidlaw Hills." 
Between these hills and the Grampian, which as I have said are 
parallel to them, is a broad valley, called Strathmore, or the Great 
Valley, many parts of which again have special names, such as the 
" Carse of Stirling," the " Carse of Falkirk." 

I had in Stirling the good fortune to be accompanied to all the in- 
teresting points by a zealous, patriotic, and intelligent friend, who 
was intimately acquainted with them all. 

We first climbed up to the castle, which, with its glorious prospect, 
forms of course the most prominent object of curiosity, and as we 
passed through the streets of the town, I could not help being struck 
with its remarkable resemblance to Edinburgh, of which it is a per- 
fect miniature — at least as far as the Old Town is concerned. 

In the High-street of Stirling also, as in that of Edinburgh, are 
several old palaces of the nobility, in a solid style of architecture, 
and enriched with handsome ornaments. Such for instance is the 
palace of the Regent Earl of Marr, whose posterity were the keepers 
or constables of .Stirling Castle, of the Earl of Stirling (Sir William 
Alexander, the philosophical poet of the court of James VI., and 
the tutor of Charles I., who created him earl), the tower where the 
Scotch historian Buchanan, renowned through Europe, lived and 
wrote. He was also tutor to James VI. (I. of England) — what a 
pupil for so wise a teacher. Wandering between these memorials 
of a bygone time and the ruins of the old abbey, we reached at 
length the castle itself, rising from the top of a basaltic rock, which, 
like the promontory of Fairhead in Ireland, falls precipitously in vast 

Serpendicular columns. On one sidp these basaltic pillars are richly 
raperied with ivy; and on the other side a beautiful plain spreads 
out at the foot of the castle. Across this plain, the beautiful Forth 
winds its mazy current to the sea. 


As Stirling is one of the castles which, by the Act of Union, must 
be maintained in a state of defence, there were many parts of the 
fortification that we were not allowed to go upon; although as al- 
most every point presented a new and delightful landscape we would 
willingly have run out upon every projecting corner. 

It is a sad pity there should be so many travellers, for it is griev- 
ous when arriving at a place so well worth describing as Stirling 
Castle and the surrounding country, that one must not launch out 
into a stream of eloquence, and give vent to one's enthusiasm, for 
fear of wearying readers with a repetition of what they have often 
heard before. Yet it often really happens in this way that the reader 
never obtains the enjoyment of an exact and intelligible account 
of many things he is erroneously supposed to know, and the true 
art of description falls quite to decay. 

Professor Thibaut, who taught mathematics in Gottingen, always 
used to wish that his pupils might never have heard of mathematics, 
or have forgotten all they had heard, that he might have a perfectly 
free and unprejudiced ground on which to erect the fair edifice of 
mathematical doctrine in their minds. The traveller in Scotland 
might in the same manner wish that his readers had never heard of 
Stirling Castle, the Forth, Strathmore, or indeed of any part of the 
country, for then he might describe away to his heart's content. 

The oldest foundations and fortifications of Stirling Castle appear 
to have existed at so early a period that their date is not known, for 
there remains no record of a time when there was no castle on this 
spot. A great part of the present edifice dates, however, from the 
time of Mary of Guise, the mother of Mary Stuart. A parliament 
house built by James III., a palace of James V., and a royal chapel 
of James VI., are the most remarkable parts of the edifice. The 
parliament house lies characteristically enough close to the king's 

Salace, of which it is a mere adjunct — as the parliaments of those 
ays were in fact no more than royal councils, and never opposed 
the will of the monarch. 

All the opposition experienced by the kings of Scotland arose from 
quite another quarter. Scotch parliaments were held in Edinburgh, 
Stirling, Perth, and other places, for these assemblies were just as 
little bound to a particular spot as the German Diet, or the courts of 
the emperors. 

The palace of James V. is a very model of bad taste, and so far 
a rarity. It is inconceivable how the extremely bad taste that could 
tolerate the hideous mythological figures on these walls should have 

frevailed in a royal court of which a French princess was the queen, 
t is right, however, that these monstrosities should not be destroyed, 
for they have their interest as illustrations of the history of taste. 
But after all one cannot help wishing that the zealous reformers, who 
after the time of Jamed, destroyed so many magnificent abbeys, had 
exercised their destructive propensities on some of the monstrosities 
of this building. 


In the chapel is a pulpit, said to have been filled by Join Knox, 
but these Knox's pulpits are as plentiful in Scotland as with us those 
of Luther, Zwingli, and other reformers. Pulpits are, indeed, the 
most peculiar relics of the founders of protestantism, who established 
their spiritual edifice on and through the word. 

To correspond with the Rizzio corridor in Holyrood House, there is 
here a Douglas chamber, a closet in which in 1452 James IL stabbed 
the Earl of Douglas, because he would not renounce the xxmfederacy 
which he and some other barons had formed against the royal au- 
thority. It is seldom that sovereigns have taken business of this 
sort into their own hands, but in Scotch history this incident occurs 
several times. 

" Ye towers within whosectacait dread 
A Douglas by his sovereign bled," 

sings Walter Scott, in his " Lady of the Lake." A murder com- 
mitted by the consecrated hand of a sovereign has certainly some- 
thing of peculiar horror. Considering the plenitude of power with 
which he is invested, if a monarch does not shrink from such a deed, 
no one can feel himself safe, and this is perhaps the reason why as 
powerful an impression is made by it as by die murder of a king by 
a subject, although on a superficial view of the case, one might suppose 
it would be regarded as of comparatively much less moment. 

The Stuarts were fond of Stirling Castle, and lived here more than 
in Edinburgh; the memory of James Y. is here as vivid as that of 
Mary Stuart in Holyrood. This king was in the habit, like Harouu- 
al-Raechid, of going out disguised among his subjects, and frequently 
reforming in his assumed character acts of liberality and kindness. 
There is a steep path winding down the rock on which the castle stands, 
which James usually preferred for these excursions, called the Balloch- 
geich, or Windy Pass; and the people about the place who often saw 
a supposed stranger descend by this path, were in the habit of dis- 
tinguishing him by the appellation of the " Laird or Gudeman of Bal- 

The castle, when I visited it, was full of Scotch troops, some of 
its buildings serving them as barracks. These men were almost all 
fine well-grown fellows: some were exercising, some planted as sen- 
tinels on different posts, and some amusing themselves with die bag- 
pipes in the great hall. A dramatic performance by some regimental 
amateurs was announced for the evening, and badly written bills were 
stuck up at all corners. I saw here for the first time the handsome 
Highland costume, which we have now not seen for a long time in 
continental Europe. In Napoleon's time it was as well known both 
in Germany and Spain as that of the Cossacks, Baschkirs, and others. 
In this long peace the aspect of different nations becomes strange to 
each other. 

The Scots, as is well known, boast that their national dress has 
descended to them from the Romans, being introduced by the le- 
gionaries among their Fictish ancestors ; this account, however, seems 


at best exceedingly doubtful when we consider that, in the first place, 
its resemblance to the Roman military costume is very distant; and 
secondly, that it prevails almost exclusively in that part of Scotland 
where the Romans never came. It seems improbable, also, that the 
Picts should have renounced their own dress in favour of that of 
enemies with whom they were engaged in almost incessant hosti- 
lities; and that a people who have retained not a trace of the Ro- 
man language or manners should, nevertheless, have preserved their 
dress, would be an unheard-of phenomenon. 

The resemblance of the chlamys to the Scotch kilt is probably 
purely accidental; nor is it easy to imagine that the Roman mantle 
should have remained hanging on these distant Caledonian hills, while 
not a rag of it is to be found in the rest of Europe. It is possible, 
however, though not likely; and the fact of the Latin language 
having lingered among the remote Eastern barbarians of Walachia, 
might be cited to the ethnographical inquirer as an analogous case. 

There are, I believe, two regiments in the English army which wear 
this costume, but among the people of the Highlands themselves, it is 
like all the other national costumes of Europe going fast to decay. 
There are but a few valleys in which it is universal among the inha- 
bitants, and it is in most places worn only by old people, or children, 
for whom it is considered healthy and hardy. 

At the foot of the Castle-hill towards the south lie the royal gar- 
dens, laid out in the year 1315, and under the Stuarts the scene of 
80 many of the knightly sports recorded by the Scottish chroniclers. 
These gardens are quite overgrown with grass, but their plan can 
still be distinguished by the various shades of the green sward. In 
the middle is a hill called the " King's Knot," from which paths 
diverge in various directions; a line is drawn round this hill, and 
beyond it is a mound, — the " Ladies' Hill," from which the fair 
spectators looked on the tournament; many other interesting spots 
too were pointed out by the cicerone, to whom I must, neverthe- 
less, confess I paid but half attention, while my eye wandered again 
and again with delight over the beauties of the surrounding scenery. 

The view from Stirlinff Castle is, in my opinion, certainly the 
most beautiful of its kind that is to be seen in Britain, and since 
Britain is one of the most beautiful countries in Europe, it fellows 
that the claims of Stirling are very high. This being taken into con- 
sideration, my readers will, perhaps, be merciful to my transgression 
if I return to the subject In the great break in the mountains 
which I have described, occurs the confluence of three rivers, the 
Allan, the Teth, and the Forth, which forms, with its lovely semi- 
circular windings, many peninsulas like the rings or links of a 
chain; these peninsulas are fertile in the highest degree, and have 
given rise to the old Scottish lyhme. 

•Ac fink o' the Forth 
Is worth an earldom & the north." 

Although the season was very far advanced, these " links' 9 were 

d 2 


still covered with the liveliest green; from which the black basaltic 
rock of Stirling rose like a throne for some sovereign ruler. Vast 
rocks, the door-posts of the mountain-gate, seem to guard its en- 
trance, and the eye loses itself in the distant blue line of the sea. 

Far off in the interior rise the mighty pyramids of the Grampians, 
covered according to their various heights with green, dark heath, or 
snow. The valley of Strathmore is sprinkled over with a mul- 
titude of villages and hamlets, whode inhabitants one cannot but 
envy. Had we only enjoyed the advantage of a fine day, I could 
scarcely have found courage to tear myself from this spot, but this 
country, alas, enjoys but little the favour of Apollo— -the rain came 
down heavily and drove us from the incomparable spectacle. 


I took shelter under the roof of my wandering habitation, the 
post-chaise, and drove the same evening, in company with my 
courteous friend the presbyterian clergyman, through the beautiful 
vale of Strathmore to the castle of the Drummond family, and its 
celebrated gardens. The road led through the valley of the Allan 
by the foot of the Ochill hills, and past the villages of Lecropt and 
Dumblane. Six miles beyond Dumblane we passed the remains of a 
Roman camp, the finest and most complete thing of the kind existing 
in Scotland. It is more than a thousand feet long and nine hundred 
broad, and is surrounded by a threefold fortification of walls and 
ramparts. These were all overgrown with grass, and cattle were 
grazing upon them. Across a place where it was evident there had 
been a gate, a sort of triumphal arch crowned with flowers and 
foliage had lately been erected, under which Prince Albert had 
passed when he visited the place on his return from his peaceful 
expeditions to the Highlands. Agricola returning victorious from 
his warlike incursions in the same direction may possibly have passed 
beneath one erected in the same spot. 

From this Roman camp to Drummond Castle, stretches a level 
district called the " Moor of Ochill," whereon stood formerly and 
perhaps still stands a cabin, which, as Mr. Chambers relates, was oc- 
cupied thirty years ago by an old woman commonly known by the 
name of the Mother of the Empress of Morocco. Sixty or seventy 
years ago the old woman's daughter having set out on a voyage for 
America, with other Scottish emigrants, was captured by a corsair, 
made a slave, and brought into the harem of the Emperor of Mo- 
rocco, who took such a fancy to her that he made her one of his prin- 
cipal wives. The Scottish sultana entered into a correspondence 
with her own people, and thus the affair became generally known. 
The two sons she bore the emperor afterwards claimed the support 
of England, alleging that they were of British blood by their mo- 
ther's side. 


Not far from Drummond Castle is the village of MuthiH, where 
my reverend companion resided, and where, in the little inn in 
wnich I passed the night, I found every comfort a traveller could 
wish, with an agreeable talkative hostess, a pleasant clean apart- 
ment, and a bed, as English beds often are, half an acre in 

Notwithstanding my enjoyment of the " creature comforts" of 
my hostelry, I was tempted to quit them to seek the society of the 
scnoolmaster of the village, whom I found sitting alone by his fire- 
side, and from whom I received a most hospitable welcome. 

Village schoolmasters are a class of men by no means to be 
neglected by a traveller desiring information in any country. They 
stand on the extreme verge of the cultivated classes; and, of all who 
are capable of reasoning and reflection, they are the nearest to the great 
masses of the population. They get their knowledge of the people 
at first hand, as foresters, huntsmen, fishermen, and farmers do 
their knowledge of nature, of animals, plants, climates, and soils; 
and I have often found in them a treasury of information concern- 
ing the character and manners of their neighbours, and the local 
details connected with the country, such as can seldom be met with 
even among the clergy, who move usually in a higher circle. 

Whoever is interested in ethnography and statistics, would cer- 
tainly set a high value on these springs of genuine instruction, 
which, if brought together, might form a great and important 

In the schoolmaster of Muthill, as in many of his colleagues, I 
found a very clever, well-informed person, and his apartments were 
not only pleasant and neat, but even elegant in their arrangements. 
I could not help silently comparing this abode with those of our vil- 
lage schoolmasters in Saxony, ana wondering at the progress made 
of late years, in this respect, in Scotland. 

I expressed aloud the agreeable surprise I felt at this change, and 
my new friend declared that he was content with his position. On 
the whole, however, he added, " there was a good deal of discon- 
tent among the parish schoolmasters, on account of the smallness of 
their pay." I replied that the same complaint was often heard in 
Germany, and he inquired what was the average pay of our school- 

"It varies a good deal," was my answer; "some have a hun- 
dred, some a hundred and fifty, but many no more than fifty 

" How many pounds go to a dollar?" asked he. 

" Seven dollars go to a pound," said I. 

" What!" he exclaimed, springing up from his chair, " do you 
mean to tell me that they pay a schoolmaster with seven pounds 

" Even so," I replied, — " seven pounds; but how much then do 
they get with you? 


" I know no one who lias less than from forty to fifty pounds 
in all Scotland; bat the average is 702. or 80£, and many go as 
irigh as 15W." 

" What r cried I, springing np in my turn, " 150/.!— that makes 
1,050 dollars. A baron would be satisfied in Germany with such 
a revenue as that, and do you mean to say that there are school- 
masters who grumble at it f" 

"Yes," said he; a but recollect how dear things are with us. 
Sugar costs eightpence a pound, coffee two shillings; chocolate is 
still dearer, and tea not much cheaper. And then how dear are 
good beef and pork, and plums, and puddings, and every thing 
else !" I could not deny this, but I thought that our poor school- 
masters were content if they had but bread. 

There is also a good deal of dissatisfaction, I am told, among 
the Scotch preachers; for at the Reformation, when the rich abbeys 
and convents were destroyed, the revenues attached to them fell 
almost entirely into the hands of laymen, and the clergy could 
iiot recover any thing very considerable out of them. No one of 
oux village pastors, however, would dream that he had any cause 
of complaint, if he were as well off as the worst paid among the 
Scottish preachers. I could hear of none of these who had less than 
1507. per annum, with a manse and glebe attached; and I believe 
that there are no such rich or such poor livings as are to be found in 
the English church. 

Popular education has, it is well known, made extraordinary pro- 
gress in Scotland, and the MuthiH schoolmaster assured me that the 
greatest zeal for learning existed among the people, both for them- 
selves, and still more for their children. Parents are never com- 
pelled to send their children to be educated, and he was quite 
astonished to learn that this is thought necessary among us. He 
said that, in Scotland, it would be regarded as a disgrace not to have 
children taught, and compulsion was the last thing thought of in 
such a case. If it were wished, he said, to discover a method of in- 
spiring the people with a distaste for learning, no more effectual one 
could be hit upon, than that of insisting upon what they were wil- 
ling enough to do. He was speaking, of course, of the Lowlands of 
Scotland ; for in the Highland districts, the Gaelic dialect is still a 
great obstacle to education. In the Normanno-Saxon alone, is Hfe, 
movement, and activity; it is the language of literature and of 
all the cultivated classes; and were they now even more nearly 
on a level, it appears impossible that, in the same state, two lan- 
iges and two literatures should flourish by the side of each other. 

>ne must finally drive out the other; and where there is such great 
inequality as between the powerful English and the feeble Gaelic, 
all the efforts of Celtic societies and Highland patriots can scarcely 
so much as retard its total ruin. 

This melancholy, yet for many reasons, desirable consummation, 
appears to be fast approaching. My new friend informed me that in 


the neighbouring parish of Connie belonging to the Highlands, 
scarcely any thing is now spoken but English, although forty years 
ago Gaelic was almost universal; and as I went on I met with 
many similar instances. Sometimes I could even perceive traces of 
Gaelic having been but recently rooted out. When, however, we con- 
sider the time that has elapsed since the Germanic language and race 
obtained a footing in Scotland, it seems surprising that the Gaelic 
tongue, unsupported by a written literature should have been able to 
maintain itself so long. Even Tacitus informs us that the Caledonians, 
meaning the people of the Lowlands, were of Germanic race. And 

S, notwithstanding all the struggles that must have taken place 
ween them, it has needed the whole power of our thousand- 
handed age armed with hornbooks and school-books, and news- 
papers, and all other literary weapons, to lift the old Gaelic fairly 
out of the saddle. The contest will, however, certainly terminate 
in its being finally driven from all the glens and bens. 

The improvements in agriculture, and the introduction of sheep 
farming, dating from the middle of the last century, have no doubt 
contributed to this end. Formerly the mountain glens were thinly 
scattered over with lonely huts, whose inhabitants gained a scanty 
subsistence among rock and moorland, by raising a little oats, or 
feeding two ox three lean cows. 

In recent times many of these glens have been cleared of their 
population, by fair means or foul. The chief of the clans, when 
they learned to look for other sources of profit than the number of 
retainers, on which their dignity formerly depended, drove out 
these poor people, whose persons were no longer serviceable in 
swelling the pomp of their " taOs," and threw their lands into 
sheep-pastures. In the meantime manufacturing industry was 
awakening in the towns, and commerce in the harbours of Scot- 
land, whim in the districts remaining agricultural, a better system 
was introduced, by which not only more food was raked, but more 
hands required. The Highlanders, driven from their native 
glens, found a subsistence in one or other of these ways, the popu- 
lation became more concentrated in towns; and this circumstance 
contributed, aft much as any other, to the victorious progress of the 
English language, and of general civilisation in Scotland. 

The new period, which seems to promise such golden fruits com- 
menced in the gloomy and stormy year 1746, after the defeat of 
the last insurrection in favour of the Stuarts, All the Highland 
dans were then dispersed by the English, and one, that of Mac- 
gregor, particularly distinguished for wSdnessand ferocity, was wholly 
proscribed. Many of them were hung and shot, and the remainder 
took refuge in the bosom of neighbouring clans, and assumed other 

In the village of Muthill, the schoolmaster told me he knew one 
descendant of the Macgregors who always wrote his name James 


Drummond, although he was called James Macgregor by his family 
and friends. 

Notwithstanding the dispersion of the clansmen over all parts of 
Scotland and of the world, certain names remain greatly predo- 
minant in certain districts. For instance, in that in which 1 now 
found myself, almost all the people were Drummonds, the remains 
of the once powerful clan of that name whose chief was the Earl of 
Perth; the title was forfeited in 1716, but the principal branch of 
the family still resides at Drummond Castle, and there are scattered 
over the country a number of other considerable families of the 
same name — the " Drummonds of Strathallan," the " Drummonds 
of Connie," the " Drummonds of Blair Drummond," the " Drum- 
monds of Hawthornden," &c. 

On the morning after my visit to the schoolmaster, I was to 
breakfast with my friend the preacher. A Scotch breakfast does 
not usually afford as much meat as appears in England, but fish, 
sweet things, and pastry, make ample amends. The honey I found 
excellent, but the barley scones, flat round cakes made of barley 
meal, and apparently scarcely shown to the fire, were rather diffi- 
cult to manage; as the raw flour remained sticking between the 

A young man breakfasted with us who I was told was now " before 
the presbytery," that is he had finished his studies and was waiting 
for his ordination. 

After breakfast we all walked out on the road to Drummond 
Castle lying a few miles off. The weather was very fine, the moun- 
tains rose gradually round the beautiful plain across which our 
path lay, and a fine shepherd's dog or colly, a present to my host 
from Hogg, the celebrated Ettrick Shepherd, yelped and barked 
about us m a most exhilarating manner. 

" At half two o'clock," as the Scotch and we Germans say (an 
Englishman would say half-past one), we arrived at the limits of the 
park, and proceeded along a woody path, part of which forms a 
sort of dam between two lakes, to the ancient seat of the Drum- 
monds. The present possessor of the castle felt, I was told, rather 
alarmed when ner Majesty expressed a wish to visit it, and assured 
her it was only an old shooting-box, and by no means adapted for 
the reception of such illustrious guests. The Queen and her con- 
sort, however, would not allow themselves to be prevented from 
seeing this lovely and romantic seat at the very entrance of the High- 
lands, and even from staying some days there. They did not cer- 
tainly come to Scotland for the enjoyment of royal pomp and 
luxury, which they might have found better at home. The royal 
party arrived early on Saturday evening, and did not leave till the 
Tuesday, and during this time the clansmen in full costume, had 
the honour of serving as body-guard to the sovereign. 
The gate leading from the garden was decorated with the arms 


of the Drummonds — three red stripes upon a golden shield, held 
by two men armed with clubs, and having beneath the family 
motto, " Gang warily" — a very characteristic one for a mountain 
chief, and, like many other of the Scotch mottoes, equally suitable 
for foxes or wolves. From the summit of the rock on which the 
castle is seated, and which has probably been artificially levelled to 
afford room for it, there is a splendid prospect over the Lowlands of 
Perth. In the distance we could clearly distinguish the conical hill of 
Dunsinane, (what would not some young German enthusiastic ad* 
mirers of Shakspeare give for a glimpse of it,) but Birnam Wood 
appears to have been quite used up by King Malcolm's troops, for 
there is not a trace of it left. I had also enchanting peeps into 
Strath Eare and Strath More, and several of the neighbouring 
glens. By the bye no Scot has ever been able to tell me the exact 
difference between a glen and a strath, but it appears to me that a 
strath is an extensive low tract, between ranges of hills, lying at 
some distance apart, while by glen is understood a deeper and nar- 
rower valley. " Carse" signifies a perfectly flat alluvial district in 
the neighbourhood of a river or bay. These carses are sometimes 
called here " Polders," a name which is also in use in Northern Ger- 

We descended from the castle by a fine rocky terrace to the gar- 
dens, which occupy an extensive level spot between it and the hilly 
part of the park. The trees of the latter, however picturesque and 
natural in their effect, are almost all placed there by the hand of art. 
The English have certainly carried the art of gardening to its highest 
point, for it is the triumph of art to resemble nature so closely while 
it yet remains wholly art. Not only the trees, but even the turf of 
this park, I was told, was artificial, yet one might have thought it 
laid by the fairies themselves for their moonlight dances; the waters, 
which had all the appearance of natural lakes, the ivy that hung its 
rich draperies round the castle rock, and the ancient yew-trees — all 
had been shaped by art, yet all appeared the spontaneous work of 

The flower-gardens are the pride of the place, especially as some 
of their contents, the heaths especially, have been brought to a point 
of perfection scarcely to be seen elsewhere. The plan of the whole 
may be considered a patriotic Scotch one, for it is laid out in the 
form of a St. Andrew's cross, in which the shrubberies and flowers 
are enclosed like jewels in a setting. On a column in the midst 
there are sixty sundials set up in as many different ways, and out 
of the shrubberies in various directions peep statues of Spring, Sum- 
mer, Winter, Bacchus, Pomona, &c. It is only in their flower-gar- 
dens that the English allow of these things, and of course what I 
have said of the close resemblance to nature cannot apply to this part 
of the grounds. It had, indeed, the air of an imitation of an Ita- 
lian garden. There was an immense profusion of roses, mostly 
standards, and one kind called the " Madame Despray," had been 


first produced, or, as the gardener said, "worked" here. The finest 
have been brought from France through the London nurseries ; great 
quantities of flower seeds are also imported from Germany, and many 
of the bulbous roots come from Hamburg to Londor^from London 
to Edinburgh, and thence to these Highland gardens. Of dahlias 
and georginas there were in the gardens of Drummond Castle above 
6000. Orange-trees can never be placed in the open air in these 
northern regions, for even in the best time of year they would be 
liable to night frosts. 

A very curious scale of climate might be formed with these plants. 
In Berlin they may be left out during the middle of summer, in 
Dresden somewhat longer, but they must be placed in well-protected 
pots. In the north of Italy they remain out all the year, but they 
must be covered in the winter, and it is not till we reach the south 
of Italy and Spain that we find them wholly left to themselves. 

One of the most beautiful features of English gardens is the soft 
velvet tur^ which far from being, as it too often is with us a kind of 
forbidden ground, is generally more walked oil than the gravel, 
except in wet weather. 

At Drummond Castle the grass is as soft and firm as the richest 
carpet, and the long sweeping branches of the firs fall on it with 
beautiful effect. I do not know whether it is from any peculiarity 
of climate, or as I rather think the result of art, but this tree appears 
to attain a very much finer development than in Germany, where I 
have usually seen the lower branches broken or withered, and the 
large full ones commencing halfway up the stem, giving the tree a 
mutilated appearance* In the English parks, on the contrary, it is 
clothed down to the ground with long boughs sweeping Eke a lady's 
or a peacock's train, and from which it rises like a pyramid. 

Scotland is neither absolutely nor proportionably so rich in gardens 
as England, but a vast majority of the English gardens are under 
the care of Scotchmen, whose skill in this department is much 
esteemed, and this is not the only one in which the progress of the 
" barbarous Scots," as they used to be called, has been truly asto- 
nishing. No country in Europe perhaps has made such advances in 
such a short period, and these are mamly attributable, it is said, to 
the improvements made in agriculture. " If science once gets into 
the farmer's ground, sir," said the gardener of Drummond Castle, u it 
penetrates to the very heart of a nation." 

In one of the chambers of the castle (which the proprietor was 
very modest in denominating an " old shooting-box") we found the 
arms and uniforms worn by the body-guard of clansmen during the 
Queen's visit. It consisted of the above-described Scotch Highland 
costume, with the ancient weapons, a straight sword, resembling, cu- 
riously enough, that of the Romans, a battle-axe, and a round shield. 
The most remarkable appendage, however, was a splendid snuff-mull 
worn by the leader of the corps, and which also forma a part of a com- 
plete Highland costume, and plays a more conspicuous part, I believe, 


than in any other country. It is formed of a long winding ram's horn, 
with the spiral point terminating in a silver thistle of elegant work- 
manship, and its lid decorated with a beautiful cairngorm. This 
form being one of the most inconvenient possible for the finger, a num- 
ber of little silver instruments are provided to assist in the use of the 
mull, and hung round it by a silver chain. There is a little hammer 
to knock the sides of it, and loosen the snuff that may have become 
attached to them; a little shovel to take it out, a little scraper, and a 
little hare's foot to prevent the smallest waste of the precious con- 
tents ; the whole apparatus hangs round the body like a powder-horn, 
and is certainly the most complicated ever employed for so insigni- 
ficant a purpose. 


I took leave of my friends at Drummond, and set out on foot . 
through the magnificent and extensive park towards the little town 
of Gneff. The day was fine and tranquil; not a breath was in mo- 
tion, and the only sound that broke the deep stillness was the rust- 
ling of a pheasant through the withered leaves, or their soft pattering 
on the ground. Covered by them and by the falling needles of the fir- 
trees, larrived at the pleasant mountain village, seated on a small hill 
which, with one lying opposite to it, forms one of the gates of the 
Highlands. Through this gate the river Earn breaks away into 
the plain below. 

It was market-day, and there was a large assemblage of farmers, 
formerly fast friends of Sir Robert Peel, but whose friendship of late 
appears to have grown somewhat cool. Many of them were fine- 
looking 1 men, and they wore over the ordinary French dress now 
prevailing all over Europe, the native Scotch plaid, a sort of square 
woollen shawl, serving the Scot instead of great coat, Mackintosh, 
or furred pelisse. It seems strange that in so cold a country no 
warmer wrapper should have been invented; the Russians, the Poles, 
and other nations wear thick bear-skins under a far more southern 
degree of latitude. The Scotch praise their plaid as " very handy," 
and say they can always wrap up in it the limb that is cold, and 
make out of it whatever they like. They can throw it on one side or 
the other as they find most need, or wrap the whole body in it, or roll 
it up and throw it on the shoulder, leaving the ends hanging down. 

This would be very well as a protection against an occasional cold 
wind in Spain or Italy ; but against the icy blasts that blow over the 
Highland mountains, some more effectual screen is required. In the 
hands of a skilful dandy the plaid often forms a very graceful drapery, 
and in Edinburgh there are many who make a study of arranging it 
in the most becoming fashion. 

The plaids worn by my friends of Crieff were all of black and white 
chequered stuff, called shepherd's tartan (I believe my readers wiH 
not make the mistake which Englishmen often fell into of confound- 
ing the plaid with the tartan), which is really worn by shepherds. 

44 PEKTH. 

over all Scotland and the north of England ; the Mack and white 
stripes being narrow and crossing closely give it, at a short distance, 
a gray hue, and as it differs from all others we may add to the above- 
mentioned clan tartans, and fancy tartans, a third class, namely the 
shepherd's tartan. 

The way from Crieff to Perth was rich in die enjoyment that 
marked every step of my way in this " land of the mountain and the 
flood," as it is truly called, which, unlike most continental countries 
where mountains are usually found in the interior, presents them 
always surrounded by and mingling with the sea. We were now 
again approaching this at the Frith of Tay, — the pride of Scotland, 
as the royal Shannon is of Ireland. 

The Tay is the finest and largest of the Scotch rivers ; it rises in 
the Highlands, and has, at its mouth, the flourishing commercial 
town of Dundee, having 70,000 inhabitants and an extensive foreign 
and domestic trade, though ninety years ago it was a mere little 
fishing village. This river twice breaks for itself a passage through 
the mountains ; in the first of- these openings lies Dunkeld, in the 
next Perth; and lastly, where it narrows before it falls into the sea, 
stands the town of Dundee. 


Perth, though it is not included in the Highlands, is surrounded 
by Highland scenery, and of such a stately character, that one ought 
to write in hexameters to describe it worthily. The Scots consider 
it as the capital of central Scotland, and although it has only 20,000 
inhabitants, much fewer consequently than its neighbour, Dundee, its 
antiquity, its celebrity, and its noble exterior, give it, in comparison 
with the trading city, the air of a noble of ancient, but not wealthy, 
family, in comparison with a rich parvenu. " Noble Perth" is in- 
deed, I understood, the title usually bestowed upon it; and another 
appellation, " the fair city of Perth," is one which no traveller would 
be inclined to refuse it. The avenues to the town, its interior and 
exterior, whether seen near or from a distance-— all is beautiful and 
attractive, and it has also the advantage of being connected with 
many interesting historical recollections. Some miles from it 
lies Scone House, a seat of the Earl of Mansfield, upon the site of 
the ancient and renowned abbey where the Scottish kings were 
crowned. In the garden are stall some ruins of the royal palace, 
but no one is allowed to see them, on account of the ill behaviour of 
some lovers of relics, who robbed the curtains of Mary Queen of 
Scots' bed of the fringe and other ornaments. Near this town lie 
also, Dupplin Castle, the seat of the Einnoulls, which boasts of a 
dragon's cave of old renown, and Kinfauns, the seat of Lord Grey, 
one of the most splendid showhouses in the country, besides many 
others which I did not see, for there is so much to be seen in Perth, 
$hat one must omit something. 

PERTH. 45 

I had heard much before my arrival of the " Inches" of Perth, and 
found with some surprise that they were nothing more than two per- 
fectly flat pieces of land, lying, one north, the other south of the 
town, and called the North and South Inch, admirably adapted 
to all sorts of games and sports requiring level ground, but seeming 
to have little claim to the enthusiastic praise bestowed on them. 
Just as we arrived, we met the people streaming out of the gated 
towards the North Inch, to witness the performance of some feats 
promised by the clown of a roj>e-dancing troop, who wanted, as I 
heard it said, to " get up an excitement tor their benefit/ 7 and it ap- 
pears to me that every undertaking in England, great or small, must 
be always preceded by a blowing of the trumpet for the purpose of 
" getting up an excitement." The plan at present adopted, seemed 
well chosen to attract attention ; the clown in full costume was to 
sail down the river in a tub, drawn by four geese, and had it been 
Juno with her swans, or Venus with her doves, the audience would 
scarcely have been so well pleased. The whole North Inch was co- 
vered with spectators, and in due time the adventurous navigator ap- 
peared, and embarked amidst loud applause, balancing himself very 
skilfully in his peculiar craft. The geese of course did not really 
draw him, but were themselves carried on by the current. 

As I stood on the lofty bridge looking down on the scene, I began 
to understand something, of the partiality of the Perth people for 
their Inches. On the North Inch there is neither house, tree, bush, 
nor ditch, to interrupt the perfect smoothness of the surface, which 
resembles an immense billiard-table ; its effect, surrounded as it is 
by hills and mountains, is very striking, and considering the fond- 
ness of the British for these out-of-doors sports, it must really be a 

In the year 1390, in the reign of King Robert III., a different kind 
of a spectacle was presented on this North Inch. The sovereign, 
wishing to put a stop to the eternal feuds of two hostile clans, the 
Clan Chattan and the Clan Kay, desired them each to select a cer- 
tain number of their stoutest men and come down and fight out their 
quarrel upon the Inch of Perth. The king and his whole court were 
to witness the combat, and the victors should be considered thence- 
forth to be in the right, and both parties were to forget and forgive. 
When, however, the appointed time came, and they were ranged 
in hostile order before each other, it was discovered that one of the 
combatants had withdrawn, and since no one of the opposite party 
had any wish to imitate the example, Henry Wynd, a valiant sad* 
dler of Perth offered himself to fill the vacant post, for a small pecu- 
niary "consideration" 

The side taken by the saddler, who proved a most doughty cham- 
pion, was victorious ; the Mac Kays were all killed, with the exceptions 
of a single individual, who sprang into the river Tay and escaped 
to the mountains. Eleven of the victors remained alive. The fate 
of this fugitive, Mac Kay, has been made the subject of Walter 

46 PKKTH. 

Scott's " Fair Maid of Perth," frith which most of us are familiar, 
but the interest of die story is greatly increased by a sight of the 
scene of its occurrence, and the association of similar ones that have 
taken place among the ancient tribes of Philistines and others men- 
tioned in the Bible, and in our own days among the Circassians. 
The similar circumstances of mountaineers, have usually produced a 
striking similarity of manneis. 

This warlike clannish spirit, and the rudest and most primitive 
form of human society, being in feet no more than the extension of 
the family, existed in Scotland above 2000 years, and was not rooted 
out till the middle of the last century; and it is only since this time 
that Dundee and other such peaceful communities have arisen on the 
Scottish coasts. When we consider that such wild elements of dis- 
cord as were found among these hostile tribes, have existed so re- 
cently in the very bosom of European society, we may fear in spite 
of the efforts of the peace societies of London, Paris, and New 
Tork, to witness yet many great and sanguinary struggles, without 
perhaps despairing of the final consummation of a long, deep, and 
universal peace. 

I returned towards evening, through some handsome nursery- 
gardens, to the town, where I made acquaintance with some 
thorough sportsmen. 

The two great national games of Scotland are curling and golf. 
The former is decidedly the more interesting of the two, as it can 
only be played upon tne ice, and is, for that very reason, almost 
exclusively Scottish; for neither in England nor in Ireland is there 
enough of solid ice for the purpose. For this reason, too, the Scots 
have carried the game with them only into the northern regions of the 
world, such as Canada, Nova Scotia, &c. Unfortunately, 1 never bad 
an opportunity of seeing a curling match, but my Perth friends set to 
work with so much impassioned zeal to make me duly master of the 
Subject, that I almost feel as if I had once actually been a spectator of 
such a game, and am conscious at this moment of being somewhat 
inoculated with the curling passion of my friends. 

Yes, I have clearly before me, in my mind's eye, the fine sheet of 
water, turned into transparent crystal by die magic wand of winter — - 
a noble frozen lake, in the midst of the wild Highland region — all 
round it the snow-clad tops of the Grampians, with here and there a 
mountain crag projecting in its naked blackness. The curlers are 
come down from the hills and from the towns to the ring; they are 
almost all handsome, active, vigorous carls, and some of them sport 
the national Highland costume, in honour of the national game. 

They all come with their curling stones in their hands. These 
stones, which may be purchased in many shops in the Scotch towns, 
are made in the following way : they are fiattish, circular masses, 
about forty or fifty pounds weight, very smoothly finished, and 
most of them made of two kinds of granite, one reddish and the 
other blackish. This, I surmise, is done with the intention of pre- 

FSSXH. 47 

venting them from breaking easily; a neat iron handle, consisting 
of a bar, bent once at a right angle, is inserted into the centre erf the 
upper surface. " Our bonny Queen, herself," said my friends, 
" when she was here in Perth, had one of our curling stones shown 
her, and she lifted it up, heavy as it was." But the curlers have 
something more to do than merely to lift the stone; their task being 
to throw it at a distant mark, so that it shall fell as near it as possible 
and remain there. The weight of the stone, and the slippenness of 
the ice, make this a matter requiring considerable strength, and, at 
the same time, much dexterity and precision of eye. Of afl popular 
games those are the best which equally exercise the eye and the arm, 
the faculties of the body and those of the mind. 

-The mark, or tee, as it is called, is a little hole in the ice, round 
which are described circles of various diameters, which serve to 
measure the distance of each throw from the mark. These circles 
have their own technical names, and so also has a certain zigzag line 
drawn across the run, and which the stone must pass, or the throw 
counts for nothing. The whole length of the run is, usually, from 
one hundred and twenty to one hundred and fifty feet. The player's 
aim is to throw his stone as near as possible to the mark, and, at the ' 
same time, to make it thrust aside one or more of those of his oppo- 
nents. As the game is often played by from twenty to thirty per- 
sons, and the mark is thickly surrounded by stones, it is often a very 
difficult problem to pitch the stone through the narrow space left 
open for it, and, at the same time, to select the proper one which 
may be thrust aside by a passing tip. One may easily fancy, even 
without having seen the game, what wonderful strokes may be made 
in this way, and what exclamations they may call forth on all sides, 
" Beautiful ! Magnificent ! Prodigious !" and so forth. 

The players are divided into two parties, and that side wins which 
counts thirty-one stones nearest to the mark. The run, which, of 
course, must be smooth and polished as a mirror, is always selected and 
kept swept with great caxe; above all things, it must not contain any 
longitudinal clefts, for these, of course, would be more likely to make 
a stone swerve aside than others running in a transverse direction. 
I was informed that many gentlemen had curling ponds specially 
constructed for the game, and so contrived, that when the surface of 
the ice was cut up, two or three inches of water could be turned on, 
and soa new surface formed. Many of these curling ponds have the 
water drained off in summer, and then became bowling greens. It 
now and then happens, that darkness comes on before the game is 
ended, and my friends told me they were often so deeply interested 
in the game as to continue it till very late by tarch-hgnt. Gentle 
and simple, lords, townspeople, and farmers, are generally enthusias- 
tic in taeir fondness for this fine manly exercise; and as the ring 
levels all distinctions, people of all ranks meet harmoniously in the 
curling clubs. It is a peculiarity of the English, that the same peo- 

48 PJEJftTH. 

pie who otherwise stand immeasurably apart from each other, meet 
under certain circumstances upon a footing of perfect equality. 

Curling clubs are found in all parts of Scotland; the largest and 
most renowned of them is the grand Caledonian curling club of 
Edinburgh, which was founded in 1838. The Duddingstone curl- 
ing club is older, and, likewise, of much renown; but there are also 
others of very ancient date. These clubs have men of the highest 
rank for their presidents; and each of them has even a reverend 
Mr. So-and-So who officiates as chaplain. 

The Scots, as I have mentioned, have introduced the game into 
North America, and some most interesting rings, it is said, are occa- 
sionally formed in winter upon the St. Lawrence. My friends in- 
formed me, that in recent times a great revolution had taken place 
in the constitution of those societies; that it was in contemplation to 
form a great brotherhood of the ring, consisting of the keen curlers 
of all the clubs, " of baith sides of the Tweed," and from beyond St. 
George's Channel and the Atlantic ocean; and, that the society 
should have its correspondents, its grand matches, and its journal. 
Ninety clubs have already joined this association. 

I find it stated in an annual report of the grand Caledonian club 
of 1842, that the Scotch in the North American colonies have carried 
their zeal for this game so far, that the curlers of Toronto sometimes 
challenge those of Montreal, a town four hundred miles distant, to 
meet them and play a roaring game. They meet in friendly bon- 
spiels, and afterwards sit down to beef and greens. " Perhaps," 
continues the report, " we shall, ere long, have the pleasure of seeing 
our brothers from the other side of the Tweed come to us from 
famous London town to Auld Reekie, to warm their hands at Scot- 
land's ain game o' curling, and afterwards to gladden their hearts 
wi' ae nicht o' true Scottish curling conviviality." Old and appropriate 
songs, curling songs, are sung at these evening meetings. The great 
Caledonian club, and others too, I believe, have even their curling 
antiquities; for instance, old curling stones used in former times. 
One of the oldest of this class that I heard of bore the date of 1613, 
and had been found in a moor. 

I only offer this account to my German readers as an example of 
the extent to which these things are carried in England, and as show- 
ing how interesting an occupation it is to study the manners and 
character of this great nation. 

By-the-bye, it is worth remarking, that it is with this game as 
with most arts and inventions, that is to say, the British were not its 
inventors, but have only improved it. The Flemings are said to 
have introduced it into Scotland four hundred years ago, and in 
Paris the young people may be seen playing a very similar game in 
the open places, with earthen balls, or rather, one more resembling 
the English bowling. 

The curlers lead me to the subject of gol^ for this, as I have said, 

PERTH. 49 

is the second great national Scottish game. It too has its great 
and famous clubs in Edinburgh; the Burnsfields Links Golf Club, 
founded in the year 1761 ; the Edinburgh Burgess Golfing Society, 
founded in 1735, and the Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which, I 
believe, is identical with the celebrated Edinburgh Thistle Golf 
Club. It is not now known in what year the latter society was 
founded; it assumes almost as grand a title as the East India Com- 
pany, for it too is styled the " Honourable Company," an addition 
which in no other instance I found belonging to a mere sporting 
club. The members, like those of many of our rifle societies, have 
their own uniform; scarlet, green, and white, are their colours, and 
the club has its own armorial bearings. 

The pedlers and shoemakers of Scotland, and the kings of the 
land were, in days of yore, alike zealous cultivators of this sport; and 
Charles I. and James II. are cited as peculiarly distinguished gol- 
fers. The latter was so very expert, that no one could equal him in 
the game, with the exception of a certain Paterson, a shoemaker of 

Though the kings were often passionately devoted to golf, still 
the government occasionally endeavoured to discountenance a taste 
for tne game on the part of the people. A proclamation to that 
effect, of the year 1457, forbids golfing; "that the practice of 
archery, which is much more important to the youth of the realm, 
may not suffer thereby. 19 But these measures of the government had 
little effect, for in the year 1744, the town of Edinburgh voted a 
silver cup yearly as a prize for golfing, and the companies now occa- 
sionally oner medals worth two hundred guineas. 

After hearing and reading all this, one must surely feel some- 
what surprised to learn, that the whole affair of this game of golf 
amounts to nothing more than how, with, the smallest possible 
number of blows of a stick, to drive a little hard ball into a cer- 
tain hole at a very great distance. 

" Well to be sure, sir, if you insist upon it, the thing itself is no 
great matter; only you see the great enjoyment of the game is in 
the emulous excitement of the contending parties, their zeal, skill, 
and efforts, and then the grand thing is to calculate the various po- 
sitions of the ball, and the various difficulties occasioned by this or 
that position; for the player must strike his ball as it lies and over- 
come them all with one clever stroke. Stay a moment, just look 
here; you want to know all about the thing? that's all right. I'll 
show it you all. Here now, are some of the balls we use; they are 
made of stout leather. It's not a matter of indifference what leather 
is employed, but I'll tell you more of that by and bye. The leather 
is first of all steeped in boiling water, this being absolutely necessary 
towards making the ball firm; it is stuffed with feathers,, which are 
pressed together very compactly by means of an exceedingly inge- 
nious little piece of machinery;, but this you- can see best at one of 
the ball makers to the Edinburgh clubs. If you go back to Edin- 


burgh you must not delay to pay a visit to one of them. Go to 
Messrs. W. and S. Gourley; they are very obliging people, and will 
show you the ins and outs of the whole process; and I can also give 
you other addresses. But now look here, the leather of the ball 
must afterwards be striped with different layers of white paint; white 
lead is used for the purpose. This is very useful to enable the 
players to distinguish the ball from the green and other colours of 
the field, and it also adds very considerably to its hardness. The 
white lead must be very pure, and exceedingly well laid down, and 
the ball must have several coats of it. But care must be taken that 
each coat is thoroughly dry before another is laid on; if this is not 
attended to the whole ball is spoiled; but Messrs. W. and S. Gour- 
ley will explain to you the why and the wherefore of all this much 
more folly, at present we have too much to do- — For God's sake Mary,' 
do shut the door. The gentleman wants to learn how to play at 

Slf , and the children are making such a noise one can hardly hear 
i own voice." (I must here remark, that I was with my friend 
in his house. Mary was his wife, and I have only to add that I am 
not writing a novel, but simply and exactly describing facts and per- 
sons just as they appeared.) 

" Well, so much for the balls. And now, I must tell you some* 
thing about the things we strike them with; the clubs, or ' kolbes,' 
as we Scotch call them." (I remarked to my friend by the way, 
that we had the same word in German ; whereat, he was exceedingly 
delighted, and threw out the suggestion that probably the word 
' golf' was nothing more'than a corruption of ' kolbe.') " Look, here 
is a whole batch of them. They all, as you see, resemble each other 
in the main, though they are every one somewhat different from the 
rest. Each of them consists of a stick three or four feet long with 
a somewhat bent head, which we call the knob. I can draw the 
figure for you on this bit of paper with a couple of strokes, so that 
you may not forget it again. Here it is, that looks simple enough; 
but good heavens, it's any thing but simple to make the thing as it 
ought to be. Hie knob must have exactly the proper curve; it 
must not be either too heavy or too light, and the stick must possess 
a certain elasticity and great strength. The wood of which the 
stick is made must be selected with great care. The wood is loaded 
inside with lead, and a thick plate of horn must be fastened on the 
back of it to increase its strength. I have ivory on mine, as you 
see, because it looks more elegant. I am very fond of the game, 
and as my kolbes come handy to me from use, I don't mind spend- 
ing a little on them to make them as perfect as possible. The stick 
itself must be wound round strongly with silk at the handle; I haye 
mine covered above the silk with velvet and gold thread for orna- 
ment's sake; one's hand would slip on the smooth wood. 

" Now, if you please, look at the different forms of my kolbes. 
Some of them have plain thick knobs ; they are used when the ball lies 
oo^ perfectly even ground. Others are somewhat spoon-shaped, with 

store or less oblique concavities ; they are of use when the ball is to 
be Kilted out of a cleft or other depression. It must be struck cleverly, 
so as with the same blow to lift it out of the hole and send it forward. 
Some, as you observe, are shorter and have a thicker knob ; and some 
of them are made entirely of wrought iron. These last are used 
when a very strong stroke is required ; as, for instance, when the ball 
is sunk in the sand or the like. They have all different names, but 
I'll give you the address of the best kolbe-maker in Edinburgh, Mr. 
D. MacEwan, who makes for the club I have already named to you. 
Don't neglect seeing him when you go to Edinburgh ; he can also 
tell you a great deal about the rules of the game." 

" Suppose," said I, interrupting my friend, " a small loose stone 
lies before my ball, is it allowable, by the laws of golf, to push it 

" Ah, very good ; a very proper question. This is a case on which 
various opinions and customs prevail. Some clubs permit it, but 
others strictly lay it down, that every thing should remain as it 
is. According to the laws of some clubs, supposing the ball has 
fallen into such a deep hole that it would be impossible to fetch it 
out with a kolbe, the player is even permitted to lift it out by 
hand, throw it up in the air, and then strike it as it falls, but of course 
under certain disadvantages. But other clubs are more strict, and 
do not allow this, even though the player would submit to the dis- 
advantages in question. But now, come here, come here, (I was 
there all the time,) I will now show you the game myself, as well as 
it can be done in a room by candle-light. Dear, dear, what a pity it 
is! could you not stop here a couple of days longer? I would 
invite some friends for to-morrow, and we would go to the North Inch, 
and let you see a game. There happen to be, just now, some of our 
leading men here, and our Perth golfers are among the very first in 
Scotland. But you are off to our Highlands? Well, we must make 
a virtue of necessity ; but when you return to Edinburgh, be sure 
you go at once to Musselburgh ; there are splendid players there, 
and if you stop a day or two, you may be certain of seeing a good 
game. There is very good golfing too, on the Links of Leith, and 
also, on the links of Edinburgh, as well as on the Green at Glas- 
gow. But our Inches of Perth beat all other grounds hollow. 

" Here, take a club in your hand, Til take one too. Just fancy 
to yourself, that we are ihe two parties playing ; each party may 
consist of any number of persons; every player has his lad running 
after him with his different kolbes, out of which he selects each 
time the one required for the stroke he has to make. Now just sup- 
pose that this room is ihe Links of Leith, or the Inches of Perth; 
let this be the hole." (He drew one with a piece of chalk.) " But 
stay, the chairs and tables are in our way. Mary, call the boys in. 
Come, youngsters, clear away the tables and chairs and the sofa." 

"Oh! pray do not put yourself to all this trouble." "Pooh, 
pooh, don't mention it. 1 ' We cleared out the whole room, and, 



saving the gran, it had a tolerably close resemblance to the North: 
Inch. The doors of some adjoining rooms were also opened and so 
we had a pretty long run, which was lighted all along with candles. 
"Now then — play. Strike right for the hole. Bat we must do 
every thing somewhat in miniature, and only give gentle strokes." 

Now was, in fact, the time when the whole explanation was pro* 
perly to begin; but, I must confess, it nearly ended with this be- 
ginning. My first ball shot right into the turf ashes under the grate, 
and was there in a very critical position. My friend called on me 
to suppose that the ashes were a sand-bed lying in the play-ground, 
and that the sods of turf lying round it were boulder stones; and he 
had so many remarks to make to me on this supposed case, how far 
it was favourable to me, or otherwise; what form of club would be 
the best for me to fetch out the ball; whether I had a right to move 
the ashes somewhat aside, and under what disadvantages; whether 
it was better for me to submit to those disadvantages, or to try my 
luck at a stroke ; and his remarks were mixed up with so many 
peculiar Scottish terms, and others technically employed in the game 
of golf, such as tee, holg, caddy, putters, and so forth, the meaning 
of which I could not make out, that, at last, he became quite warm- 
in his zeal, and the perspiration stood out on his forehead. As for 
me, I found myself more and more in the dark, and at last I left 
off my inquiries and fully admitted the truth of my friend's asser- 
tion, that the game was not so very simple as I had supposed at first, 
and we both sank down weary and fogged on the sofa, which the 
boys had meanwhile brought in again. 

In conclusion, he gave me, notwithstanding all my remonstrances,, 
some letters of introduction to distinguished Scottish golfers, and a 

i'ood deal of information with respect to works from which I could 
earn every particular respecting the game. 

Whoever is sincerely desirous of instruction is sure to find persons 
in every part of England who will give him what he desires in the 
best and most fundamental manner. The reason of this is, that in 
that country those who take any thing in hand are usually thoroughly 
familiar with their subject, and prosecute it with hearty zeaL It is 
remarkable too, how warily the English abstain from pronouncing 
opinions and speaking like professors, on things they do not perfectly 
understand. For instance, I asked my golfing friend some questions 
respecting curling; but though he probably knew ten times more of 
the matter than I, he declined giving me ft direct answer, and said: 
" In curling I have done very little, and therefore I don't presume 
to be a judge of the matter. But if you like I will introduce you to 
some experienced curlers of our town." He did so, and thus I learned 
many things, a part of which I have already communicated to my 

The goldsmiths of Perth are celebrated for the skill and neatness 
of their workmanship, and the presence of the Queen, and the festivals 
given in her honour, had recently brought them into full activity. 

PERTH. 53 

The mama for Scotch dress, and Scotch ornaments, which spread all 
oyer the United Kingdom after her return, and the number of or- 
ders received in consequence, had, at the time of my visit, filled their 
shops with an immense variety of beautiful articles, in which the fine 
stones and crystals found in the Scottish mountains, especially the 
cairngorm, made a splendid figure. 

Scotland, like Ireland, is inclined to boast of the gold mines it 
formerly possessed ; and indeed there are few countries that do not lay 
claim to such an honour, for there is no metal more generally diffused, 
although it is seldom found in considerable quantities. 

Pearls also have been found in the Scottish rivers, and many of 
their mountains are full of beautiful agates, cornelians, jaspers, and 
especially the renowned cairngorm, but the people have hitherto 
done little more than pick them out of the chinks and crevices 
of the rocks, or from among fragments of granite washed down by 
mountain torrents, and afterwards left in their dry channels. 

In these are often found fine topazes and beryls, but the best I was 
told are from Invercauld, the seat of the chief of the celebrated clan 
of the same name, about forty miles from Aberdeen. The shepherds 
in those wild districts generally collect the stones in their lonely 
walks after their sheep. One very beautiful ornament shewn to jne 
was made of a beryl found imbedded in a cairngorm, which had 
probably formed round it. One of the latter was worn by Queen 
Victoria as an agraffe to fasten a plaid upon her shoulder at a ball 
given in her honour by the Marquis of Breadalbane. 

The most common ornaments of these jewellers' shops are the 
highland brooches, the most modern and fashionable of which con- 
sist of a gold St. Andrew's cross, in the centre of which lies a thistle 
surrounded by a garland of Scottish stones set in silver. There are 
also some very old-fashioned ones that seem to have been worn by 
those highland dames, of whom Dr. Johnson relates that their usual 
marriage portion consisted of a certain number of cows, — the richer 
of from 20 to 30, but in some districts according to the same authority 
of not more than ten or even two. A very favourite pattern among 
these old brooches is that called the Mary Queen of Scots' brooch, 
having a golden M. with a thistle and lily on either side, and sur- 
rounded by the above described garland. Probably, although I did 
not see them, there are similar devices commemorative of" bonny 
Prince Charlie," of whom the traveller in Scotland cannot fail to be 
frequently reminded. In the appearance of Prince Charlie, in fact, 
shone the last gleam of Scottish independence, and since he never 
became king, a softer and tenderer feeling lingers round his me- 
mory, than around that of any actual sovereign. 

" Fareweel to a' our Scottish fame, 
Fareweel to a* our ancient glory! 
Fareweel e'en to our Scottish name, 
Sae famed in martial story; # 

Now Tweed rins to the ocean 
To mark where England's prcrince stands! 

sings Burns concerning the union, and although such songs have 

54 PERTH. 

no longer so real and practical a significance as those of Moore in 
Ireland, they still have a great poetical and even ethnographical 

Some very magnificent Highland dirks were shown to me at Perth, 
as forming part of the regular costume of a chieftain. With these 
dirks there was mostly connected a knife and fork, a peculiar and 
characteristic appendage for chieftains, who often had to conquer 
their dinner with their sword. 

" Wed, sir, and have ye seen fair Perth town?" inquired, with a 
mimic Scotch accent, an Irishman who took his seat beside me on 
the top of the coach to Dunkeld, and who went on to make such 
free remarks on Perth and its " bonnie lasses," that I was fain to 
beg him not to speak so loud in the hearing of so many Scotch 

" Oh, it's no matter," he replied, ** the Scotch know once for all 
that it's all over with an Irishman, in this world and the next. We 
all grow up in the darkness of Catholicism and the errors of popery." 

Before us, in the box-seat by the coachman, sat a Scotchman, 
with his gray plaid drawn round him as grave and silent as a statue. 
meuev^wVp^sed any wandering pSngere or labours in a 
field, I noticed, however, that he made a movement and threw down 
some small papers which the people picked up. I thought at first 
he must be a doctor or some other professional man who wished to 
take this method of distributing his address among the country peo- 
ple; but he soon presented me with some of the papers, and I saw 
that they contained prayers and short religious contemplations, 
printed on each. 

In every village we passed through, wherever he espied children 
at a cottage door, or men at work, he called out to attract attention, 
and then threw down some of his packets. The men looked up, 
and the children jumped to catch them, and each began diligently 
to peruse their contents. In those I read, the most sacred subjects 
were treated in such an extraordinary style, that I dare not venture 
to give an^ extracts, lest it should appear as if I wished to turn 
them into ridicule. I think it is scarcely possible that writings of 
this character can do any good. 

Many of them also were so profoundly unintelligible that, though 
I am unwilling to describe them as works of darkness, it must be 
acknowledged that there was not to be perceived in them the faint- 
est ray of sound human understanding, and that they consequently 
wanted the very foundation of all light, and I cannot believe, either 
that the Almighty looks down approvingly on such things, or that 
hard-working men, or their poor ragged children should be able to 
derive from them the smallest drop of spiritual consolation. I observed 
to my travelling companion that his liberality in the distribution of 
these tracts, must be rather expensive to him, but he answered, 
" Oh dear no, a hundred of them don't on the average cost me six- 
The road proceeded for a considerable distance along the valley 


of the Tay, past Scone, the ancient place of coronation for die 
Scottish kings, which peeped out from the midst of woodland scenery 
on the opposite shore of the liver; past what once was Birnam Wooo, 
which stall bears the name, and by many an ancient battlefield — so 
ancient that the manes of the departed heroes must have grown tired 
of haunting them, and at length reached the " highland mouth" of 
Dunkeld. Here I left the coach which went on to Inverness, 
whilst I prepared for an excursion to the Highlands which I intended 
to commence in a gig, and afterwards to continue on foot. 

Beyond Birnam Wood the valley of the Tay narrows to a moun- 
tain pass or ravine, called the " Mouth/' and after passing through 
this we enter a beautiful basin among lofty hills, in which lies the 
little town of Dunkeld. Here begins the country of the High- 
landers— of those who are entitled to bear in their shields the proud 
motto, " A Bomanis invicti," adopted by the Antiquarian Society of 
Perth. In fact, the thought expressed in these few words often 
forces itself on the mind, on crossing anywhere what were the limits 
of the mighty Roman empire. It is now some years since I have 
been wandering along its outer circle — from the Black Sea to these 
Highland Mouths— through Walachia, Hungary, Austria, Ger- 
many, and Belgium, and seeking everywhere the traces of their fron- 
tier in walls and camps; yet I might devote my life to the purpose, 
if I really wished to complete a survey of the boundaries of a do- 
minion whose vastness will never cease to awaken astonishment 
The regions occupied by the Germanic races, however, who bounded 
on so many points the territories of the Romans, might present a 
still wider circuit. The Roman empire itself became theirs, and if 
the Scotch Highlands were " a Romanis invicti," they must confess 
that they have been at length " a Germanis victi." 

It has been said that the division of Scotland into Highlands and 
Lowlands is merely an arbitrary one, since the country is, in fact, 
covered with groups of mountains crossing it in all directions, and, 
in that part called the Lowlands there are mountains but little in- 
ferior in height to those of the Highlands. It is certain that Southern 
Scotland by no means deserves the name of Lowlands in the sense 
in which the term is applied to Holland and Belgium, but, on the 
whole, the distinction drawn between the two, both by geographers 
and by the Scottish people, is a sufficiently marked and intelligible 
one; the physical difference has also been rendered still more obvious 
by a corresponding difference in the history; of the two. 

The Scotch Highlands are usually considered to begin with the 
break made in the land by the Frith of Clyde, the country north of 
this Frith being always reckoned to the Highlands, and including 
the long peninsula, terminating in the Mull of Cantire and the Isles 
of Arran and Bute. All this part of the country is mountainous, 
while the opposite counties of Ayre and Renfrewshire, on the south 
of the Frith, appear, from the sea at least, perfectly level. As far 
as Dumbarton the mountains run along the northern shore of the 


Clyde; here the steep cliffs from which, flow the waters of Lock 
Lomond, form one of the gates of the Highlands, but from this 
point their boundary retires from the shore and follows the line of 
mountains, forming a striking contrast with the district called Strath* 
more. From Stirling and Perth the mountains form a long chain, 
and the passes, called Highland Mouths, are found at Kilmarnock, 
Callander, Crieff, Dunkeld, and Blair Gowrie, but here the boundary 
becomes uncertain, as some geographers draw a line straight to Aber- 
deen, and give the name of Highlands to all the country north of 
this, whilst others cross the spur of the mountain range running east- 
ward, and make a circuit to the Murray Frith and Inverness, reckon* 
ingthe whole eastern coast to the Lowlands. 

The Lowland districts were subjected to the Romans and after- 
wards to the Saxons, whilst in the north and west the original Celtic 
inhabitants maintained themselves, and fought before their Highland 
gates countless battles both with the Romans and Saxons. The hills 
found in the southern parts of Scotland have mostly rounded grassy 
summits, while those of the real Highlands present wild precipitous 
crags and deep narrow glens, with less woodland, but more wild 
heath and morass. 

The circumstance that the Highlands lie open to the Great Western 
Ocean and the Lowlands more to the North Sea, produces many 
important variations in the climate and physical constitution of the 
two divisions of Scotland. 

Whatever we have thought of the matter before, the first step one 
makes into the Highlands is enough to convince us that the distinc- 
tion is not a merely arbitrary one. The population, whatever 
changes it may have undergone, is still evidently of a different cha- 
racter from that which we find in the Lowlands. The shadow of 
ancient clanship still lingers among these wild hills; the Celtic lan- 
guage still occasionally meets the ear, the people talk of the chief, and 

:eat tracts of wild uncultivated country appear, for the Lowlands, 

Louffh they occupy by far the smallest part of Scotland, contain a 
population six times greater than the Highland district. 


The small town bearing this ancient Celtic name is surrounded by 
mountains, no longer bounding the distant horizon, but pressing 
closely in on every side; it is the seat of the Duke of Athol, the chief 
of the great clan of Murray. A former duke is celebrated for hav- 
ing planted 45,000 acres of land with trees, the number of which is 
said to amount to twelve or fifteen million; it is therefore not sur- 
prising that the hills around his mansion are overshadowed by a mag- 
nificent growth of timber. From these dark hilb gush out the crys- 
tal clear waters of the Tay, and flow through the pass or mouth which 
affords a beautiful glimpse into the Lowland country. 


The town is handsome and pleasant, and beyond it lies the ducal 
.mansion and park, over the gates of which, as usual in the parks of 
the English nobility, the arms of the family made a conspicuous 
figure. The motto beneath them, that of the Murray family, was 
curious: " Furth fortune, and fill the fetters," which I understood 
to signify : Advance your fortune by making as many prisoners and 
slaves as possible, thereby " filling the fetters." The oldest title of 
the chief is that of Baron Murray of Tullibardine, for in Scotland 
the baronies are always older than the dukedoms; his other titles are 
Earl of Tullibardine, Earl of Athol, Marquis of Athol, Viscount of 
Balquhidder, Baron Murray Balvenie and Gask, Duke of Athol, 
Marquis of Tullibardine, Larl of Strathtay and Strathardle, Vis* 
count of Glenalmond and Glenlyon, and in the English peerage, Earl 
Strange, and Baron Murray of Stanley ! The kernel of ail these 
hulls and wrappages is John Murray. 

I walked about the park with an old clansman as my guide, and 
I noticed that he never spoke of any one but " the duke" and seemed 
to make but small account of the sovereign of the country in com- 
parison. " It's natural, sir," said the old man, " for every duke of 
ithol has a great swin^ in this country, in carrying elections, you 
know, getting gentlemen into situations and such like." He main- 
tained stoutly that Prince Albert was a prince of Wamir or Vamir 
(he had probably heard something of Weimar), and when at last 
he agreed to take my word for it that he was a Prince of Coburg, 
added: " Well, well, sir, the main point is that this country is very 
much pleased with your countryman. He is a handsome quiet 
gentleman, and does not meddle with politics at all." 

When, in the year 1773, Dr. Johnson made a tour in Scotland and 
the Hebrides, he declared that a tree was as great a rarity as a horse in 
Venice. Now thanks to the Duke of Athol, and other such zealous 
planters, trees are no longer rare. Planting must, indeed, have pro- 
ceeded with extraordinary activity during the last century, for we 
find not only beautiful woods, but even forests as far as the northern- 
most lands-end of Cape Wrath. In Scotland, as in Ireland, there 
are evident traces of the country having been twice wooded, and 
twice left desolate and naked. In the earliest period, when the land 
gradually rose out of the bosom of the ocean, it was of course barren 
of trees; but by the time the Romans reached it it was covered all 
over with wood, in proof of this we have not only their accounts, 
but also the fact that even in the Hebrides, now entirely naked, 
trunks of the finest trees have been found in bogs and morasses. 
These ancient forests disappeared, however, in the course of time, 
by neglect and bad management, and now for the second time the 
country is gradually becoming richly adorned with fine woods, the 
most beautiful ornament that can be bestowed on any country. It 
would, however, be greatly benefited if it could inspire a few dozen 
landed proprietors with the passion for planting that possessed the 
above-mentioned patriotic Duke of Athol. 


No tree is so frequently seen in the Highlands as the larch, al- 
though, until the contrary was proved, the Scotch believed it would 
only grow in a more southern climate. The first larches ever planted 
here were brought in 1737 from the Tyrol, where, in the mountains 
and valleys of the Etsch, there are the most magnificent woods of 
this fine and useful tree. They were at first planted in pots, but 
iave now reached a vast and magnificent growth. I was told that 
one of them is calculated to contain no less than 396 cubic feet of 
wood, and as I looked at it I was reminded of the cypress in the 
Crimea, which is the original progenitor of all the cypress-trees in 
ihe peninsula. The Duke of Athol had the satisfaction of living to 
«ee some of the trees which hehad planted employedin the construction 
of a frigate, and launched upon the ocean, a pleasure which the planter 
can seldom hope to enjoy. For this reason planting is perhaps a bu- 
siness that should be undertaken by the state, which has a longer 
Jife than the individual 

Dunkeld was formerly the seat of a bishop; and close to the 
residence of the Duke of Athol lie the ruins of a fine cathedral, for 
Ihis town, like many others situated on the borders of the Highlands, 
was formerly a focus of civilisation, whence the light of religion and 
science penetrated the darkness of the surrounding wilds. The 
bishops of Dunkeld are said to have sent missionaries acquainted 
with the Erse language, to preach Christianity to their heathen 
population, in the same manner as the monks from Ireland, who 
established missions on the Western shores, as well as made journeys 
into the interior of the country. The bishops had, however, often 
no little difficulty to maintain their rights against the attacks of the 
wild clans in their neighbourhood; yet it is, as Chambers observes, 
interesting to see the influence exercised by ihe terrors of the church 
ever the superstitious and barbarous chiefs. Often when they had 
attacked the prelate or his vassals, stolen his cattle and burnt his 
barns, he has compelled them to do penance in hair shirts before the 
altar, and implore pardon for their offences from heaven and the 

The ckns living in the neighbourhood of Dunkeld are the 
Mac-Kays, the Mac-Inzies, the Stewarts, the Maolnroys, the Don- 
nachys, and the Robertsons. (How the last came by their Ger- 
manic-English name, I could not make out.) All these came down 
fiom their mountains to greet the Queen and Prince Albert, and on 
a beautiful lawn before the duke's house a tent was erected, where 
the royal pair took a luncheon, and reviewed the Highlanders. The 
pipers were all placed together upon the bridge, to offer their up- 
roarious greeting to the Queen, who saluted the whole assembly m 
ihe most gracious manner, and a very splendid spectacle must have 
been presented by these many-coloured and picturesque costumes 
on the verdant surface of the park. Now this late scene of joyous 
tumult was hushed in the profoundest repose; the clansmen had 
retired again to their glens, the leaves fell from the trees, and lay 


undisturbed cm the ground; and the Duchess of Athol, who hid 
been taken ill shortly after the departure of her royal visitors, -was 
slumbering in eternal repose. 

At the inn of Dunkeld, I procured a gig and set out to follow 
the traces of the illustrious pair up the river Taj. I was told I 
could not possibly choose a better route for the beauties of High- 
land scenery- This route over Aberfeldy, Kenmore (the seat of the 
Marquis of Breadalbane), Loch Tay, Killin, and Loch Earne, 
before a fashionable one, is now more so than ever, and the people 
on the road are in joyful expectation of the arrival of crowds of 
tourists. The county of Perth, where all the above-mentioned 
points are found, is among the largest in Scotland, for, of the six- 
teen millions of acres composing the surface of Scotland, it con- 
tains no less than two millions, and comprises within those the 
most exquisite variety of both Highland and Lowland scenery. 


I had engaged a driver to accompany me, who was acquainted 
with the Gaelic, and on the way he gave me some instruction in this 
language, which has much less written literature than the Erse of 
the Irish, since the latter possessed a considerable amount of lite- 
rary culture, whilst the Scotch Highlanders remained barbarians 
until they were civilised through their intercourse with the English. 
My companion informed me that he belonged to the clan " Dschuer," 
of which there were few members left. 1 asked him if he knew any 
Gaelic songs, and he recited several, of which, of course, I did not 
understand a syllable; when I questioned him on their subjects, he 
answered : " All these songs have a good deal about love, and those 
sort of things. But," he added, " now they don't makeup so much 
poetry as in the olden tame." I inquired how the Duke of Athol 
was called in his own country, and he replied : " Kean na Munich' 9 
— that is, the great Head of the Murrays. 

He told me the Gaelic for many names of things we observed, 
such as potatoes, turnips, &c., which have been of comparatively 
recent introduction in the Highlands; and among others, I was 
pleased to come upon a trace of the word " Punch," which my 
driver maintained to be a genuine Gaelic one. The many meanings 
affixed to this word, or to similar ones in English — as punch, a 
merry-andrew ; punch, a carpenter's tool; puncheon, a vessel for 
liquor, &c., might seem to indicate a relationship with the French 
word, poingon; but Foyer, in his Travels, declares it to be an Indian 
word, signifying the elements. The punch drunk in the High- 
lands, however, does not consist of many different elements, bemg 
nothing more than whiskey and water, with the flavour of the 
"peat reek," instead of lemon and sugar. 

The declivities of all the mountains which we passed were gaily 
decorated with the red and yellow blossoms of the larch- tree, and for 


these ornaments they have to thank the Duke of Athol, for before 
his time they were all barren, While enjoying this prospect we 
had also the advantage of bowling along a very fine road — one among 
the many recent improvements which continually surprise the travel- 
ler in Scotland. In this point of view I find few books more inter- 
resting than the " Tour of Dr. Johnson," to which I have often al- 
luded, and who describes the country seventy years ago as an actually 
barbarous one-— much in the same terms as one might speak of the 
Crimea, or any country in a similar state. He travelled mostly 
on horseback, his only quarters were miserable little hovels, his only 
food oaten cakes, his road lay across rock and moor, his only com- 
panions were rude mountaineers. 

Now there are good roads in all directions, good inns in abundance, 
and not only the various points on the coast, but even all the islands, 
the Hebrides, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, nay even the remote St. 
Kuilda, are connected with the mainland by steam-boats, in a per- 
fect net of various communications. To whatever branch of human 
activity we direct our attention, the difference between the Scotland 
of the last century and the Scotland of the present day, is almost in- 
credible. Whetner we compare the amount of the population or of 
the revenue — the state of national education, of agriculture, or hor- 
ticulture, or of each particular branch of these arts, of architecture, of 
canal and road making, of the use of articles of luxury, in every di- 
rection we find an increase from ten to twenty fold. 

It seems as if the Scotland of a hundred years ago scarcely de- 
served to be mentioned in history at all; it came slowly tacking in 
the rear of all the states of Europe, while now it moves rapidly along 
like a steam frigate, among the first nations of the world. Virgil's 
" Pcnitus tato divisos arbe Britannos" would perfectly apply to Scot- 
land in 1700. 

That nothing in Scotland has remained stationary would of course, 
however, be too much to affirm of this or of any other country. In 
some parts of the interior of Germany, there are to be found peasants' 
huts in a precisely similar condition to those observed by the Ro- 
mans; and in the bosom of the Apennines the herdsmen and ban- 
ditti live in the very same manner as in the days of Horace. In 
some of the provinces of France we may see things that Caesar saw 
among the ancient Gauls, and on our way through the Highlands we 
saw huts that might have formed suitable dwellings for the Picts and 
Scots of the time of Ossian. 

These huts, as well as the hay and peat stacks, were thatched with 
heath in a rude and slovenly manner; and this same material served 
on the visit of the Queen and Prince Albert to build a triumphant 
arch, and with garlands woven of it were formed the initial letters of 
the illustrious visitors 9 names. 

It was dark when I arrived in Aberfeldy, and I had no longer 
light enough to see the celebrated waterfall on which Burns has 
written one of his beautiful lyrics. In Scotland one can just as little 


dispense with the songs of Burns, as in Ireland with those of Tho- 
mas Moore. Every beautiful scene, every historical recollection is 
interwoven with the effusions of one or other patriotic poet. " By 
that lake whose gloomy shore," or " Let Erin remember the days of 
old," come out as certainly on the mention of the ruins of Glen* 
dalough, or of King Brien, as in Scotland a word about the battle 
of Bannockburn produces, 

" Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled, 
Scots wham Brace has aften led/' 

And if in the presence of a Scotchman any allusion is made to 
Highland maidens, one is sure to hear him humming to himself the 
44 Highland Lassie," or 

" The heather was blooming, the meadows were mown, 
Our lads gaed a hunting ae day at the dawn, 
O'er moors and o'er mosses and monie a glen, 
At length they discovered a bonny moorhen." * 

And if you have doubts, as many critics have, whether this song is 
really a production of Burns, you had better keep your doubts to 
yourself if you should happen to be in company with a Scotchman, 
or he will infallibly give you the whole song. 

Notwithstanding the great popularity of the poetry of Burns, we 
cannot however forget that the poet who thus enraptured his coun- 
trymen was left to die in sorrow and neglect, and that his death-bed 
was disturbed for a debt of five pounds, which he owed to a haber- 

Millions of yet unborn generations will delight in the poems, in 
which he has made such admirable use of the material entrusted to 
him in the Scottish dialect, working it out into such exquisite forms 
in songs that will certainly be " cure perenmus" and posterity will 
bitterly reproach the memory of the men of his own time that they 
could not bear with and cherish, in spite of his failings, a genius of 
so high an order. Such is the world, however, and posterity may 
very likely be found equally faulty towards the Burns of a future 
day, if one should arise. 

What particularly distinguishes Burns from Moore and Byron, 
the two poets of England and Ireland, between whom and himself 
in many respects a parallel might be drawn, is that he was not born 
in the educated classes, and in fact received no education at all. In 
the earlier ages of Scotland, when no literature existed, this circum- 
stance would not have operated disadvantageously upon him. He 
might have poured out his songs in the foremost rank of the battle. 
But in the age in which he was born, he found himself drawn into 
learned and literary circles, for which his previous habits must on 
some points have unfitted him, while he mufct have necessarily looked 
down from the height of his genius upon those who were regarded 

as his superiors. 

. — ■ 

* This moorhen is of course nothing else than a bonny hieland lassie. 


As a ffemnne national Scottish poet, proceeding from the very 
heart and kernel of the Scottish nation he of course wrote in the 
Scottish dialect, and this circumstance which to an Englishman 
detracts much from the merit of his works, undoubtedly tends to 
endear them to his fellow countrymen. It is in fact impossible not 
*> be struck with admiration for the manner in which he has em- 
ployed both this and the English language, so pliant yet so har- 
monious, so material yet energetic and forcible does it become in 
his hands. Among a hundred other examples one may cite those 
of the following verses: 

" Farewell to the mountains high covered with snow, 
Farewell to the straths and green valleys below, 
Farewell to the forests and wild hanging woods, 
Farewell to the torrents and load pouring floods." 

As far towards the north as the English language is known, the 
poems of Burns have spread, and there are many places, it is said, 
upon the Hebrides and Orkneys, where the entire stock of literature 
belonging to the islands is comprised in the Bible and the poems of 


"Follow me" is the imperious motto which is inscribed by the 
Breadalbanes beneath their arms; and we followed accordingly along 
the road from Aberfeldy, till we reached Taymouth Castle, the 
proud abode of the noble family. It lies not far from the eastern end 
of Locji Tay, in one of the loveliest parts of the Highlands, but 
which unfortunately the evening veiled from our view. Its Celtic 
name, by which it is often marked on maps, is " Ceanmore,''* and 
there are many places besides which bear at the same time a Celtic 
and a Germanic name. With some of the clans the English has 
superseded the Celtic appellation, as in the case of the clan Robertson, 
to which I have before alluded, whose original name was Donnochy. 
Sometimes the English name is merely a corruption of the Celtic, 
as for instance Campbell, which has been formed from " Kaimbel" 
or " Caimbel.' 

The children of " Caimbel" dwell here around Loch Tay, and the 
Marquis of Breadalbane is himself a Campbell, although merely the 
head of the greatest branch of the family, the great chief of the whole 
dan being the Dukeof Argyle. The greatest part of Argyleshire, how- 
ever, belongs to the marquis. Near the lake lies a pretty little village 
also called " Ceanmore," or Kenmore, where I found a pleasant and 
comfortable inn in which I took up my quarters. To my great disap- 
pointment I was told that the castle and park were closed against all 
strangers, and that consequently I must not hope to see them. On 
a former occasion I had suffered myself to be deterred from visiting 
the beautiful palace and ruins of Scone by similar representations, 

word signifies either « the great cliier or the "graft head." 


and I was now resolved I would not so easily give up Taymouth 

I accordingly sat down and indicted an epistle to the marchioness 
(as I was told toe marquis was absent) wherein I represented the hard 
case of a travelling philosopher who had come all the way from the 
shares of the Danube and the Black Sea to visit the dominions of her 
Britannic Majesty, who now, after penetrating as far as the remote 
village of Kenmore, honoured since time immemorial by the resi- 
dence of the illustrious family of Breadalbane, and within sight of 
the battlements of its renowned castle, had the misfortune to find its 
gates closed against him. 

I received in reply a friendly permission, and, by the way, I may 
give a word of advice to foreign travellers in England, wiien they 
are told that they cannot see a place, to write directly to the pro- 

The British magnates often close their treasures against the public,, 
on account of the numbers of their curious country people who 
would otherwise obtain admission; but the foreigner, whose visits are 
necessarily more rare, enjoys many privileges denied to natives. 

In anticipation, therefore, of a pleasant morning, I invited for 
myself to the inn a little evening party of such guests as I could 
collect in the village, consisting of the schoolmaster of Kenmore,. 
the landlord and his family, and a farmer from the neighbourhood, 
with whom I had made acquaintance on the road, and who was said 
to be extremely well acquainted with the Gaelic. The Highlanders 
call themselves u Galach," and their Lowland neighbours Machair, 
or Machir, while the English are always known among them as 
" Sassenach," or Saxon. 

It seems very strange that of the two German races, the Saxons and 
Angles, which came to England, and there mingled together, the 
English should have retained for themselves the name of the Angles, 
because, as it is stated in their histories, that was the most powerful 
and predominant race, whilst in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, the 
appellation of Saxon was chosen for precisely the contrary reason* 
The latter, certainly appears to have heen the right view of the 
matter, for we hear of a Saxon — but no English heptarchy, and we 
have a period of what is called Saxon, not Anglian art. In the old 
writers, also, who have described the Norman conquest, the people of 
England are called Saxons; and it remains, therefore, somewhat 
enigmatical that the people made up of the Angles, Saxons, and 
Normans should ultimately have received the name of the most in- 
significant of the three. Was it that the name of the Saxon fell into 
discredit on account of the conquest, and that, therefore, the name 
of Angle, as at least an unsullied one, was revived? 

One subject concerning which I made very particular inquiries of 
the schoolmaster of Kenmore, was the decrease of the Gaelic lan- 
guage in his neighbourhood. He told me that though he was ac- 
quainted with Gaelic he was never required to teach it, but that his 


predecessors had done so, and the schoolmaster of Kellin, at the 
western extremity of the lake, did so still. As a conversational 
language it had entirely died away on the eastern side, but that on 
the western, the answer, " I ha' no English," was still occasionally 
heard in reply to a question in that language. Here, as elsewhere, 
however, it was rapidly declining. It is certainly remarkable that 
this should be the case at the very time when it is beginning to be 
so zealously studied by the learned, and the means of regularly 
learning and teaching it are now present as they never were before. 
The publication of the first Gaelic dictionary by the brother of my 
friend, the schoolmaster — Dr. Armstrong, took place only in the 
year 1822. Now there are several, and even some grammars: yet 
the study of the language is still in its infancy, while itself stands 
on the very verge of the grave. 

I mentioned in this conversation that during this my hasty jour- 
ney through Scotland, I had never been able to fina any Gaelic 
manuscript in the hands of the people; whilst in Ireland, during a 

Crney equally rapid, I had often seen poems written in the Irish 
guage. The schoolmaster said, in reply, that he himself, so long 
as he had lived in the Highlands had never seen any; he also con- 
firmed a fact mentioned to me before, that the Gaelic had not, like 
.the Erse, an alphabet of its own, but was always written with 
^English letters. If this be so, it would certainly lead to the in- 
ference of a far greater degree of barbarism existing amongst the 
Scotch than the Irish Celts. 

The whole company stood firm in the conviction that the High- 
land costume had been introduced by the Romans, they all assured 
me that I was quite mistaken in supposing this dress unsuitably cold 
for their climate, they had worn the " kilt n till they were fourteen 

Sirs old, and had found it much warmer than English trousers* 
e breast and the body were well protected by it, and as to the 
legs, they no more felt cold than the face when they were used to- 
it. It was usual, they said, when boys first took to the English 
dress, to hear them complaining of cold, and old men were some- 
times compelled to renounce it for this reason. It had cost an infi- 
nity of trouble to carry into execution the ordinance of the Eng- 
lish government, issued in 1746, that the highland dress should be 
discontinued ; the edict was afterwards repealed, but during its con- 
tinuance it had been by no means uncommon to see mountaineers, 
compelled to observe the letter of the law, carrying the hated inex- 
pressibles across their shoulders on a stick. A parallel case came to 
my recollection of the gipsies and Tartars in Russia whom it was 
wished to break of their nomadic habits, and who, for this reason 
were ordered to build themselves houses, but who generally pre- 
ferred living in a tent pitched in the yard, and leaving the house 
unoccupied. The cut of the Highland garb, the naked knees, and 
the checked stuff reminded me of the Tyrolese. Can these things, 
be taken to indicate a common Celtic origin? 


My friends were likewise all agreed that their children should all 
■wear the kilt till the age of fourteen, as it was well known that boys 
who wore trousers were much sleepier and lazier than those who 
iept the native costume. If this be a fact, it is a great pity that the 
kilt cannot be introduced into our German schools. 

It is impossible to be long in the company of the Scots without 
having the conversation turned upon agriculture; for in this branch 
of industry Scotland has made such prodigious progress that one 
may almost give credit to the boast, that " the Scotch farmers beat 
the English three times over." The most important of all the Scotch 
agricultural operations is that of drainage; and during the time I 
spent in Scotland, I heard so much of " drains" and " drainage," 
and the " draining system," that I am determined to inflict a little 
of it upon my readers. The matter is also really not without in- 

As whole districts of the arid land of Persia are undermined to 
Bupply it with water, the fields of Scotland are undermined for the 
opposite purpose, that of taking it away. The channels formed for 
this object are about a foot broad and three or four feet deep, and 
narrowing towards the bottom, which is lined with stone; die top 
is covered with tiles, and over them a quantity of loose flint-stones 
are shaken. 

As the soil in Scotland contains a great quantity of superfluous 
moisture, both from morasses and numerous subterranean springs, it 
is thought necessary to drain every field, and to examine well the 
nature of the ground, in order to know how the drains may best be 
laid. The Scotch and English consider draining so important a part 
of agriculture that they cannot understand how we in Germany can 
do without it, and it is very certain that there are many districts 
among us where it could be introduced with the highest benefit. 
Courlandand Livonia, which lie under the same parallel of latitude as 
Scotland, would gain immensely by the introduction of the British 
draining system. i 

When these drains are properly laid and constructed with due 
solidity, they will last twenty or thirty years, or even more without 
repair. In time they, of course, become stopped, and the mole adds 
a great deal to the trouble required to keep them clear. The form 
of these drains varies much according to the nature of the ground, 
And some farmers prefer one, some the other. Occasionally they 
are left open like our water-ditches. A hundred years ago these 
drains were unknown in Scotland, and now the wnoie country is 
undermined with them. 

The extraordinary progress of agriculture in Scotland is the more 
remarkable, since of all branches of industry it usually proceeds at 
the slowest rate. It lies mostly in the fetters of ancient usage, al- 
ways difficult to alter, and in the hands of uncultivated men living 
in isolated situations far from towns, the foci of civilization and pro- 
gress, yet, notwithstanding these circumstances, it has advanced ia 


Scotland with a rapidity seldom equalled by the freest and most 
unfettered of the economic arts. 

On taking his leave my friend, the schoolmaster, did not fail to 
offer me a pinch of snuff fiom his elegant silver mull, a present from 
his Highland pupils, a testimony of respect, as the inscription par- 
ported, "for his private and professional character." 

Although I had permission to visit the castle and park at what- 
ever time I pleased, I determined to do so at an early hour in the 
morning that I might run no risk of Curbing the fiur mistress of 
the mansion. 

The sun rose clear and bright over the mount a ins, and filled the 
park with a thousand beautiful varieties of light and shade, the ab- 
sence of which, in Scottish landscapes, from the frequently gray and 
cloudy sky, is often deplored. 

" How grand !" exclaimed Queen Victoria, as well she might r when 
she alighted from her carriage and looked round on this magnificent 
scene, rendered still more brilliant by the presence of the whole clan 
in their picturesque Highland garb, led by the Marquis of Breadal- 
bane, a fine, powerful man, "all plaided and plumed in his tartan ar- 
ray," while vie air was rent with shoots of welcome, and rock and 
valley re-echoed to the music of I don't know how many Highland 

The mansion is a gray many-towered edifice of solid cut stone, 
and, although really new, having an antique form and many gothic 
appendages. Before it spread those beautiful and extensive lawns, 
on which, during the Queen's visit, the Highland population was 
encamped, and where, by the light of 60,000 coloured lamps brought 
on purpose from London, they performed, for her amusement, their 
national dances to the music of ten bagpipes. 

The Breadalbanes retain the old Highland custom of keeping a 
house piper, and every day, during the presence of the family at the 
castle, ne entertains them with his melodies, walking up and down 
on the lawn before the windows. The music of the bagpipe is of 
that kind which* is certainly better to keep outside the house, the 
sharp and piercing tones, intended to be heard across the desolate 
hills and valleys, or to pierce the din of battle, not being <juite agree- 
able when too close. The Breadalbane house piper is said to be one 
of the best in the Highlands, but unluckily he nad been wounded 
by a stag, and was obliged to keep his bed at the time of my visit, 
so that 1 had no opportunity to judge of his skilL 

The first thing that attracted my attention on entering the stately 
hall of Breadalbane castle was a skull suspended there, which an in- 
scription beneath stated to have belonged to a "Dun Bull of the 
purest West Highland breed; a good-figured and brave-looking ani- 
mal" This was by no means the only one of these singular decora- 
tions, and I certainly never remember to have seen the sculls of oxen 
honoured by such an elegant environment. I do not think that the 
fondness for particular races of animals was ever carried so fax as it 


38 in tins country. The West Highland race of cattle is one of the 
oldest and purest in Great Britain. They are aboriginal inhabitants 
of the soil, endowed with many quite peculiar qualities, and when 
brought from the meagre herbage and morasses of Argyllshire to 
the fit pastures of the Lowlands, they make the finest of Old Eng- 
land's roast beef. 

The interior of the castle is fitted up with a refined and costly 
elegance that certainly lost none of its effect by being suddenly met 
with in the midst of the smoky huts of the Highlands. At 
every step I found some confirmation of the account that had been 
given me of the vast wealth of the family, whose possessions it is 
said extend from the Eastern to the Western Ocean, in a straight 
Kne for a hundred miles. Estates of this magnitude in Russia 
awaken no surprise, but in so small a country as Scotland it seems 
scarcely credible that so large a portion of the land should be the 

Property of one family. So powerful and wealthy an oligarchy, 
owever, and one so little numerous as in Scotland is scarcely to be 
found in the world. 

It was not the richness and luxury that pervaded the apartments, 
however, that fixed my attention so much as the taste and judgment 
shown in their distribution. Nowhere so well as in Great Britain 
is understood the manner of giving to the antique forms and ar- 
rangements of furniture and apartments the magnificence and luxury 
suiting the present advanced condition of these arts, without forfeit- 
ing any thing of their peculiar and characteristic effect. The rich- 
ness and beauty of the wood carvings struck me particularly, as 
well as the superabundance of curtains, hangings, and carpets of 
the most superb quality, the paintings by the first masters, and the 
very choice collections of books in the library. Every thing is per- 
fectly genuine, even the armour in the banqueting hall, one suit of 
which had belonged to a French king, another to an Austrian 
archduke, and the Tartan stuffs, which are commonly made of wool, 
here shine out splendidly in rich satin and velvet. One of the most 
curious books in the library was a magnificently illustrated work on 
the Scottish Clan Tartans, edited by a John Sobiesky Stuart, in 
which all the minute distinctions by various coloured threads, show- 
ing the clan to which each belonged, were produced in the most 
brilliant colours. Among the pictures was a portrait of a Lady Mary 
Kich, a great heiress married to a former Earl of Breadalbane, who 
after celebrating his marriage rode home to the castle on Lock Tay, 
on a Highland pony, with his lady behind him, whilst another 
trotting by their side, carried the lady's fortune in hard eash, 
packed in leathern bags, and a couple of armed Highlanders ran on 
either side for a guard. All came safe to the castle, where the 
money was kept in a little chamber which served the noble pair at 
the same time for bed-room, sitting-room, and " salon de reception" 

One of the prettiest ornaments of the park is a dairy on a small 
hill shaded by trees. It is built of a snow white stone found in 



great abundance in the neighbourhood, and had the appearance of a 
palace of congealed milk ; the dishes are of white porcelain, and 
they are placed in a little China trough through which trickles a silver 
stream of clear cold water. There is certainly something peculiarly 
delicate and charming in this branch of country economy ; both 
the production and preparation of milk bring with them pleasant 
associations ; it goes through no disagreeable process like wine or 
beer ; its fine white colour, the delicate golden hue of the butter — 
the pleasing appearance even of the cheese — then the peaceful con- 
tented-looking cows — their sweet food, their fragrant breath — all 
produce a most agreeable association of ideas. To be sure the cow- 
dung, — well, well, there is a wrong side to every picture. 

The cattle of the Highlands are chiefly remarkable for their small 
size and the absence of horns which is so common among them. With 
respect to the first, these " Black cattle," as they are called, are 
smaller than those of the Welsh mountains, and those of the Orkney 
and Shetland Isles are said to be decidedly smaller that these. Now 
as the Welsh cattle are certainly much smaller than those of the 
English breed, it follows that as we proceed northwards from the 
southern counties of England, we find a gradual diminution of size 
in the cattle, as an established fact. A curious observation has also 
been made, that the cattle of larger islands is not so small as on those 
of less extent, as if they were considerate enough to avoid taking up 
a disproportionate space. Probably the pastures of the latter may 
be inferior. 

The nobility and gentry of Britain are fond of having wild animals 
in their parks ; and into the woods of Kenmore even buffaloes have 
been introduced, as well as llamas and the American bison. I had 
not the good fortune to meet with any of these animals in my ram- 
bles, as they are said to be very skilful at concealing themselves. 
The owner of the domain has also sought to introduce again the 
heathcock, or " Cock of the woods," formerly common in Scotland, 
but which had subsequently entirely disappeared. The attempt 
appears to have succeeded, and as it feeds on the young buds of 
the pine and fir, it is probable that the increase of these woods in 
Scotland may be accompanied by that of this noble bird. 

The most remarkable example of the care taken of wild animals in 
Great Britain, has been in the preservation here and there of descen- 
dants of the race of wild cattle so numerous in the forests of Britain 
before the time of Caesar. Some of this ancient race are to be found 
in Scotland ; and here, as well as in England, they are distinguished 
by a milky gray colour, black ears and mouth, and straight upright 
horns. These animals, it is said, are so accustomed to freedom that 
they will not endure confinement. I know no part of Europe where 
any similar breed is preserved, except the Bialowyser Walde in 
Lithuania. I cannot help regarding it as a great merit in the 
English, that in the midst of so elaborately refined and cultivated a 
state of society, they have still found a place for the wild ox of 


ruder times. Every country should endeavour to preserve a few 
specimens of races thus likely to pass into extinction. Such as, 
for instance, the wild Caledonian ox, of which the Marquis of 
Breadalbane has a few, but the greater number are to be found in the 
possession of the Duke of Hamilton. 

I returned thanks to the noble lady of the mansion for the pleasure 
I had enjoyed in visiting Kenmore through the marquis's private 
secretary, a Spanish captain of Don Carlos' army, but a man of edu- 
cation and polished manners, who had brought me the desired per- 
mission, and the same day set out to continue my journey on foot. 
I had previously to my departure fortified myself by the consumption 
of a very considerable portion of roast beef, though not quite so much 
as the Highlanders who during the three days of the queen's visit ate, 
it is said, eleven oxen, a hundred and sixty-three sheep, and I do not 
know how many calves. On the chases, in the neighbourhood, were 
killed during the same time no less than eighty stags, nine hundred 
and fifty hares, and so many grouse and other birds that they had to 
be fetched home in waggons. 


There is no better way of travelling amidst this fine scenery, 
where the roads, nevertheless, are not particularly fine, than on foot 
in the company of a cheerful Highlander, as one is sure to meet 
none but pedestrians, and has a better opportunity of viewing the 
country closely. I chose the road along the southern shore of the 
lake, as though rather less easy, it was more beautiful than that of 
the northern, and affords a«view of Ben Lawers and the other oppo- 
site mountains, and passing several lovely spots, such as the cascade 
of Achern-Den, the immediate object of our journey. The name 
*' Achern" is applied to a lake in the Tyrol ; and there also is pro- 
bably of Celtic origin, the word signifying in Gaelic, I was told, 
merely " waterfall. " Den" means a cleft or chasm among rocks; 
and, consequently, " Achernden" signifies u Chasm of the water- 

A steep mountain path leads down towards the spot, which from 
its position is rather difficult of approach, as the water bursts forth, 
as 1 have said in a rocky chasm, and neither from the summit of the 
rock, nor from below, can a good view of it be obtained. The only 
way, therefore, is to find a way through the rock, and this has been 
done by means of a natural tunnel, artificially enlarged, which lies 
exactly opposite to the centre of the fall. The chamber thus formed 
has been improved, with the taste generally shown by the English 
in these matters, into a moss-grown hermitage. The water shoots 
from above a hundred feet to where it meets a mass of rock that 
turns it aside, and then in a sloping direction a hundred and fifty 
feet more. Unfortunately, I can convey by description no notion 
of the beauty of this scene to my readers. These are the things 
that must be seen to be appreciated. 


In the hermitage, I found a little curiosity winch I do not re- 
member to have seen anywhere eke, since it is, I believe, peculiar 
to Loch Tay. This is a natural ball, formed of the needles of the larch 
tree, which, falling into the lake, are dashed about by the winds 
and waves till they adhere together in masses of a globular form, 
though it is not easy to see how. The balls were about three inches 
in diameter, and resembled the balls of felted hair found in the sto- 
machs of cattle. The needles appeared to be arranged in a certain 
order, and so firmly united, that it was not easy to separate them, 
In the centre we found at length a small piece of wood, and I was 
told there was always something, — a leaf, a seed, or a little grass, 
seeming to form the nucleus. They are most frequently found, I 
was told, in November, when the lake is most agitated by wind and 
storms, but I must confess the mode of their formation remains a 
mystery to me. On the rocky wall of the hermitage I read the fol- 
lowing inscription of the lines of Burns, referring to this waterfall: 

"Poetic ardours in my bosom swell, 
Lone wandering by the hermit's mossy oefl, 
The sweeping theatre of hanging woods, 
Th' incessant roar of headlong tumbling floods." 

We returned to the shore of the lake by a circuitous path across 
the mountains, and by the way I took the opportunity of viewing 
the interior of one of the smoky huts of the Highlanders. My com- 

Snion, an old mountaineer, told me, that all Highland huts were 
:e this, " thatched ;" and as it happened, that though I might, if I 
had looked, have found the word in any dictionary, I did not know 
the meaning of the word " thatched," and asked an explanation ; 
and the following was the explanation obtained. 

" A thatched-nouse, sir ? — that means, for instance, when any one 
is thatching his house, and you happen to go by, and you say, * Well* 
good man, are you thatching to-day ?' — that's what it means to thatch 
a house, sir." 

The said thatched-house was built of wood, and inside by the fire 
sat an old man warming himself. Over the chimney was fastened a 
large wooden box, intended, I was told, for salt. I do not believe 
that in any other country in the world so central and imposing a 
position be accorded to a salt-box. At the side of this utensil hung 
a kind of bird cage, containing however, not birds, but the family 
stock of cups and saucers. Before the door stood a great cheese 
press of very simple construction, in which the principal part was 
performed by large stones. This is, in this part of Scotland, a re- 
gular article of household furniture, for a great quantity of cheese 
is made here, though not usually of a first-rate quality. 

I noticed that the old man, as well as a young one who came in, 
had hands as black as negroes, which, when I expressed some surprise 
at it, I was told proceeded from their having just come from tarring 
the sheep, and this let me into a secret concerning the management 
of these animals in Scotland, with which I was previously unac- 
quainted. In order to preserve the sheep from vermin, as well as to 


protect them in some measure against the cold of winter, the shep- 
herds smear them with a mixture of tar and butter boiled together, 
and with the hands rubbed hard into the wool. The hands of the 
people who perform this operation are so completely stained that if 
they should wish to go to a ball any time before Christmas they may 
certainly spare themselves the expense of gloves, for no one could 
recognise the natural skin through its covering. Tar seems to be 
considered a preservative against vermin in more places than one, 
for I recollect having seen the shepherds of Little Russia during the 
summer steep shirts in tar, which when dry they put on and wear, 
to all eternity I believe, rightly considering that it is impossible for 
such a shirt as this to get dirty. 

But few sheep are left on the mountains around Loch Tay during 
the winter, the greater number being sent down to the Lowlands, 
where they are safer, and where there is a greater abundance of food. 
They generally go in the middle of November, and return in the 
middle of May. 

From the little smoky hut there was a splendid view across Loch 
Tay, or, as the old man expressed it, " a bonny peep at the Loch." 
I crept out at the low door, and placed myself on the stone bench 
outside to enjoy it. The straw and heather with which the house 
was covered, hung down low and ragged over the edge of the pro- 
jecting roof, which was partly supported by some roughly hewn 
trunks of trees, on which some of the boughs had been left for this 
purpose. On these branches hung some fish to dry; the cheese press 
stood near; my two old Highlanders sat beside me smoking out of 
short pipes, and before them, stretched on the grass, lay a pair of 
" collies," or shepherd's dogs. On the right hand crazed a little 
white Highland pony, and at the left some black-faced sheep. Be- 
low us lay the long narrow lake, and beyond it rose the magnificent 
Ben Lawers, to a height of 4,015 feet; that is only 350 feet less 
than Ben Nevis, the highest point in Great Britain. Along the 

E*n sides of mountains of less height, lying between us and Ben 
wers, were grazing numerous herds of cattle and flocks of sheep/ 
As I gazed at tne landscape, a feeling came over me that I had some 
where seen it before, and on searching my memory I found the im- 
pression had been produced by Edwin Landseer's picture of the 
" Highland drovers." This splendid picture from which one may 
gather as much knowledge of Scotland as from one of the Scotch 
novels (I say it with all respect), is at present in the possession of J. 
Sheepshanks, Esq. of London, but ought to be hung up at the bor- 
ders of Scotland for the benefit of all travellers. Were all the things 
worthy of observation in Scotland as well painted, I should ask for 
nothing more than a set of copies of such pictures to convev to 
my German readers the most vivid and accurate description of the 



In earlier, wilder periods, the glens and hills of the Highlands 
sent down to the Lowlands, or the province3 of England, bands of 
armed men, under a Kaimbel, a Cameron, or a Mac Gregor, to 
ravage them for whatever their own poorer country denied, and to 
bring home corn or money, clothes or cattle — in short, whatever 
came to hand. 

In place of these warlike raids since the Union — and more espe- 
cially since 1746, when the clans were dispersed — the Highlands 
send forth only peaceful droves of cattle, which are always welcome 
to the markets of England; but none so much so as the " Galloways 
and Argyles," the best varieties of the Scotch cattle, " superior to 
all others in their capacity to fatten," as an English grazier told me, 
—for the English are never satisfied with the Highland and Irish 
cattle, till they have fed them awhile in their own rich pastures. 
England and London stand, in this respect, in the same relation 
to Scotland and Ireland, as Upper Italy and Milan to the Alps and 
Apennines ; Austria and Vienna to Hungary and Galicia; the 
Baltic Provinces and Petersburg to the Ukraine and the Steppes. 

The cattle forming one of these great droves, are ordered to be 
assembled on a certain day, at an appointed spot — at the foot of a moun- 
tain— on the shore of a lake in thp neighbourhood of a village, and in 
all probability of some renowned battle-field. Herdsmen are then 
chosen for the different divisions of the drove, and over them all is 
placed a sort of leader, called a " Topsman." This " topsman" executes 
all the business, conducts all the movements of the drove, and is respon- 
sible to the proprietors for the value of the cattle. He is always in 
motion; sometimes at the head — sometimes in the rear, and his 
advice is asked on all occasions. He knows the safest roads through 
the wildest mountain districts. He usually prefers, if he has any 
choice, the grassy by-ways to the hard and dusty high-roads, as at 
the same time more agreeable to the hoofs of the cattle, and afford- 
ing them food on the road. The topsmen are generally well paid 
for their trouble; and as bankers are to be found everywhere at the 
present day, the pecuniary part of their affairs is generally transacted 
by means of them. In former days, the Highland proprietor him- 
self frequently accompanied his drove to the South, and brought 
home his money in his own hands. The day of departure of one of 
these droves, is usually one of great importance to all the hills and 
glens in* the neighbourhood. It is this moment which Edwin Land- 
seer has chosen for the picture I have alluded to; and as he paid a 
visit to the North on purpose to study the character of the people 
and of the scenery, the accuracy of all its details renders it not only 
valuable as a masterpiece of art, for poetical design and treatment, 
but also for the ethnographical fidelity of its delineation. 


The time chosen is the early morning, when the drove is about 
to begin its march to the South. There are the young men who 
are to accompany it, taking leave of their huts, their parents, or of 
those still dearer; the old people anxiously calculating the welcome 
profit which is to return to them from tneir departing cattle; the 
topsman, who must leave house and farm, wife and children, and to 
whose parting the artist has given a tinge of melancholy, har- 
monising well with a farewell scene. The landscape belongs to the 
centre of the Scotch Highlands, where at this moment I found 
myself. A range of dark and cloud-capped mountains appears in 
the distance, beyond which lie the beautiful plains of the South, 
towards which the march proceeds. A lake expands its bosom at 
the foot of the hills, and on a tongue of land projecting into it lies 
an ancient castle in ruins, carrying back the thoughts to stormy 
times, and to the warlike chieftains who inhabited it. Some of the 
foremost divisions of the drove have already set out in the direction 
of the mountains, straggling about, as cattle do, and snatching on 
their way a mouthful of grass, or water from the lake, but kept 
carefully apart by their respective drovers, who walk soberly after 
them with the earnest air of men bent on a great undertaking. 
Some herdsmen are taking a farewell cup at the door of a hut, 
which straw, and heather, and smoke point out as a human habita- 
tion; while in the rude structure of a little cart made of a kind of 
wicker work, we perceive that society, amidst these Highland hills, 
is still in the pnmitive state so favourable to the efforts of the 
painter. The centre of the picture, and the principal figure, is that 
of the topsman, who, in full travelling costume, with his kilt on, 
his plaid over his shoulder, his sandals on his feet, and on his head 
the " blue bonnet" (probably made at Kilmarnock, for the Scotch 
say they are not made properly anywhere else), has taken his little 
son in nis arms, while his wife replenishes his travelling bottle with 
whiskey. The infant has caught his father's smartly-mounted dirk, 
and is carrying it, as babies do all things they lay hold of, to his 
mouth. The old white-headed father of the topsman has come out 
of the hut, and sat down before the door, his bent form and wrinkled 
iace indicating his great age; he is probably somewhat deaf, for his 
unmarried, blooming, black-haired daughter, is stooping down to 
his ear to speak to him, while she wraps closely round him a thick 
woollen covering, to protect him from the sharp mountain air. It 
seems as if this must be the last time the old man could witness this 
stirring scene; but we may recollect, in his favour, that in Scotland 
people live to almost as great an age as in Russia or Norway. In 
the year 1821, there were in Scotland, among 2,093,000 of in- 
habitants, no less than 150,000 who were above sixty years of age- 
that is, one out of every thirteen. It is likely that this circumstance 
would produce a very favourable influence on the state of national 
morals. The presence of an aged grandfather and grandmother 
would be likely to operate beneficially upon every family wher^ 


they remained, and much promote its patriarchal constitution. The 
old grandmother has not been forgotten in Landseer's picture; she 
is standing, bent down, between the old man, at whom she is look- 
ing, and her stalwart son, with her hand just lifted up, as if to warn 
the latter not to forget the advice of his father. At a little distance, 
with their backs turned to this anxious and busy group, is a pair of 
lovers; the girl, a true Scotch beauty, such as are seen even in the 
highest classes of society, is looking mournfully up at a stout young 
herdsman, who, with her hand clasped in his, appears to be cheer- 
ing her with vows of fidelity, and hopes of his speedy return. 
Even the little short-legged, ragged pony, is strictly appropriate to 

the scene; I have seen dozens of his fellows in my wanderings about 
Loch Tay. 

The horses in Scotland are mostly white, and the cattle so often 
black, as to have received the name of " Black Cattle." Behind the 
pony in the picture stands a group of these, admirably painted, and 
nrther off at its extremity some Highland sheep, closely wrapped 
in their thick wool, and their stupidity. Landseer has not, as far as 
I know, ever produced any so comprehensive a national Scotch pic- 
ture as this of the Highland drovers, but there are several others 
very characteristic and interesting. Unfortunately they are scattered 
about in private galleries. One I recollect to have seen over the 
chimney-piece at the Marquis of Lansdowne's. Copies of pictures 
of this sort should be collected for information like books of geo- 
graphy and ethnography, for they are assuredly not less instructive. 


I shook hands with the tottering white-headed old man at his 
door, and then left him to pursue my way with another, almost of 
the same age, for, as I have said, old men are plentiful in Scotland. 

This whole district at the western end of Loch Tay, as well as the 
valley of Glen Lyon and some others, belong to that known among 
the people as Breadalbane. This is one of the local appellations no 
longer officially recognised by the government, but which will not for 
a long time fade from the memory of the people. Before the division 
of the Scotch Highlands into shires was completed in 1746, they 
were divided only into such districts named from the various Chiefe 
of clans, who exercised jurisdiction over them. Glenorchy, Loch* 
aber, Morvern, Assynt, are names still heard though they have dis- 
appeared from official papers. 

The estates of the Breadalbanes of course extend far beyond this 
district, though I believe there is some exaggeration in the story of 
their extending a hundred miles, from ocean to ocean. In the val- 
ley of the Tay they do not extend far to the eastward beyond Tay- 
mouth Castle, that is to say not farther than Aberfeldy. The castle 
vmerly, as I have said, called "Balloch," was built in 1580, by Sir 

olin Campbell of Glenorchy, at the extreme eastern verge of tho 


Breadalbane territory, and when his attention was called to its awk- 
ward position, he replied, it is said, " Never mind, we'll brigg yont" 
meaning, we will go on in that direction, pointing to the east. I do 
not know whether in this instance, as in the case of a similar pro- 
phecy or threat uttered by Peter die Great at the building of St. 
Petersburg, it was verified by the event. 

Loch Tay is, as the English say, a fine piece of water. (They 
have more of these ready-made phrases than we have.) It has the 
form of almost all Scottish lakes, that is it is long and narrow, a con* 
figuration depending of course on that of the mountains. It also 
resembles most of the others in its extraordinary depth, no less than 
a hundred fathoms. Few of them are less than this, and some reach 
the depth of a hundred and fifty fathoms. These lakes, therefore, 
may be regarded merely as very deep rocky chasms, filled with 
water, and if the measurement of the mountains which surround 
them should be taken from the bottom, the height of some would 
be estimated at 5000 feet. 

Dr. Johnson appears to have been somewhat over cautious in re- 
fusing to believe the assurance of the people on the shores of Loch 
Ness, that it never froze. When we consider the great depth of this 
lake, and the manner in which it is protected from the piercing winds 
by the mountains round, it seems by no means improbable. 

I heard a great deal from my companion about the glorious ap- 
pearance Loch Tay made when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, 
with their magnificent retinue, were rowing about it in stately gon- 
dolas provided for the occasion. " I do believe," said the old man, 
" her Majesty would willingly have staid longer at Taymouth Castle, 
but her prime minister, Sir Robert Peel, wouldn't let her have any 
peace, but would have it she must go back and attend to affairs of 
state. I do believe the Queen wasn't at all obliged to him, and 
when she was getting into the boat, and Sir Robert was going to 
step in after her, she turned round and said, A Sir Robert, we are 
full here.'" 

The old Highlander then proceeded to discuss, with much critical 
acumen, the appearance of the various pairs of legs, as they dis- 
covered themselves on that occasion in the Highland costume. It 
appears that the wearing of the kilt has given rise' to a very nice 
perception, among the people in general, of the various points that 
constitute a handsome leg. 

It was very curious to find how accurately my Highlander had ob- 
served, not only the day, but the hour and the minute when the 
little occurrences connected with the Queen's visit, which he related 
to me, took place. Her Majesty arrived at Taymouth Castle at a 
little before six in the evening, and from nine to eleven, the High- 
landers had the honour of dancing before her in the park. On the 
following morning, between nine and ten, Queen Victoria and the 
Duchess of Sutherland went out walking in the park, fcnd visited 
the pretty dairy. On the same morning, a few minutes before nine, 


Prince Albert went out shooting with the Marquis of Breadalbane, 
and returned at two to luncheon. After that the illustrious visitors 
went into his lordship's vegetable garden. The next day Queen 
Victoria walked till eleven with the marchioness, from three to five 
they were out on the balcony seeing again the Highland dances. 
After that they went out to visit some of the beautiful spots in the 
neighbourhood. First came two of his lordship's servants in High- 
land costume, then a carriage with the Queen and Prince Albert; 
behind them five carriages, with several parties, " the Duchess of 
Sutherland, the Duchess of Norfolk, and such as that;" at nine 
o'clock in the evening the ball began in the hall. 

The next morning at half-past two, two trees were planted on the 
lawn, by the hands of her most gracious Majesty and Prince Albert, 
amid the acclamations of the spectators, and the loud music of the 
bagpipes; — at fifteen minutes past eleven the royal party entered 
the gondolas, and rowed out upon the lake, &c. I believe if this 
account were compared with the long detail in the English journals, 
it would be found to be perfectly correct. 

The heads of the mountains on the other side of the lake, were all 
dressed in the mode of the last century, that is they were covered 
with a long snowy perruque. The top of Ben Lawers forms a tolerably 
regular pyramid; Ben Nevis also, and most Scottish mountains of 
the first class have a similar form. The word Ben is prefixed to the 
appellations of most of these mountain pyramids — as Ben Nevis, Ben 
More, Ben Sedi, Ben Lomond, &c., and is probably a Celtic term 
with some such signification. There are some few, however, which 
do not bear it, as Cairngorm (4,095 feet high), Cairntoul (4,245 feet). 

On our way we passed through several mountain villages, Achimig, 
Skiag, Margmor; and at the last named we took our dinner, con- 
sisting of Highland cheese, a glass of toddy, and oatmeal-cakes a 
discretion. A mid-day meal could not well have been more simple, 
yet the charge was tenpence, than which a higher would scarcely 
nave been made in any part of the world. Indeed the high charges 
for every thing in these wretched, thinly peopled Highlands, were 
continual matter of surprise to me. For a breakfast, which at a Lon- 
don hotel would have cost two shillings, I paid three in the Highlands. 
A bed, even in the humblest inn, was never less than three shillings, 
and though at such a season, I was probably the only tourist in the 
country, I had always to pay six or eight shillings for a guide. A 
gig with one horse never cost less than a shilling a mile, and the tolls 
and the turnpikes, with the gratuity to the driver, made the expence 
-usually amount to seven or eight shillings for a German mile. What 
a, contrast between the Scotch Highlands and Norway, two countries 
resembling each other in so many respects ! 

By way of reconciling us to our frugal meal, we were informed 
that Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had contented themselves 
with the same fare. 
. In the villages along Loch Tay the Campbells are not very nu- 


merous. The most abundant are the Stuarts, of whom I found great 
numbers, all along to Loch Earn and Loch Katrine. Mac Gregors 
also are met with everywhere, but at Aberfeldy they seemed to have 
congregated in the greatest numbers. My guide was a Mac Intire, 
a not very numerous clan, of whom he told me, that u the Mac 
Intires go under the same badge with the Macdonalds." Whether 
he referred merely to the colours of their tartans, or to a brotherly 
connection subsisting between them, I know not. 

In the terminology of Scottish geography the word u mountain" 
is never met with. A lofty elevation is a " ben," one of humbler 
aspiring is a " hill," though some of these hills, as the Ochill Hills 
and the Grampian Hills, very far exceed our Harzgebirge and our 
Schwarzwald Berge, both in elevation and in wildness of character. 
Strangely enough, however, I found the tumuli or artificial hills, of 
which I saw several alone Loch Tay, were always called " little 
mounts." At both extremities of the loch are remains of Druidical 
temples. Those at Kenmore are of considerable extent. 

At almost every farm-house I observed a lime kiln. Lime is very 
generally used here, as in Ireland, for manure, and appears to be the 
principal means relied on for the improvement of the boggy soil. 
The boys in the villages, I noticed, everywhere wore the kilt, and 
very few of them spoke any thing but Gaelic. I noticed also that 
the small as well as the large landholders were paying attention to 
the planting of trees. I was told of one gentleman, of the name of 
Marcus, who had planted 25,000 pines not far from the lake. How 
differently the same thing is often looked on in different countries. 
It is made matter of reproach to Scotland that she is so bare of trees, 
whereas of Poland we often say the country is almost in a state of 
barbarism because nearly every where occupied by forests. 

We went nearly all around Ben Lawers, and on the rest of our 
way to Killin met a number of the plaited willow carts, of which 
one may be seen in Landseer's picture. They are used for bringing 
the peat from the hills, and are necessarily small on account of the 
many bad mountain roads along which they have to travel. From 
the glens and valleys the turf and bog have been banished by culti- 
vation, or have never been allowed to accumulate there, and in the 
few instances where turf is found in such places, it is always of bad 
quality, being mixed with sand and stones. The good turf is found 
only on the hills, where the "mosses" and " muirs" are said, of 
late years, to have increased in extent, and in so doing to have exer- 
cised an injurious influence on the climate. 


We arrived towards evening at Killin, a small place surrounded 
by wood and mountain scenes. I paid my customary visit to the 
clergyman and schoolmaster, and found in them two agreeable and 
well-informed men. The schoolmaster had written on a map of 

78 Jtnxnr. 

Scotland the Celtic names of several of the principal towns, such as 
Edinburgh, Stilling, Perth, Ac. (Tuhneeten, Shruila, Pershtj, &c.), 
I had often before vainly inquired after. The minister dis- 

missed me with a warning not to continue my journey on the fol- 
lowing day, when I woufi scarcely find any oiUJto carry™ 
tilings, and might not even meet with any one on the road, if I 
wished to inquire the way. The schoolmaster, as I was standing 
hesitatingly on his threshold, welcomed me with these words: 
" Fray walk in, but as it is the Sabbath eve, let us talk only of 
serious matters." The Sabbath is observed in these Highlands with 
a strictness unknown even in England. I here learned, what I 
ought to have learned at Dunkeld, that a new Roman Catholic 
church has lately been built there by a recent convert to that com- 
munion, and I learned at the same time, of the erection of several 
new churches of the same kind. The growth of Catholicism, ob- 
served in so many other countries, appears to be manifesting itself 
no less in the Highlands* The English converts to Catholicism, to 
judge from the few I have seen, appear to me to be the most zealous 
enthusiasts I have ever met with. 

What Maynooth is to the Irish Catholics, St Mary's College, at 
Aberdeen, has been to those of Scotland, since 1829. It is calcu- 
lated to contain fifty theological students, but the number is seldom 
complete. It is not perhaps generally known, that in spite of the 
fervour with which the Reformation was carried in Scotland, small 
Catholic communities maintained themselves in all parts of the 
country, but chiefly in the Highlands, and on the smaller of the 

Not wishing to incommode my two friends with too long a visit 
on the Sabbath eve, I was at a loss for some entertainment for the 
evening, so I borrowed from one of them a book on Germany, writ- 
ten by one William Guthrie in 1776, in which he happened to be 
reading. It is not of course in such a work that I would look for 
the ideas entertained at the present day by well-informed Englishmen 
on my native country, but there are nooks and corners in the land 
where such books are still read, and it is long before the ideas derived 
from such sources of information are properly eradicated. Indeed, I 
found in Guthrie the key to many absurd questions that had at va- 
rious times been asked me in England respecting Germany. 

In our praise Guthrie says : — " The Germans are by nature an 
honest, hospitable people, passionately fond of liberty, and very little 
versed in dissimulation and artifice." This was said in his time by 
Tacitus, and I lately saw the same theme treated at greater length 
in one of the Edinburgh papers, and applied to all the branches of 
the Germanic race. 

" The higher classes of Germans are ludicrously proud of titles 
and family descent" And this is said in England, the country of 
all others in which the greatest value is set on hereditary distinc- 

KILMN. 79 

" The Germans are brave, and when led by able generals, particu- 
larly by Italians, have often performed great achievements." 

" No nation has so many amusements in the open air, such as 
hunting, bear-baiting, buU-nghts, &c, as the Germans." A solitary 
bear-bait occurred now and then in Austria, about the middle of the 
last century, yet a German travelling in England is still often asked 
after the manner in which this kind of sport is carried on in his 
country, and whether be has been at a great many bear-baitings in 
his time* 

" The great passion of the Germans for hunting the wild boar, is 
probably the cause why so large a portion of the country continues 
to be occupied by forests. Tne Hercynian forest, however, is now 
cut down in several places. Every count and baron has his forest, 
well filled with game of every description, with stags of all sizes and 
colours. The glutton of Germany is the most ravenous animal in the 
world. It eats till it is unable to move, and in that condition the 
Germans fall upon it and kill it. They also kill wolves and bears, 
but rarely eat the flesh of either." The author might as well have 
added, that they are not in the habit either, of eating the flesh of 
their dogs and horses. 

Who would have thought that such notions could have been 
printed in an English book towards the close of the last century, 
and still read in the middle of the present ? I was once accosted by 
an English squire with, " I have a wonderful idea of your glutton; 
pray tell me something about this remarkable German animal. 11 He 
had heard that the glutton was a regular scourge to the country, and 
could scarcely believe me when I told him I had never seen the 
creature except in a museum, and that this formidable animal was 
not larger than a moderate-sized dog. 

" Had Germany been acquainted with agriculture before the 
middle of this century, it would, by this time, have been one of the 
most fertile and productive countries in Europe." Do these English 
squires and farmers then imagine that before the days of our grand- 
lathers, we, Germans, led a nomadic life, or subsisted by hunting in 
the forests ? Even in the poorest and worst cultivated parts of Ire- 
land, I found it difficult sometimes to make the people believe, that 
we had in Germany fields and farms kept in better order than their 

" Germany has produced several good political writers, geogra- 
phers, historians, &c; but the people have no taste for works of wit 
or imagination, such as poetry, the drama, novels, and tales. Their 
works of this description^re dry, lengthy, voluminous, and mecha- 
nical, and of the art of uniting the agreeable with the useful, they 
seem to have no idea.' 1 

It is long before peculiar opinions that have once been adopted 
are eradicated from the minds of the people, and I am satisfied, 
therefore, that Guthrie's book contains a number of dicta, that will 
long continue to be standard opinions with the masses of the English 



It was not without some difficulty that I succeeded on the fol- 
lowing morning in obtaining a guide, with whom I started on 
foot at six o'clock in the morning, for I wished to reach Loch. 
Katrine that same day, and would have more than one hill to climb 
on the way. It was a cold, but a beautiful, clear November morn* 
ing. The little ponds along the road were covered with thin ice, 
and the white and dazzling summits of the mountains stood out so 
distinctly from the blue horizon, as I had scarcely expected to see 
in the gray and fog-famed atmosphere of Scotland. 

Two glens meet at Killin, and pour their several waters into the 
lake; the one is the valley of the little river Lochy, the other of the 
Dochart. It is to this division of the whole neighbourhood into two 
main valleys, or more properly into three, for tne valley of the lake 
itself may be reckoned as one, that the mountain scenery of Killin 
is chiefly indebted for its far-famed beauty. The view down the 
valley of the lake is bounded by Ben Lawers, up the Dochart 
valley the eye rests on Ben More, and over the valley of the Lochy 
towers the Meacrum. All these three mountains lie nearly at the 
same distance. The Dochart is crossed by a tolerably large bridge, 
over which we passed to obtain a view of the interesting spectacle 
of the cataracts or rapids of that river. The water rushes for a con- 
siderable distance over the broad rocky bottom, and amid huge 
square masses of rock, many of them so regularly formed, that they 
look as if they had been prepared for the builder. This suggested 
to me the idea of Fingal, and turning to my guide I asked whe- 
ther that great natural architect of Scotland and Ireland, had not 
been at Loch Tay in his time. " Yes, to be sure, sir," was the 
reply, " and his grave is not far from here, at the western end of 
the loch." Here was another Fingal's grave, of which there are so 
many to be found in Scotland. His name, indeed, seems to be 
associated with every remarkable spot, and to speak to us from, 
every mountain and Save. ^ * ' ^ 

I was surprised at the quantities of pheasants that I saw on both 
sides of the roads. They were as numerous as fowls in a poultry 
yard. In England these birds are to be seen in far greater num- 
bers than in Germany, and while we are obliged to arrange our 
fasaneries for their protection in winter, in England the pheasants 
remain at large all the year through. Boxes containing food for 
them are indeed placed in the parks ana preserves, as the birds 
might otherwise find it difficult to obtain sufficient nourishment. 
Some of these boxes that I saw in Scotland were very ingeniously 
contrived. They were of iron, and painted green. They consisted 
of two compartments. One was locked up and contained a reserve 
stock of food, and the other was so contrived, that when the birds 

tffcOM tflLLIN rtO LOCH KATRINE. 81 

stepped on a little iron rod, the lid of the box opened, and allowed 
them to eat, and then closed again as soon as they had had enough 
and flew away. 

On our road we met with a number of shaggy Scottish black 
cattle, with which the owners were returning from the autumn 
fairs held on the borders of the Highlands. The good people were 
very little satisfied with the result of their marketing, and were 
loud in their denunciations of Sir Robert Peel's tariff, to which 
they attributed all their disappointments. They had sold but little 
of their cattle, not choosing to submit to the low prices offered 
them, and intending to keep their merchandize through the winter, 
in the hope of more favourable appearances in the spring. Above 
all things they seemed disappointed at not having reached Killin on 
the preceding evening, and were now hastening thither, that they 
might spend at least a part of their Sunday there. By the bye, the 
only winter shelter provided anywhere for the Highland cattle con- 
sisted of sheds with scarcely any roofing to them, and apparently of 
much the same construction as those I had seen erected for the 
same purpose in Southern Russia. 

After we had passed the drovers, we met not a human creature 
on the road, not even standing in front of their huts. " It is not 
yet time to go to kirk," said my guide, " so they are sitting to- 
gether in their houses, reading their bibles." ' 

The cross glen which leads from the valley of the Dochart to that 
of the Earn, is called Glen Ogle. It is a wild uncultivated place, 
flanked with dark rocks that look as if they had been made of cast- 
iron. The summits are covered with heath, and by the side of some 
mountain brooks may here and there be seen a stunted birch, but 
these excepted, no trace of vegetation can be discovered. Frag- 
ments of rocks lie scattered about in all directions. Many of these 
wild glens, and many much wilder than Glen Ogle, are to be seen 
in different parts of Scotland. I had observed in Ireland that the 
summits of the lofty mountains were generally tenanted by eagles, 
and now learned that the same remark applied to Scotland. " On 
every place that's called ben in Scotland," said my guide, " you may 
always be sure there are eagles." 

We worked our way through this wilderness, and came in sight 
of the inn of Loch Earn Head, on Loch Earn. I know not whether 
it was this cheerful sight, or any other sudden fancy, that set me 
whistling; but so it was; I did whistle; I whistled a sort of soli- 
loquy, but quite in a subdued tone. My guide, however, imme- 
diately rebuked me. " Oh don't do that, sir," said he; "the people 
will be wondering to hear a body whistling on a sabbath day. 

At Loch Earn Head I was obliged to take a new guide, and 
lighted on the most stupid companion it had ever been my luck to 
travel with. I could obtain from him none but monosyllabic re- 
plies, and the worst of the story, I soon perceived was, that he had 
out a very imperfect knowledge of the mountain paths to Loch 


Katrine, so that there was every probability of our losing our way. 
As far as Balquidder we got on well enough, for the road was a 
straight one, and could not well have been missed, but we had not 

S)t far beyond Balquidder before we were completely at fault, 
alquidder, a pretty village composed of a group of huts scattered 
about the valley of Loch V oil, is famous for containing within its 
little churchyard the grave of Rob Roy. The church lies somewhat 
higher than the village, and the whole is encircled by hills, among 
which the most striking are a range of craggy rocks, often celebrated 
in Scottish song as the Braes of Balquidder. 

It happened to be the time of divine service, and I had, therefore, 
the utmost difficulty in persuading my guide to accompany me into 
the little churchyard, to show me the tomb of the renowned free- 
booter. When at last I had overcome his objections, he slunk into 
the cemetery with the air of a criminal. The tomb of Rob Roy 
consists of one rude block of stone, on which had been rudely 
scratched the figure of a huge sword. Other tombs of an equally 
primitive character lay scattered about, on some of which was the 
same unshapely figure of a sword, to indicate, I believe, that a chief- 
tain lay buried there, while upon others had been scratched un- 
gainly imitations of the human form, something like those which 
with us the juveniles that sport about our streets and lanes, are wont 
to sketch upon some vacant wall, in utter defiance of the prohibi- 
tions of the police. Whether these figures on the tombs of Bal- 
quidder were intended to represent ladies or knights, old women 
or captains of banditti, it was impossible for me to discover. The 
French books of geography, published in the middle of the last 
century, speak of the Highlanders and the inhabitants of the He- 
brides, as " les sauvages de VEcosse" and certainly these artistical 
decorations of the tombs of Balquidder would appear to justify the 

On leaving Balquidder, we had at first a tolerable path before us, 
and now and then we met a few straggling shepherds and their dogs. 
We entered one of the last huts to obtain as distinct a direction as we 
could relative to the course we had to pursue. To direct us on our 
way wad not, however, so easy a matter, for the ground consisted 
wholly of rock and bog, neither of which retain any lasting traces of 
the footsteps of man, so that though thousands had passed along the 
way we were about to go, a beaten path had never been formed. The 
ground indeed is everywhere equally difficult, and the general prac- 
tise of those who travel over this desolate track is to choose certain 
landmarks, and to make for them as well as they can. This, we 
soon found would also be our best course. Nothing more gloomy or 
desolate can well be imagined than a Scottish wilderness of this 
kind. Having gained an elevated point, I was able to survey a 
tolerable extent of the country before me, and as a great part of the 
Highlands, and decidedly the larger portion of the Hebrides, Ork- 
neys, and Shetland, bear a strong resemblance to what I now saw 


before me, it may be of some interest to my readers to Have a brief 
description of the spectacle that now presented itself to my view. In 
the first place then, not a tree or a shrub could anywhere be dis- 
covered. All was one naked desolation. The glens and sides of the 
rocks were everywhere covered with fragments of stone, and most 
of these were grown over with moss and neath, and were extremely 
slippery. Wherever I stepped between two stones I sunk into a 
morass. Now and then the eye is relieved by the appearance of a 
piece of grassland, and the weary traveller rejoices in the prospect of 
relieving his tired limbs by walking once more on level ground. On 
coming, however, to the edge of the supposed greensward, he finds 
only some coarse reeds that cover a wet bog, and to keep firm ground 
under his feet he is obliged to climb over the rocks that skirt the 
treacherous morass. After having laboured along in this way for 
several hours, I sat down heated and tired, in utter despair, by the 
side of a not very limpid spring, and began to vent the whole cur- 
rent of my ill-humour on the dull blockhead who had undertaken 
to conduct me. His name was Macpherson, and after I had rated 
him for some time in no very measured terms, he said, " Sir, if you're 
so very angry with me, you had better give me my money and let 
me go home. Why do you scold me ? What would you have of me ?' 
— " I would have of thee better ways, in the first place." — " Well, sir, 
but can I make the ways better than they are? I'm sure I wish they 
were better, for my shoes will want mending after this day's work." 
— -" But why did you come this wretched way? why did you not 
choose the right road?" — " Indeed, sir, if I had known the right 
road, I would, scarcely have missed it."— *" But, miserable creature 
that you are, if you knew nothing of the way, how came you to 
undertake to be my guide?" — u Wages are low, sir, and work not 
easily to be had, so a man is glad to turn his hand to any thing, and 
I am sure I have done my best for you." — " If you would relieve 
the fatigue of our journey a little by your conversation, that would 
be something, but you are as mute as a log of wood ! In these wilds 
it was that Kob Roy housed. Have you no interesting anecdotes to 
tell of him?"—" I have already told you, sir, what the people say of 
him; he was a clever man and a great robber, and further than that, 
I know nothing, about him." — " Then you might at least tell me 
something of the nature of the country."—" Why, sir, you may see 
yourself what sort of country it is. i ou need but look around you, 
and a poor miserable country you will find it." — " Do you know no- 
thing of the way of life of the people here among the mountains?" — 
" Of their way of life I Oh yes, sir* They live mostly on po- 
tatoes and milk. They boil the potatoes down into a mash and 
pour the milk over it. On holidays they boil down a bit of 
mutton into brose." — " There, that'll do; take up the things and 
let's move on." 

We had scarcely recommenced our saJtom&rtalea from one stone 
to another, when, to my delight, I saw ahuman creature moving along 



at a distance, and approaching the spot where I was standing. We 
received him with great joy, acquainted him with the disagreeable 
nature of our position, and inquired of him our way to Loch Katrine, 
or rather to the hostelry of Miss Stuart, in the vicinity of that loch. 
The stranger, whose Glengarry cap, with a handsome feather in it, 
gave him quite a distinguished appearance, turned out to be a tailor, 
and was on his way to some farmers for whom he was to work. 
These tailors, always on the move from one farm to another, are 
generally full of news and conversation, the very nature of their oc- 
cupation encouraging colloquial habits. Such was my new acquaint- 
ance, who was on his way to some farmers of the name of Stuart, the 
name of nearly all of them in Glen Sheini, Glen Finlas, and along 
the sides of Loch Katrine. He advised us to accompany him to the 
farm, and to repose there, after which we might reach Miss Stuart's 
inn that same evening. We acceded with delight to the proposal. 

On arriving at the Stuarts' farms, we found that no less than six 
farmers of that name dwelt close together, and from what I learned, 
it seemed to me that the six families held a considerable tract of 
country as a joint tenancy. Each, however, had a separate house 
and farm buildings, lying close together, and forming together a 
small village. They were the largest graziers in the neighbourhood, 
I was told, and owned between them from 5000 to 6000 sheep. 
Their landlord was the Earl of Moray. 

Though it was already growing dark, Mr. Stuart showed me his 
house and farm buildings in detail. He had divided his house, as 
it seemed to me, into two parts, one for every day life, and one for 
Sundays and holidays. Even in the former every thing was clean 
and orderly, but in the latter there was a display of elegance fully 
equal to what I had seen in the best farm-houses of England. The 
rooms and staircases were carpeted, and the whole arrangement was 
so neat, that I almost felt ashamed to step into these gala apartments 
in my ragged travelling costume. In addition to his share in the 6000 
sheep, mine host owned only nine cows and two horses, since oats, 
barley, and potatoes were here cultivated not to any very great ex- 
tent. After tnis inspection, we returned to the fire-side of the servants' 
hall, where the family, the servants, and one or two of the neigh- 
bours were assembled. A pretty handmaiden, Jean Fisher, — indeed 
she was more than pretty, — waited upon us with Highland milk and 
barley scones. 

The men were all gloved with tar, having that day been busily 
engaged with the smuiring of their sheep. A number of tar-barrels, 
some empty and some full, were standing in the yard, for the smuir- 
ing operation was to recommence on the following morning. With 
a flock of nearly 6000 sheep this is a matter of some importance, 
and no inconsiderable consumption must take place, of time, 
labour, butter, and tar. For thirty sheep, I was told, ten pints of 
tar, and fourteen pounds of butter would be required, so that for a 
large flock the quantity consumed must be very large. This smuir- 


hvg is looked on as a necessary proceeding, and to my doubts on this 
point they replied, that " the tar kept the creatures warm and clean." 
Yet in other countries, quite as cold as the Highlands, this tarring is 
a proceeding wholly unknown. So it is, however, we often find a 
practice adhered to by the . farmers of one country, as utterly in- 
dispensable, while elsewhere the same practice is entirely unknown, 
and the people get on equally well without it. 

My good-natured host offered a dram to some of his neighbours 
and my guide, and I was amused by the ceremonious healths and 
salutations that passed on the occasion. In the higher classes of 
Scotland and England, the drinking of healths is much less customary 
even than with us ; but perhaps whiskey, as a more vigorous potation, is 
thought deserving of more ceremony than wine or beer. The dram 
having been despatched, the conversation became more familiar, and 
I was asked about my clan and native country. Mv clan, I told 
them, was not a very numerous one, and not of kingly descent like 
the Royal Stuart clan. By birth, however, I was a German, or 
Garamaltyach (Armstrong writes the word, Gearmaiheach), the 
Gaelic name by which my countrymen are known. The worthy 
Highlanders immediately joined in praising the Germans, of whom 
they said, more than of any other foreigners came to visit their lakes. 
" 1 ou Germans are a wandering people like ourselves, and fond of 
visiting strange lands. You are quite different from the French in 
that respect, who, though they are our nearest neighbours, visit us 
but rarely. Yet your country is certainly seventeen times larger 
than France, and you have all the more room to travel about at 
home. The extent of your country makes your fondness for travel- 
ling appear the more surprising to me. With us Scots the matter 
is quite different, for with a pair of seven-league boots we could no- 
where take more than three or four steps, without stepping into the 
sea. In such a country, a man naturally wishes to cross the sea some 

With the exception of the great extent assigned to Germany, my 
Highlander's discourse was rational enough, but the people here- 
abouts reckon Hungary as a part of Germany, and, having heard 
that the Danube is a German river, they consider the countries about 
the mouth of the Danube as German provinces. Germany is to 
them the great undefined eastern land beyond France, and many of 
them seem even in doubt whether they ought not to count even the 
Russians for Germans. The Highlanders are, nevertheless, a highly 
intelligent, and mostly a well-informed people, and this remark has 
been made, not only by Dr. Johnson, but even by travellers of an 
earlier date, who often expressed their surprise to find so much in- 
formation with such rude manners and such abject poverty. In the 
Report published by the Poor Law Commissioners in 1841, will be 
found the testimony of several witnesses, who declare that the Scottish 
workmen, owing to their better education, always get on better in 
foreign countries than English workmen. A Mr. Fairbairn, who em- 


ploys 680 workmen in* Manchester, and 500 in London, states that the 
men from Scotland and the north of England (Cumberland and Nor- 
thumberland) have generally a good elementary education. Those 
educated in the parish schools in Scotland can read and write, have a 
tolerable knowledge of arithmetic, and are often acquainted with the 
elements of mathematics, besides being able to draw a little. The men 
from Cumberland and Northumberland, he describes as less carefully 
instructed than those from Scotland, while those from Yorkshire, Lin- 
colnshire, and the south of England stand in a much lower degree. 
Those from the north of Ireland he places on the same line as those 
from Northumberland and Cumberland. These statements certainly 
agree with my own observations. I not only discovered much good 
taste in Mr. Stuart's conversation, but on inspecting his library, 
found it to consist of a judicious selection of works on statistics, 
divinity, geography, and philosophy. All his servants could read 
and write, and he assured me I should scarcely find any one, for 
many miles round, who was not possessed of those elementary 
branches of knowledge. It is a remarkable coincidence that in most 
countries of Europe, the inhabitants of the northern are more in- 
telligent and better educated than those of the southern provinces. 
The remark certainly applies to France. In the Netherlands, the 
Dutch provinces are far better educated than those of Belgium. In 
northern Germany popular education is very superior to what it is 
in the south, and m Italy, the Milanese, in this respect, offer a most 
advantageous contrast to the Neapolitans. Even in Russia the centre 
of intelligence lies towards the north. May not climate have some- 
thing to do with this? Long winter evenings compel the inhabitants 
of a northern country to spend a greater part of their time within 
doors, and this naturally tends to encourage a taste for reading*. Be- 
fore the invention of printing, indeed, when knowledge had to be 
communicated chiefly from mouth to mouth, it was in southern lands, 
in Greece and Italy for instance, that the spirit of inquiry was first 
awakened; but since we have had books and printing presses, it is 
by reading rather than by oral instruction that the light of know- 
ledge is diffused. 

Talents, like beauty, are never more attractive than under the 
garb of simplicity, and I must own it was not without some regret 
that I rose to take leave of my intelligent farmers. The plan, how- 
ever, which I had laid down for myself made it necessary I should 
reach Miss Stuart's, near theTrosachs, that same night, so I started by 
moonlight to perform the five miles that remained of my day's jour- 
ney. I had had sufficient proof of the utter incompetency of my 
guide, and was much gratified when some of the party volunteered 
to accompany me to the lakes, whence it would be impossible for me 
to miss the way to my inn. Glen Buckie is the name of a pretty, 
woody valley, through which our path lay, and the beauties of which 
I could trace but indistinctly by the imperfect light of the moon. I 
have said it was a " woody" valley, a character that applies to few of 


the Scottish glens, which though they have generally some trees at 
their entrance, become naked as the traveller advances more deeply 
into their recesses. Around the lakes also there are generally some 
trees, but the mountains and the high grounds are almost always 
bare. What a contrast to the hills of xhuringia, every one of which 
is clothed with wood to the summit ! 

An hour's walk brought us to the valley of the lakes, (Katrine, 
Venachar, and Achray,) Ben Lomond, Ben Ledi, and the Menteith 
hills forming a frame to the picture. On arriving at Loch Ven- 
achar my companions took leave of me, after having refreshed 
themselves with a hearty dram at a small house by the wayside, and 
after having put me into the straight road for " Stuart's Inn," a large 
handsome and convenient house, in which, on mv arrival, I found I 
was the only guest. Having been shown to my bedroom, the house 
was locked up, the family retiring to a detached building, and leaving 
me in solitary possession of the spacious mansion. The fatigues of 
the day were followed by a sleepless night. 


My inn lay about a mile from the lake, and between them arose 
the remarkable assemblage of rocks known in Scotland under the 
name of the Trosachs, a Gaelic word, which, according to the expla- 
nation of the intelligent and well-informed guide, whose services I 
obtained on the following morning, means " a rough place, a broken 
and bristled territory." Such is, indeed, the character of the Tro- 
sachs. They are formed by a lofty reef of rocks that runs right 
across the valley, and reaches from the one range of hills to those 
on the opposite side. It is not, however, a uniform wall of rocks. 
On the contrary, there are several ravines and other breaks, and all 
these are thickly planted with birches, oaks, hazel bushes, and other 
trees and shrubs. Formerly this reef may have served to contain 
the upper lake within a much deeper basin, from which the waters, 
probably, flung themselves in beautiful cascades over the rocks; but 
at present a channel exists through which the one lake pours its 
abundance more conveniently and tranquilly into the other. My 
guide did all he could to tempt me among the rocks again, assuring 
me I could have no idea of the real beauties of the Trosachs, till I 
had crept through their ravines, and climbed the summit of their 
rocks; but my feet were still too sore from the previous day's exer- 
cise, so I preferred the beautiful level walk through the narrow pass, 
which led us much more conveniently along the base of the wild 
crags to a sweet little harbour on the lake where a neat little boat 
was awaiting us, amid — 

Mountains that like giants stand 
To sentinel enchanted land. 
High on the south huge Ben Venue 
Pawn on the lake its masses threw 


Crags, knolls, and mounds, ooof ua'dly huri'd, 
The fragments of an earlier world; 
A wildering forest feathertt o'er 
His ruin'd sides and summit hoar; 
While on the north, through middle air, 
Ben Au heaved high his forehead bare. 

An Italian, comparing the Scottish lakes with those of his own 
country, said once, " You Scots have the black beauty, we have the 
white one." Some foreigners go so far as to speak of the Scottish 
lakes with contempt, and to deny them all the charms claimed for 
them. This is unjust. The Italian, quoted above, seems to me 
to have expressed himself very happily. An African beauty is not 
unworthy of our admiration because she happens to be black, yet 
the most beautiful negress must still be far inferior in loveliness to 
a European beauty. Even do the Scottish lakes fall very far short 
of those of Italy, whatever the songs of poets or the declamations of 
patriots may say to the contrary. 

What struck me most in tnese lakes was their strong resem- 
blance to those of Killarney. The form of the rocks, the sombre 
hue of the landscape, the gray colour of the stones, the black tints 
of the moss and turf-covered hills, the brown turf water, the trees 
clinging to the sides of the hills, the little wooded islands on the 
lake, the eagles on Ben Venue, the waters of the upper lake pour- 
ing through the narrow rocky pass, the desolate character of the 
mountains, even the colour of the sky, all reminded me of Kil- 
larney, and not only of Killarney, but of other lakes in Ireland and 
Scotland, and in the wild districts of North Wales. Even Loch 
Lomond has the characteristic features, and so have the celebrated 
lakes of Cumberland and Westmorland. 

Taken in a mass there is nothing very remarkable in Loch Ka- 
trine, the whole being too dark and gray. A variety of tints is 
wanting, and the eye is not delighted with the beautiful aerial phe- 
nomena of the Italian Alps, with their blue, violet, and red moun- 
tains, and the distant bluish outlines. Here the distant outlines 
are all either of a dark gray or even of a black colour. Taken in 
detail, however, Loch Katrine offers a multitude of exquisite scenes 
for the pencil or the graver. We landed first on the island on which 
the banished family of Douglas is still said to have dwelt. Every 
spot made memorable by Scott's poem is still carefully pointed out; 
that where the king climbed down the rock in pursuit of the stag, 
that where he passed the night wrapped in his plaid, and that where 
he first obtained a view of the lovely maiden of the wilderness. My 
guide knew the whole poem by heart, and at every new scene was 
ready with an apt quotation, and though its poetic truth is the only 
truth to be found in the whole lay, yet thousands come yearly to 
visit these scenes, and to indulge their imagination by tracing the 
various scenes of the beautiful fiction. A few years ago, a little hut 
that stood upon the island completed the illusion respecting the 
residence of the lady of the lake; this illusion, however, has since 


then been dissipated into smoke and flame, owing to the care- 
lessness of some cigar-smokers. 

The old oak, however, at the landing-place on the little island is 
a magnificent tree, nor was this the only tree whose form excited my 
admiration in a high degree. Here and there huge oaks seemed to 
spring Scorn the naked rocks, and sometimes a magnificent ash had 
taken possession of the entire summit of a rock, over which it un- 
folded its branches with regal dignity. These mountain trees, like 
mountain goats, seemed to nave learned to climb up the sides of the 
precipices, and to perform other antics on which they never would 
have ventured on level ground. Thus I saw one large old tree, of 
which I counted no less than thirty branches that had struck root in 
the ground and then shot forth fresh branches of their own, like so 
many separate trees. In one place I saw an alder tree, whose tough 
roots had in several places pierced completely through the trunk 
of a mountain ash, and the two trees stood in close and loving em- 
brace, their foliage mingling together at the top. In no forest had I 
ever seen any thing of the land. I saw likewise an oak here of a 
very remarkable growth. It had grown up against the side of a 
rock, to which it had pressed itself so closely, that the tree appeared 
to have only half its trunk. In point of fact, however, the tree had 
its trunk complete, but had pressed the one half flat against the rock, 
giving to the whole a semicircular form. Through this distorted 
trunk, nevertheless, the sap must have freely circulated, for a little 
higher up, full, round, and well-shaped branches were thrown out on 
all sides. 

After all, I allowed myself to be seduced to climb some rocks on 
the opposite side of the lake, to gain a view of the majestic Ben 
Lomond, whose white summit towers over the whole surrounding 
country. "Us indeed but a small majesty, and would not be no- 
ticed at all in Switzerland; but here the Ben is the great man 
of the place, and therefore entitled to the stranger's respect. A 
traveller in Africa may have sometimes to show as much defer- 
ence to a Negro despot, as in Europe to one of the mighty po- 
tentates of the earth. 

At the extreme western point of Lock Katrine, I saw the moun- 
tains that form the pass between that lake and Loch Lomond. 
About that pass, my guide told me, lay Rob Roy's property, " who 
did very well in the droving line, before he turned freebooter." 
His wire, added my informant, was a woman of jel very quiet dis- 
position, and by no means the furious virago described by Scott. 

On leaving the Trosachs and Loch Katrine, I was delighted 
with the prospect of returning to my beautiful Stirling, for, without 
offence to Highland scenery and the lakes, I must own that I have 
seen nothing in Scotland to equal the environs of Stirling. 



I returned by the same road by which I had come die preceding 
evening, and, walking along the side of Loch Venachar, arrived at 
Calandar, situated at the foot of Ben Ledi. This last name signifies 
the " Hill of the Divinity," and in the time of the Druids a place of 
sacrifice is said to have existed on its summit. Even in later times 
the people thronged from the country round to light a great fire here 
in honour of Baal, the god of fire or of the sun, and down to the present 
day the beginning of May is in this neighbourhood, called " Beltein/' 
This reminded me of the Bel hills, in Ireland, on which likewise 
fires were lighted in honour of the same divinity, and with that my 
imagination hurried me away to Babylon's tower, whence, it may 
confidently be believed, the Highlanders and the Irish originally 
derived the worship of fire. 

At Calandar I bade farewell to the Highlands, though some, in- 
correctly I think, make them extend to Doune. Calandar has still 
a Highland character; the people speak Gaelic, and the children 
wear the kilt. I was even told of an old man, seventy-two years of 
age, who lived there, and had never worn breeches m his life, for 
which a silver medal had been voted to him by the Highland Society 
of Edinburgh. All these local characteristics cease the moment you 
leave Calandar. 

In the vicinity of this cheerful looking little place, I was shown a 
semicircular mound, supposed to have once encircled a Roman for- 
tress. The mound, which is now planted with pine trees of a vene- 
rable age, forms an agreeable walk, and has evidently been formed by 
human hands. The spot, at the immediate entrance to the moun- 
tains, must have possessed many advantages as a military station. The 
mound begins at the river side, and, after describing a half circle, 
terminates again at the river, inclosing a fine level meadow, on which 
the young men of the town are accustomed to divert themselves with 
golf and foot ball. 

My Highland guide from Calandar was a lively young fellow, and 
had at his command an inexhaustable stock of stories about the 
fairies and goblins of the mountains. Many of the stories were pre- 
cisely the same as those that had been told me in Ireland. My High* 
lander called them likewise "the good people,* though, when I 
rallied him on so strange a name for such a mischievous fraternity, 
he admitted the inaptiness of the denomination, " seeing they were 
always leaping and kicking about for some mischief." In Gaelic, it 
seems, they are called " funshies" or " kelpies." A funshy once, my 
guide said, met in the forest, a poor smuggler, who was carrying 
down to the Lowlands a cask of whisky that he had been distilling 
in some mountain glen. The funshy bade him put down his cask 
or a moment, and nave a dance with her. He did so, and danced 
or more than an hour, without feeling a bit tired. He then went 


down, Bold his whisky, and trotted off to his home. When he got 
there he was surprised to find his young wife had turned into an old 
woman, while his boys had grown into strapping young men. The 
funshy had kept him dancing with her for several years together, 
and had thus cheated him out of an important portion of his life. 

It was growing dark, still the people that met us, like those we 
had seen during the day, addressed me with the same salutation : 
•* Fine weather to-day, sir." Now it certainly did not hail, nor was 
the rain pouring down by pailfulls. Nowhere have I been so much 
congratulated on the beauty of the weather as in Scotland and Ire- 
land ; so true is it, that mankind are always fondest of speaking of 
what they least possess. 

Towards seven in the evening I arrived at Doune, just as the 
bellman was wandering through the little town, and proclaiming that 
the celebrated Dr. John Mac Nab was about to deliver a lecture, at 
the Moray Arms, on the means of preserving health. I inquired of 
my host whether he believed the lecture was likely to be an interest- 
ing one, and on his assurance in the affirmative, I repaired to the 
place indicated, as soon as I had encased my feet in a pair of slippers, 
and taken other measures to enable me to enjoy the doctor's eloquence 
with greater comfort. As we have no notion in Germany of such a 
thing as a physician travelling about from village to village, and en- 
deavouring to extend his practice by lecturing people on the art of 
preserving health, my German readers will no doubt take some inte- 
rest in the scene that ensued. The lecture had not begun when I 
entered, and very few auditors were assembled. The doctor, however, 
was there behind a large table, covered with papers of every kind, 
which he was busily arranging. He did not present the appearance 
of one of the itinerant doctors of Italy, who may be seen travelling 
about in fantastic costumes with their merry-andrews, in the villages 
about Rome and Naples. Such barefaced charlatanism would not have 
suited the sober Scots ; on the contrary, he was dressed in a complete 
suit of black, and had something gentlemanlike in his deportment, 
as every man must have in England who aims at the favour even of 
the humblest part of the population. 

Gradually an audience mustered. A few workmen, a few farm 
labourers, a few weavers, a few boys and girls, and a few old women. 
When the number amounted to about twenty, he proposed, by way 
of opening the business of the evening, that a chairman should be 
elected. The assembly received the proposal in deep silence, but 
after the proposal had two or three times oeen repeated, a name was 
pronounced by somebody, and hailed by clapping of hands and stamp- 
ing of feet. The election was soon completed, despite the modest 
diffidence which, would have led the elected dignitary to decline the 
proffered honour. After a few encouraging shoves in the back, he 
overcame his bashfulness, and having once been prevailed upon to 
accept office, he filled the presidential chair, I am bound to say, with 
dignity and decorum. He was apparently a labourer or mechanic. 


When it had struck eight, he rose from his chair, which stood close 
to the doctor's and declared the meeting opened. At the same time he 
requested the audience to listen attentively to Dr. Mac Nab, who had 
come from Glasgow to address them on a subject that could not other- 
wise than be interesting to all of them. I have more than once ob- 
served Englishmen of the humbler classes invested with such dig- 
nities. I have always seen them decline them with becoming mo- 
desty, but once in office, they have always filled it in a graceful and 
dignified manner. With us there would among those of the same 
class have been much more bashfulness, but far too little of the fear- 
less demeanour afterwards. 

It was nftw the doctor's turn to speak, and his speech was certainly 
a masterpiece of that particular kind of charlatanism of which Eng- 
land would seem to be the favoured land. I would give his discourse 
entire if I could, for it contained much that was admirably charac- 
teristic of the country and its manners. 

He began with the creation, as described by Moses, and quoted a 
few texts from the Bible, without which it is always difficult to get 
on in Scotland. In speaking of the organisation of our bodies, his 
figures of speech were all suited to a manufacturing population. The 
heart he called the steam-engine of the body, and the stomach served 
as the hearth, on which good fuel or food must be laid to keep the 
engine going. He then proceeded to comment on the inexperience 
and want of skill of many of his colleagues, and cited a variety of 
extraordinary, not to say miraculous, cures performed by himself, on 
Lord This and Lady Elizabeth That, not forgetting several other 
noble personages, whose unbounded confidence he was fortunate 
enough to enjoy. In this way he gradually arrived at what he called 
his system. There were four things, he said, essential to the preser- 
vation of health. These were : good food, temperance, ventilation, 
and what the fourth was, I am sorry to say I have forgotten. Good 
and nutritious food was as necessary to the body as good coals to a 
steam-engine, and to have good food it was necessary that every man 
should be well paid for his labour. To have good food they must 
have cheap bread and high wages. This sentiment did not fail to 
elicit loud cheers from all sides. 

Warmed by this applause, our doctor launched forth into the field 
of politics, abusing sir Robert Peel, and indulging in so many ultra- 
radical effusions, that I was at some loss to reconcile such extreme 
opinions on public matters, with the illustrious patronage of which 
he had a little while before been boasting. 

Arriving at the subject of temperance, he made In its commenda- 
tion all the standing remarks of the day, and this, I take it, was by 
far the most salutary part of his oration. He had a great deal also 
to say on the subject of ventilation, a point to which he attached 
a degree of importance which my German readers would probably 
have some difficulty in comprehending, unless they were told that 
ventilation is one of the fixed ideas of the English. In winter and 


summer, in an English house, all the windows must be opened at 
least once a day, and a current of air, often much more cool than 
comfortable, is carried through every part of the residence. The 
standing complaint of Englishmen, on the continent, is the want of 
ventilation, and when our uncarpeted rooms, our black bread, our 
sour cabbage, our short beds, and our close stoves have been dwelt 
on with sufficient reprehension, the want of ventilation seldom fails 
to crown the catalogue of our sins. 

The latter part of our charlatan's discourse was taken up in distri- 
buting his cards, and in recommending a variety of nostrums, after 
which he retired amidst the plaudits of his hearers. 

I spent the remainder of the evening with my host, a village inn- 
keeper, who rented a few acres of land , and could afford me no other 
accommodation for the night than a box bed, a sort of hole in the wall, i 
something like what is still seen in many parts of Lower Saxony, in 
Hanover, in Friesland, and in some other parts of Germany. Never- 
theless, he had a very pretty little collection of books, including 
several copies of the Bible, for one of which he had paid five 
guineas; the " British Encyclopedia," which had cost him three 
guineas; and several geographical, historical, and religious books, 
including a translation of " Josephus," which he had read through 
several times. A barometer and thermometer also hung in the room. 
In the course of our conversation, he mentioned the smith of the 
village as an educated man. So I expressed a wish to see the smith's 
library, a gratification that was soon afforded me, after which I 
visited the libraries of several others of the villagers. The smith 
had not less than 200 works, chiefly on divinity and natural history, 
and among them was again " Josephus,'" an author who seems to 
be much read in Scotland. The smith had taken it into his head 
that in coming to see his books, I had a bargain in view, and finding 
this was not the case, demanded from me a small piece of money for 
" a dram." All their education has not cured the Scots of their 
fatal fondness for the dram ! In their love of bargaining and trading, 
they are not unlike our own mountaineers of Switzerland and the 
Tyrol, and time was when there were as many travelling Scotch 
pedlars in Germany, as there are now Swiss and Tyrolese. If this 
is no longer so it is, probably, because, as British subjects, the Scots 
have now so many otner parts of the world open to them. 

Through fertile and pleasing lowland meadows, I wandered on to 
Allanbridge a cheerful village on the Forth. Had Prince Albert 
and Lady Victoria, (" Lady Victoria our Queen" is a frequent style 
in speaking of her Majesty, a style which it would be difficult to ren- 
der either into German or French,) had the royal pair, I say, had 
time to examine the fantastic triumphal arch erected in honour of 
them at Allanbridge, but through which they passed as rapidly as 
their fleet steeds could carry them, they would have been much 
amused. Over this arch, which I found still standing in all its 
glory, there stood a large water-glass, by way of an allusion to a 
mineral spring of the vicinity* with this iiwaiption : " a celestial 


beverage for you;" and from the centre of the arch hung a gilt bee- 
hive, under which, in letters of gold : 

"How doth the little ba$y bee 
Improve each shining hourl" 

It might puzzle the sages and dignitaries of Allanbridge to explain 
the aptness of this compliment to the tour of pleasure undertaken by 
the royal pair. * 

I must own, however, that I was surprised to find so few poetical 
effusions, or inscriptions of any kind, on all the triumphal arches 
along the Queen's route in Scotland; indeed, the golden rule respect- 
ing the bee, at Allanbridge is the only one I remember to have 
seen. Among our German Alpine districts, just a year before, 
when the Emperor of Austria travelled among the mountains, I had 
. seen a number of arches of a similar description, and not one of 
them was without some poetical device. 


Having paid my respects to the admirable agricultural museum 
of the Messrs. Drummond at Stirling, there remained for me only two 
things in the neighbourhood to visit, namely, the rock called Abbey 
Craig, and the celebrated field of Bannockbum. Abbey Craig, so 
called from an abbey that once stood at its foot, towers far above the 
rock on which Stirling Castle is built, to which it bears about the same 
proportion that Arthur's Seat does to Castle Hill at Edinburgh. All 
these rocks bear a strong resemblance to each other, and there are 
many similar ones in Scotland. A Scottish writer has given them 
* the name of " craig and tail," on account of their peculiar form, — 
a tall steep rock on one side, generally towards the west, with a gradual 
slope into the plain towards the east. 

It may at first appear a matter of reproach to a traveller in Scot- 
land, if he entertain his readers at the present day with an account 
of battles fought near Stirling, at a time that has now passed into 
the domain of antiquity and romance; but there are battles that 
leave behind them a very brief impression on the public mind, and 
there are others of which, it would seem, the recollection is never 
to be effaced. For 600 years the English and the Scotch Worried 
one another almost incessantly with fire and the sword, and even at 
the present day, the people of Northumberland and Cumberland, 
half in jest and half in earnest, reproach their northern neighbours 
with the " raids" of their ancestors. Now, Scotland was never sub- 
jected to England as a conquered province, but came to her by the 
union of the crowns, and the two kingdoms were afterwards made 
one by a parliamentary union. Still Scotland, as the smaller coun- 
try, may often have been made conscious of her comparative weak- 
ness, and may often have been forced to give way on one point or 
another, very much against her inclination. The union of the two 
kingdoms was a measure that met with little sympathy from the 
bulk of the people of Scotland, and the insurrection of 1745 wad 


not suppressed by the unaided exertions of the Scottish loyalists. 
All these things tend to make the Scots remember, with a certain 
zeal and patriotic enthusiasm, all the deeds of heroism performed by 
their ancestors against England ; they tell of them to the stranger, 
they make them the theme of each popular ballad, whereas all the 
battles beyond the Tweed and the Cheviot Hills, in which the 
Scots were beaten by the English, have sunk into comparative ob- 
livion. So long then as these little feelings of jealousy continue, 
so long as the recollection of the old battles and victories continues 
to be daily renewed, so long is the traveller bound to mention that 
it was on Abbey Craig, and on the 13th of September, 1297, that 
Sir William Wallace unfurled his banner, and marched down to 
the bridge, to defeat the English under the command of Sir Hugh 
de Cressmgham, who had somewhat incautiously crossed the Forth; 
and so long will it be impossible for him to decline an invitation 
to drive out to the field ot Bannockburn, there carefully to inform 
himself of the position of the English and the Scots, and of the 
skilful operations by means of which, on the 24th of June, 1314, 
Robert Bruce defeated his enemy, preserved the independence of his 
country, and rescued his own crown. The battle of Bannockburn 
was certainly the most important in its results ever fought in Scotland. 
The Scots had30,000men on the field, and the English, who had three 
times as many, are said to have lost 30,000 soldiers and 700 knights. 
At Leipzig the numbers engaged, and tfye slaughter on both sides, 
were much greater, but the battle of Leipzig will be very fortunate, 
if at the end of 530 years all Germans are as well acquainted 
with its details, as the Scots are still with every trifling circumstance 
connected with Bannockburn. One spot is still called the " Bloody 
Field," because there an English detachment were killed to the 
last man. Another place is called " Ingram's Crook," because there 
an English general, Sir Ingram Umfraville, was killed. At " Ran- 
dal's field," Randal, Earl of Murray, and Sir Robert Clifford, 
fought a desperate combat; and " Gillies' Hill," is the name still 

g'ven to a small elevation over which the camp followers, whom 
nice had stationed there under cover, suddenly made their appear- 
ance, and spread a panic among the English, who took the " gillies," 
as servants are still called in the Highlands, for a fresh re-inforce- 
ment of the enemy. The large block of granite, called the " bored 
stone," may also still be seen, in which is a hole wherein Bruce 
planted his banner during the battle. When Queen Victoria and 
rrince Albert, last year, passed^along at some distance from the field 
of Bannockburn, a flag was planted in this same hole, by way of a 
token from afar, to remind her Majesty how her predecessors on the 
English throne had, some five centuries ago, been beaten by the 
Scots. This again reminded me of the Emperor of Austria's jour- 
ney through Styria. The Styrians also have preserved the recol- 
lection of many victories obtained over Austrian archdukes and 
emperors; but t doubt whether Austrian etiquette would have per- 


mitted in Styria, what was done in Scotland without calling forth 
the least expression of surprise. 

As the stage-coach that was to take me to the railroad at Falkirk, 
would call for me at the door of the Drummond Museum, I gladly 
returned once more to the interesting collection, which a German 
could not easily revisit without finding something new. 

In general the shops of English seed-merchants are decorated with 
a number of fine pumpkins; out, what is very remarkable, this kind 
of fruit is never eaten, not even the poorest knowing how to boil 
the pumpkin and prepare it for the table. It is grown merely for 
ornament; and yet how many poor people might sometimes make 
a meal off one pumpkin, if somebody would only teach them how 
to dress it I He who attempted to introduce the cultivation and use of 
the pumpkin into Scotland, might not perhaps have to congratulate 
himself on very splendid success, but suppose he only enriched his 
country by providing additional food for twelve human creatures. 
The Romans voted a crown to him who saved the life of a fellow- 
citizen; should not he be entitled to the same reward, who provided 
room and subsistence for another reasoning creature? 

Revolving these thoughts in my mind, I " coached" it to Falkirk 
and " railed'' it to Edinburgh, where I arrived in the evening. 


On stepping to the window of my hotel, I was surprised to find 
that the Old Town, generally so brilliant with its lights, was now in 
comparative darkness. " It is a great preaching night, sir," was the 
explanation given me, " and nearly all the town are now at church." 
The illumination was the more brilliant, however, on the following 
morning, when the sun rose in all its lustre from behind Salisbury 
Craigs. It may be questioned whether there be in the world another 
city whose inhabitants have it in their power to behold, at times, so 
glorious a sunrise 

My morning walk, after I had feasted my eyes on this noble 
spectacle, led me to the Zoological Garden, which contains a num- 
ber of highly interesting objects, though it is only three years since 
it was established. In a separate building is exhibited the ske- 
leton of a whale, eighty feet long, and complete in its smallest de- 
tails. I doubt whether there be a second museum in Europe with 
such a specimen to show. 

Museums are places that no traveller must miss seeing, if he 
wishes to make himself acquainted with the countries he visits, for 
in museums he is sure to find collected a number of beautiful, 
curious, or characteristic objects, which it would be impossible for 
him to seek out in their natural haunts. Here, for instance I saw, 
gathered together, all the kinds of ducks, geese, and pelicans, that 
inhabit the coast of Scotland and the adjacent islands. I must 
have climbed many a dangerous and fatiguing rock, if I would 


Lave visited them at 1 home in their own nests, and even then I 
could not have examined them as leisurely or as conveniently. 

Of the wild animals still found in Great Britain, the wild cat is 
the wildest, and the wild ox the largest : I saw specimens here of 
both. The wild ox was from the Duke of Hamilton's park, and 
resembled, to a hair, those I had seen in Staffordshire: even the 
black spot which covers the muzzle like a plaster is the same in both. 

From the museum so rich in wonders I was summoned by the 
sound of a bell to an academic solemnity, namely to the opening of 
the lectures at the university for the winter half year. It was the 
first gathering I had ever seen at an English university. Com- 
pared to our students, those of Edinburgh appeared so tidy and 
orderly, that they looked like an assembly of gentlemen, as com- 
pared to a collection of wild, thoughtless, merry lads. Many were 
accompanied by their papas, who nad travelled up from the High- 
lands and the Lowlands, that they might themselves introduce 
their sons into the temple of the Muses. 

As the professors made their appearance, they were received with 
more or less applause, according to their respective popularity, I 
amused myself by speculating on each professor as he came along, 
whether he would be well received, and I was seldom mistaken, 
whence I concluded that with respect to this point, the tastes of 
English and German students are much the same. The loudest 
applause of all hailed the appearance of Professor Wilson, the well- 
known professor of political economy(?) Edinburgh, though the 
most important, is the youngest of the four universities of Scotland. 
The oldest and most insignificant is that of St. Andrews. At Edin- 
burgh and at Glasgow more than six new professorships have been 
established during the present century, and mostly by the crown, 
which accordingly retains the patronage. The patrons and electors 
of the older chairs are the town council, or the senate of the uni- 
versity, or a Duchess of Portland, or a Marquis of Ailsa, or Sir A. 
Ramsay of Balmain, or the College of Advocates, &c. 

Among the many fine buildings of Edinburgh, one of the hand- 
somest is the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine 
Arts in Scotland. It lies in a central situation between the old 
town and the new, on the earthern mound, which, stretching across 
the intervening valley, unites the two sections of the city. The col- 
lection of objects of art contained in this building is superior to 
that of the corresponding institution in London. In the same build- 
ing is the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; but 
if our museums of natural history are at best wofully incomplete, 
how deplorably defective are our best historical and antiquarian 
collections ! Besides, Nature always remains the same, and we may 
contemplate most of her works to-day in the same form in whicn 
they were contemplated by our first parents; but in the history of 
man nothing reproduces itself, and its memorials are lost with the 
exception of a few wretched fragments. 



The last collection that I went to see in Edinburgh was that of 
the Highland and Agricultural Society, one whose widely spread 
activity was as little mown to myself till I had visited Edinburgh, 
as it probably is still to my German readers. This remarkable 
society was formed in 1784, at a time when attention began to be 
directed to the cultivation of the barbarous Highlands, till then a de- 
tached and isolated portion of Europe. In time the society extended 
its operations to all Scotland, and at length over the whole of Great 
Britain. A museum has been formed and thrown open to the public, 
a periodical is published, and a number of prizes are yearly offered 
for improvements in ererj department of agriculture. The list of 
these prizes is yearly published in a pamphlet, and that of last year 
contained no less than eighty pages octavo, being quite a curiosity in 
itself. Among these prizes was one of 500 guineas for the first dis^ 
covery of a useful and efficient application of steam to the plough. 

Of the fine arts I saw less in Edinburgh to fix my attention, than 
of the useful arts. The many excellent portraits at Holyrood have 
already been mentioned, as well as the hundred Scottish kings, all 
painted out of the same pale-coloured pot. At the university 
library I saw a delightful httle collection of paintings by the old 
masters, the best collection of the kind, I beheve, that Edinburgh 
has to show. There are some ravishing Hobbemas and Ruisdaels 
among them. I was next taken to an " ornamental painter," whose 
collection they assured me, " was allowed to be a select one;" but 
his " knitting girl" interested me not, his a fruit" tempted not my 

falate, his landscapes awakened no wish to wander among them, and 
was barbarous enough to withhold the alms of my approval from 
his " Old harper." I saw at this ornamental painter's, nowever, a 
" collection of painted woods" that was certainly unique in its kind. 
To speak the truth . there is no country in which this branch of 
painting flourishes in a higher degree than in England. Even the 
common house-painters in England are able to imitate every descrip- 
tion of wood with wonderful accuracy and effect, and in no other 
country is this species of decoration more generally adopted. 

I visited the Edinburgh print-shops with much interest, and 
found many things there to improve my acquaintance with the 
country, Prints of the death of Calvin I found almost in every 
shop. This man seems to be valued in Scotland, even more than 
in Switzerland. A remarkable number of pictures referring to the 
period of the Reformation in Scotland, are now painted, engraved, 
and lithographed. It is curious to see how sedulously every thing is 
avoided in these pictures, that, according to presbyterian ideas, can 
be taken for an allusion to " the superstitions of popery." No Scot- 
tish presbyterian, for instance, would buy the picture of an apostle 
or saint, round whose head there was described a gloria. 



Properly speaking there are only two roads by which to travel 
from Scotland into England. One leads along the eastern coast 
through Berwick, and the other towards the western coast to Car- 
lisle. That part of the Cheviot Hills which stretches along the 
border of the two countries has probably offered impediments to the 
formation of roads in the central part of the country. It is even so 
with Spain and France, between which two countries, the principal 
lines of communication are close to the two opposite coasts, at the 
two extremities of the Pyrenees. Most travellers prefer the route 
by Berwick, but I chose that to Carlisle, because I expected to find 
many things to interest me in the celebrated cathedral of Carlisle, 
and because I hoped to be able to make a short stay at Galashiels, 
and then to visit Abbotsford and the noble ruins of the famed 
abbeys of Melrose and Jedburgh. The latter part of my plan was 
entirely frustrated by the weatner, the rain and fog being so very 
dense that I was forced to abandon the hope of being able to dis- 
tinguish the beautiful ruins. Abbotsford I saw bv tne road-side 
but did not visit, for under existing circumstances, I felt desirous of 
proceeding with the stage the same day. Abbotsford lies close to 
the Tweed, and the beautiful valleys of the Gala, the Yarrow, and 
the Ettrick, meet here as in a point. 

I was truly sorry to give up the hope of visiting the house in 
which the great poetic spirit had once dwelt. " You may console 
yourself, sir," exclaimea one of my fellow inside-passengers, while 
for his greater convenience he was taking off his right leg, and 
placing it in the corner behind him, — the leg, be it observed, was 
of wood, — " there are handsomer country seats in Scotland, sir, than 
this Abbotsford; and if you have seen Taymouth, Dunkeld, and 
Dalkeith, you need not mind leaving this place by the roadside." 
And with that, he went on to give me the history of the place and 
its distinguished owner, telling me that Sir Walter haa nothing 
of the fine gentleman about him, that his countenance was heavy, 
and dull, and that in his general appearance he looked far more like 
a farmer than a poet. 

Roxburghshire is an " inland" and no " maritime" county, a dis- 
tinction which the English never fail to make. In one of its vil- 
lages, Kirk Yellholm, dwells the largest gipsy colony in Scotland, 
and the people are said to have preserved all the characteristics 
of their race — their language, their dark complexions, and their 
nomadic habits. The greater part of this country is known by its 
more popular name " Teviotdale." To pass from this into Eskdale 
we must cross the Cheviot Hills, but we do not on that account 
quit Scotland, for the Cheviots extend 100 miles in length, and it 
is only for about twenty-five miles that they form the border between 
the two countries. The Cheviot Hills have a very distinct charac- 


ter from those of the Highlands, being all of a conical form, rounded 
off at the top, and from base to summit covered with the finest 
herbage in the world. In this respect they are unlike any other 
mountain range I have ever seen. Our road wound through this laby- 
rinth of grassy treeless hills, among which not a rock was to be seen. 
It is true I saw the Cheviots only at one point, but it appears from a 
number of topographical works I have consulted that the prevailing 
character of tne whole range must be such as I have described. To 
see these gentle hills and the pretty dales between them, one would 
suppose they must at all times have offered no scenes but those of 
Arcadian peace. It is true that from time immemorial these beautiful 
pasture grounds have reared a far famed race of sheep, but these 
peaceful creatures seem for a long time to have exercised very little 
influence upon their owners. Strange to say, since the human de- 
nizens of this part of the world have ceased to wage war with each 
other, the sheep have commenced a system of aggression. The 
Cheviot breed is extending more and more in Scotland, and has 
already stormed many points of the Highlands, driving the old 
black headed Highland breed more and more out of the field. 

Neither rain nor mist could drive me from my outside place, as 
we were passing through the beautiful Eskdale, and approaching the 
Scottish border. I rubbed my eyes, and tried to remember whe- 
ther I had ever before seen a valley of equal beauty. The mighty 
oaks and beeches seemed all of primeval date, of primeval vigour, and 
of eternal youth. I saw many thousands of them, yet there was not 
one that I would not willingly have stopped to sketch. Each seemed 
to have chosen for itself a picturesque position, and to have spread 
out its mighty boughs according to the most approved rules ot good 
taste. At times tne valley widened, and displayed a number of 
beautiful meadows spreading out amid the umbrageous trees, while 
here and there the ruined turret of some border chief served to re- 
mind of bygone days. It is not saying too much of Eskdale, to 
describe the whole valley as an uninterrupted succession of groups 
of oaks, green pastures, and river landscapes, than which nothing 
more beautiful ever came from the pencil of Hobbema or Ruisdael. 
In a country where such dales exist, I can easily understand how 
these two painters came to be such general favourites, but I am sur- 
prised that neither of them should ever have visited Eskdale, of 
which their pictures furnish such faithful copies. 

Again and again the valley widened and closed : the trees became 
fewer, the open spaces greater, and at length we reached the extreme 
border of Caledonia, and the vast fertile plain which surrounds 
Carlisle and Longtown, and forms the north-western corner of 
England. ^